Intel Pentium m Processor Full Report

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  • 8/2/2019 Intel Pentium m Processor Full Report




    The world of mobile computing has seldom

    been so exciting. Not, at least,

    for last 3 years when all that the chip giants

    could think of was scaling down the

    frequency and voltage of the desktop CPUs,

    and labeling them as mobile

    processors. Intel Centrino mobile

    technology is based on the understanding

    that mobile customers value the four vectors

    of mobility: performance, battery life, small

    form factor, and wireless connectivity. The

    technologies represented by the Intel

    Centrino brand will include an Intel

    Pentium-M processor, Intel 855 chipset

    family, and Intel PRO/Wireless 2100

    network connection . The Intel Pentium-M

    processor is a higher performance, lower

    power mobile processor with several micro-architectural enhancements over existing

    Intel mobile processors. Some key features

    of the Intel Pentium-M processor Micro-

    architecture include Dynamic Execution,

    400-MHz, on-die 1-MB second level cache

    with Advanced Transfer Cache Architecture,

    Streaming SIMDExtensions 2, and

    Enhanced Intel SpeedStep technology. The

    Intel Centrino mobile technology also

    includes the 855GM chipset components

    GMCH and the ICH4-M. The Accelerated

    Hub Architecture is designed into the

    chipset to provide

    an efficient, high bandwidth, communication

    channel between the GMCH and the ICH4-

    M.The GMCH component contains a

    processor system bus controller, a graphics

    controller, and a memory controller, while

    providing an LVDS interface and two DVO


    The integrated Wi-Fi Certified Intel

    PRO/Wireless 2100 Network

    Connection has been designed and validated

    to work with all of the Intel Centrino mobile

    technology components and is able to

    connect to 802.11b Wi-Fi certified access

    points. It also supports advanced wireless

    LAN security including Cisco LEAP,

    802.1X and WEP. Finally, for

    comprehensive security support, the Intel

    PRO/Wireless 2100 Network Connection

    has been verified with leading VPN

    suppliers like Cisco, CheckPoint, Microsoft

    and Intel NetStructure.

    1. Pentium-M Processor

    The Intel Pentium-M processor is a high

    performance, low power mobile processor

    with several micro-architectural

    enhancements over existing Intel mobile

    processors. The following list provides some

    of the key features on this processor:

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    Supports Intel Architecture with Dynamic


    High performance, low-power core

    On-die, 1-MByte second level cache with

    Advanced Transfer Cache


    Advanced Branch Prediction and Data

    Prefetch Logic

    Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2)

    400-MHz, Source-Synchronous processor

    system bus

    Advanced Power Management features

    including Enhanced Intel

    SpeedStep technology

    Micro-FCPGA and Micro-FCBGA

    packaging technologies

    The Intel Pentium-M processor is

    manufactured on Intels advanced 0.13

    micron process technology with copper

    interconnect. The processor maintains

    support for MMX technology and Internet

    Streaming SIMD instructions and full

    compatibility with IA-32 software. The high

    performance core features architectural

    innovations like Micro-op Fusion and

    Advanced Stack Management that reduce

    the number of micro-ops handled by the

    processor. This results in more efficient

    scheduling and better performance at lower

    power. The on-die 32-kB

    Level 1 instruction and data caches and the

    1-MB Level 2 cache with Advanced

    Transfer Cache Architecture enable

    significant performance improvement over

    existing mobile processors. The processor

    also features a very advanced branch

    prediction architecture that significantly

    reduces the number of

    mispredicted branches. The processors Data

    Prefetch Logic speculatively fetches data to

    the L2 cache before an L1 cache requests

    occurs, resulting in reduced bus cycle

    penalties and improved performance. The

    Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2)

    enable break-through levels of performance

    in multimedia applications including 3-D

    graphics, video decoding/encoding, and

    speech recognition. The Intel Pentium-M

    processors 400-MHz processor system bus

    utilizes a split-transaction, deferred reply

    protocol. The 400-MHz processor system

    bus uses Source-Synchronous Transfer

    (SST) of address and data to improve

    performance by transferring data four times

    per bus clock (4X data transfer rate, as in

    AGP 4X).

