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  • Integrating Cultural Values for Communicative AEC

    Reading Materials

    Dr Kantatip Sinhaneti Shinawatra University

  • This paper attempts to echo a similar call of Peter Strevens, a guru in ESP since 1970’s, to a shift to teaching language as communication skills in the 21st century, that is English language needs to be taught in such a way to enhance the employability and cultural understanding and cultural values of their own, their regional partners as well as their global partners in particular the upcoming AEC where ASEAN values needs to be uphold.

  • Theoretical supports 1 The Teaching of Culture as fifth skill for

    language learners that enhances students Overall learning experience (Kramsch 1993) 2 Not enough for linguistic competence, need

    sociocultural rules (specific cultural references from geography,occupations,pastimes, historical events and personalities appear in lg

    ( Neff and Rucynski Jr 2013) 3 Cultural familiarity

  • 4 a language of world citizenship for learning about global village (Cates 2004) 5 the use of EIL involves crossing borders literally, figuratively 6 the idea of culture as motivating content(cultural content is motivating in lg learning : Mackay 2009) “Local culture content can also encourage learners to gain a deeper understanding of their own culture so that they can share these insights when communicate with speakers of English from other cultures” (Sinhaneti and Kachendecha 2012)

  • 7 establishing a sphere of interculturality in EIL classrooms so that individuals gain insight into their own culture (Mackay2009)

  • • 8 Culture is embedded in the language itself especially in the semantics of language

    • 9 An opportunity to learn more about their culture and to learn the language needed to explain these cultural elements in English

    • “There are clear advantages to the use of local culture content in English learning as it minimizes the potential marginalizing the values and lived experiences of the learners”

    ( Sinhaneti and Kachendecha2012)

  • • 10 Standard native –speaker varieties of English can no longer be considered to be the only correct varieties and should no longer be held up as models for learners to emulate . (Jenkin 2000,Kirkpatrick 2002, Pennycook 1994, Tomlinson 2005)

  • Target culture/Source Culture/ International target culture materials (materials should be used in such a way that

    students are encouraged to reflect on their own culture in relation to others)

    (Sandra Lee Mckay 2002)

  • • Based on Experimental research study by Sinhaneti and Kachendeecha in 2012 on Engaging Thai Learners to English language Learning by using culturally themed lesson

    • 9th Grade 151 students in four different types of schools in Bkk..a model reading lesson unit tryout

    • Questionnaire plus interview

  • Positive result for both students and teachers Ideal proportion of culture preferred by

    teacher participants was 50% Thai culture and 25% each for Asean and Western culture

  • Advantages to Learners

    • 1 Familiar Background Knowledge (content schema)

    • 2 Self –esteem booster • 3 Interesting content & topics • 4 Realization of English language

    importance • 5 Identity builder

  • Advantages to Teachers • 1 confidence booster • 2 comfort zone builder with students • 3 easy to engage students with lessons & activities

    therein • 4 local culture content does not give local teachers

    difficulties in teaching somebody else’s culture in English classroom

    • 5 reinforcement of Thai culture • 6 establish a sphere of interculturality in the

    classroom • 7 preparation for AEC implementation in 2015

  • Samples of Teachers’ responses

    • 1 “ I think if we can assign students to read and to learn about something not far from their lives, for example Thai culture, they would be more enthusiastic to learn English than they are these days”

    • 2 “ One of