    The processor features Enhanced Intel

    SpeedStep technology, which enables real-

    time dynamic switching between multiple

    voltage and frequency points instead of two

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    points supported on previous versions of

    Intel SpeedStep

    technology. This results in optimal

    performance without compromising low

    power. The processor features the Auto Halt,

    Stop-Grant, Deep Sleep, and Deeper Sleep

    low power states. The Intel Pentium-M

    processor utilizes socketable Micro Flip-

    Chip Pin Grid Array (Micro-FCPGA) and

    surface mount Micro Flip-Chip Ball Grid

    Array (Micro-FCBGA) package technology.

    The Micro-FCPGA package plugs into a

    479-hole, surface-mount, Zero Insertion

    Force (ZIF) socket, which is referred to as

    the mPGA479M socket.

    Features of Pentium-M

    1.1 Clock Control and Low Power


    The Intel Pentium M processor supports the

    AutoHALT, Stop-Grant, Sleep,

    Deep Sleep, and Deeper Sleep states for

    optimal power management. See Figure.1

    for a visual representation of the processor

    low-power states.

    1.1.1 Normal State

    This is the normal operating state for theprocessor.

    1.1.2 Auto HALT Power down State

    Auto HALT is a low-power state entered

    when the processor executes the

    HALT instruction. The processor will

    transition to the Normal state upon the

    occurrence of SMI#, INIT#, LINT [1:0]

    (NMI, INTR), or PSB interrupt message.

    1.1.3 Stop-Grant State

    When the STPCLK# pin is asserted, the

    Stop-Grant state of the processor is entered

    20 bus clocks after the response phase of the

    processor-issued Stop-Grant

    Acknowledge special bus cycle. Since the

    AGTL+ signal pins receive power from the

    system bus, these pins should not be driven

    (allowing the level to return to VCCP) for

    minimum power drawn by the termination

    resistors in this state.

    1.1.4 HALT/Grant Snoop State

    The processor will respond to snoop or

    interrupt transactions on the system

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    bus while in Stop-Grant state or in

    AutoHALT Power Down state. During a

    snoop or interrupt transaction, the processor

    enters the HALT/Grant Snoop state. The

    processor will stay in this state until the

    snoop on the system bus has been serviced

    or the interrupt has been latched.

    1.1.5 Sleep State

    The Sleep state is a low power state in

    which the processor maintains its context,

    maintains the phase-locked loop (PLL), and

    has stopped all internal clocks. The Sleep

    state can only be entered from Stop-Grant

    state. Once in the

    Stop-Grant state, the processor will enter the

    Sleep state upon the assertion of the

    SLP# signal. The SLP# pin should only be

    asserted when the processor is in the

    Stop-Grant state.

    1.1.6 Deep Sleep State

    Deep Sleep state is a very low power state

    the processor can enter while maintaining

    context. Deep Sleep state is entered by

    asserting the DPSLP# pin while in the Sleep

    state. BCLK may be stopped during the

    Deep Sleep state for additional platform

    level power savings. BCLK stop/restart

    timings on Intel

    855PM and Intel 855GM chipset-based

    platforms are as follows:

    Deep Sleep entry - DPSLP# and

    CPU_STP# are asserted simultaneously. The

    platform clock chip will stop/tristate BCLK

    within 2 BCLKs +/- a few nanoseconds.

    Deep Sleep exit - DPSLP# and

    CPU_STP# are deasserted simultaneously.

    The platform clock chip will drive BCLK to

    differential DC levels within 2-3 ns and

    starts toggling BCLK 2-6 BCLK periods


    1.1.7 Deeper Sleep State

    The Deeper Sleep state is the lowest power

    state the processor can enter.

    This state is functionally identical to the

    Deep Sleep state but at a lower core

    voltage. The control signals to the voltage

    regulator to initiate a transition to the

    Deeper Sleep state are provided on the


    1.2 Enhanced Intel SpeedStep


    The Intel Pentium-M processor features

    Enhanced Intel SpeedStep technology.

    Unlike previous implementations of Intel

    SpeedStep technology, this technology

    enables the processor to switch between

    multiple frequency and voltage points

    instead of two. This will enable superior

    performance with optimal power savings.

    Switching between states is software

    controlled unlike previous implementations

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  • 8/2/2019 Intel Pentium m Processor Full Report



    1.5 Advanced Branch Prediction and

    Data Prefetching

    The Intel Pentium M processor features an

    advanced branch prediction architecture thatcombines three types of predictors - Global,

    Bi-Modal and Loop

    Detector. The processor automatically

    selects the most optimal algorithm to use,

    significantly reducing the number of mis-

    predicted branches. The processor also

    features an advanced data prefetcher that can

    track up to 8 upstream and 4

    downstream operations simultaneously. Data

    is prefetched from main memory to

    the L2 cache in advance, resulting in higher

    performance by reducing the need to access

    system memory.

    1.6 Streaming SIMD Extensions


    The Intel Pentium M processor supports the

    complete SSE2 instruction set.

    These instructions include 128-bit SIMD

    integer arithmetic and 128-bit SIMD

    double-precision floating-point operations.

    These instructions reduce the overall

    number of instructions required to execute a

    particular program task and as a result can

    contribute to an overall performance


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    2. Intel 855GM Chipset GMCH

    As the next step in the evolution of the Intel

    Hub Architecture for the

    notebook PCs using Intel Centrino mobile

    technology, the Intel 855GM chipset was

    designed in tandem with Intel Pentium-M


    The Intel 855GM Graphics and Memory

    Controller Hub (GMCH) delivers support

    for either PC1600 and PC2100 DDR

    memory technology and a 400 Mhz

    system bus, providing the latest graphics

    support through 1.5V AGP4X technology.

    Together these features deliver the highest

    total bandwidth capabilities to the PC

    platform. The enhanced 82801DBM I/O

    Controller Hub 4 (ICH4-M) delivers twice

    the I/O bandwidth over traditional bridgearchitecture and provides dedicated data

    paths to fully optimize the additional

    bandwidth. The ICH4-M has reduced core

    voltage from previous generation of I/O hub

    architecture chipsets.

    The ICH4-M makes a direct connection

    from the graphics and memory for faster

    access to peripherals and provides the

    features and bandwidth required for a high

    performance notebook PC.

    2.1 Intel 855GM Chipset GMCH

    Product Features

    Processor/Host Bus Support

    Intel Pentium M processor2x address, 4x data

    Supports system bus at 400 MHz

    Supports 64-bit host bus addressing

    Supports Enhanced Intel SpeedStep


    Memory System

    Directly supports one DDR SDRAM

    channel, 64-bits wide

    Supports 200/266-MHz DDR SDRAM

    devices with max of two, doublesided SO-

    DIMMs four rows populated) with

    unbuffered PC1600/PC2100


    Video Stream Decoder

    Improved hardware motion compensation

    for MPEG2

    All format decoder (18 ATSC formats)


    Software DVD at 60 Fields/second and 30

    frames/second full screen

    Support for standard definition DVD

    Multiple hardware color cursor support

    (32-bit with alpha and legacy 2-bpp


    Accompanying I2C and DDC channels

    provided through multiplexed interface


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    Analog display support

    o 350-MHz integrated 24-bit RAMDAC that

    can drive a standard

    progressive scan analog monitor with pixel

    resolution up to 1600x1200

    at 85 Hz and up to 2048x1536 at 75 Hz

    Dual independent pipe support

    o Concurrent: Different images and native

    display timings on each display


    o Simultaneous: Same images and native

    display timings on each display


    DVO (DVOB and DVOC) support

    o Digital video out ports DVOB and DVOC

    with 165-MHz dot clock on

    each 12-bit interface; two 12-bit channels

    can be combined to form one

    dual channel 24-bit interface with an

    effective dot clock of 330-MHz

    o The combined DVO B/C ports as well as

    individual DVO B/C ports can drive a

    variety of DVO devices (TV-Out Encoders,

    TMDS and LVDS transmitters, etc.) with

    pixel resolution up to 1600x1200 at 85 Hz


    up to 2048x1536 at 72 Hz.

    o Compliant with DVI Specification 1.0

    Dedicated LFP (local flat panel) LVDS


    o Single- or dual-channel LVDS panel

    support up to UXGA panel resolution with

    frequency range from 25 MHz to 112 MHz

    (single channel/dual channel)

    o LCD panel power sequencing compliant

    with SPWG timing specification

    o Compliant with ANSI/TIA/EIA644-

    1995 spec

    Tri-view support through LFP interface,

    DVO B/C port, and CRT

    Internal Graphics Features

    Up to 64 MB of dynamic video memory


    Display image rotation

    Graphics core frequency

    Display core frequency at 133 MHz or

    200 MHz

    Render core frequency at 100 MHz,133

    MHz, 200 MHz

    2D graphics engine

    o Optimized 128-bit BLT engine

    o Ten programmable and predefined

    monochrome patterns

    3D graphics engine

    o 3D setup and render engine

    o High quality performance texture engine

    o DirectX and OpenGL pixelization rules

    Hub Interface to ICH4-M

    o 266 -MB/s point-to-point Hub Interface to


    o 66-MHz base clock

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    Power Management

    o APM Rev 1.2 compliant power


    o Supports Suspend to System Memory

    (S3), Suspend to Disk (S4) and

    Soft Off (S5)

    o ACPI 1.0b, 2.0 support

    o Enhanced Intel SpeedStep technology



    o 732-pin Micro-FCBGA (37.5 x 37.5 mm)


    o Support for Hi-Speed Universal Serial Bus

    (USB 2.0) with backward compatibility with

    USB 1.1

    o AC97 2.2 Interface with support for a third

    codec to provide 20 bit resolution.

    o LAN Connect Interface (LCI) provides

    flexible network solutions such as home

    phone line, 10/100 Mbps Ethernet, and

    10/100 Mbps Ethernet with LAN


    o Dual Ultra ATA-100 controllers support

    the fastest IDE interface for

    transfers to storage devices

    2.2. System Architecture

    The Intel 855GM GMCH component

    provides the processor interface,

    DDR SDRAM interface, display interface,

    and Hub interface in an Intel 855GM chipset

    based system.

    The GMCH is in a 732-pin Micro-FCBGA

    package and contains the

    following functionality:

    Optimized for the Intel Pentium M


    Supports a single channel of DDR

    SDRAM memory

    Supports the fourth generation Mobile I/O

    Controller Hub (ICH4-M) to

    provide the features required by a mobile


    Contains advanced power management


    Supports a single Intel Pentium M

    processor configuration at 400-MHz or 3.2


    1.05-V AGTL+ host bus supporting 64-

    bit host addressing with Enhanced Intel

    SpeedStep Technology support

    Up to 1 GB (with 512-Mb technology and

    two SO-DIMMs) of PC1600/2100

    DDR and up to 2 GB (high density using

    512-Mb technology)

    Integrated graphics capabilities, including

    3D rendering acceleration and 2D

    hardware acceleration

    Deeper Sleep state support

    2.3. Processor Host Interface

    The GMCH is optimized for the Intel

    Pentium M processor. Key features of

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  • 8/2/2019 Intel Pentium m Processor Full Report



    3. Wireless Connectivity

    The Intel PRO/Wireless 2100 network

    connection is the integrated Wireless LAN

    (WLAN) solution for Intel Centrino mobile

    technology. The Intel

    PRO/Wireless 2100 network connection

    works in concert with the other Intel

    Centrino mobile technology components to

    provide freedom and flexibility to work and

    play on the go without searching for a phone

    jack, network cable, or plugging in a special

    card. To access the Internet wirelessly, a

    laptop uses radio signals to communicate

    with a wireless LAN via base band circuitry,

    a media access controller, and a radio. A

    wireless LAN operates with one of two

    IEEE standard protocols finalized in 1997

    and differing in data rate and signalfrequency. The two standards are the

    802.11a and 802.11b, the latter often called

    Wi-Fi. The 802.11a operates at 5 GHz and

    can transmit data at up to 54 Mb/s. The

    802.11b operates at 2.4 GHz and transmits

    data at 11 Mb/s. A newer protocol, IEEE

    802.11g, is being finalized and should be out

    this summer. It has the same data rate as

    802.11a but operates on the same frequency

    as 802.11b and is compatible with it.

    The Intel Centrino mobile technology is

    based upon four major categories: Security,

    Performance, Ease-of-use, and Verification.


    Intel Centrino mobile technology has been

    Intel-tested for industry standards-based

    WLAN security support (802.1X, WEP and

    WPA). Cisco Compatible Extensions (such

    as LEAP and CKIP) support is available on

    certain models. Subject to PC

    manufacturers availability and validation,

    this enables interoperability with Cisco

    Aironet wireless LAN infrastructure.


    With 802.11b support and speeds up to

    11Mbps, Intel PRO/Wireless 2100 network

    connection enables fast network

    connections. It includes perpacket antenna

    selection to enable optimized WLAN

    performance. Support for Intel Wireless

    Coexistence System helps enables reduced

    interference between Intel PRO/Wireless

    and certain Bluetooth devices.


    Available Intel PROSet software allows for

    multiple profile setup and switching

    between profiles for simplified wireless

    access as you move between different access

    points with the advanced profile

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    management feature. This also allows for

    setting security options.


    Intel Centrino mobile technology is verified

    with leading VPN infrastructure products.

    Intel is working with hardware and software

    developers and wireless service provides to

    deliver a reliable and integrated wireless

    mobile computing experience.

    Additional highlights of the Intel

    PRO/Wireless 2100 Network

    Connection include :

    Single band support, providing the ability

    to connect to 802.11b networks

    Industry standard and extended wireless

    security support (WEP,

    802.1X and Cisco LEAP)

    Available Intel PROSet software with

    automatic WLAN switching support enables

    automatic switching between wired and


    LAN connections

    Available Intel PROSet software supports

    Cisco, CheckPoint,

    Microsoft and Intel VPN connections

    Intel Wireless Coexistence Systemsupport enables reduced interference

    between Intel PRO/Wireless and certain

    Bluetooth devices

    Per-packet antenna selection enables

    optimized WLAN performance

    Intel Intelligent Scanning Technology,

    reduces power by controlling the frequency

    of scanning for access points

    Power Save Protocol (PSP) is a user

    selectable feature with five different power

    states, which allows the user to make their

    own power versus performance choice when

    in battery mode.

    4. Key Benefits

    4.1 Breakthrough Mobile


    Intel Centrino mobile technology is

    designed to meet the users needs of multi-

    tasking, constant-computing lifestyle - and

    to work with the performance demands of

    future applications. Intel Centrino mobile

    technology also features advanced

    instruction prediction to eliminate CPU

    process replication, and secondgeneration

    Streaming SIMD Extensions (Streaming

    SIMD Extensions 2) with instructions

    integrated into the software to enhance

    performance. With support for USB 2.0,

    there is an increased performance with the

    peripherals and backward compatibility with

    USB 1.0 devices.

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    There are no industry-standard benchmarks

    for determining the range and throughput of

    WLANs. Some would even say that there is

    no common vocabulary. But Intel engineers

    wanted tangible evidence to reinforce what

    they knew intuitively. They wanted proof

    that Intel Centrino mobile technologyprovides breakthrough mobile

    performancein terms of processor speed,

    battery life and throughputand an

    enhanced user experience overall. So Intel

    engineers developed a methodology for

    obtaining controlled, reproducible results.

    Intel is confident that its test results establish

    the breakthrough mobile performance of

    Intel Centrino mobile technology when

    considering all performance criteria

    (processing, battery life and wireless), and

    that the methodology Intel engineers used

    can serve as a basis for the development of a

    widely accepted industry-standard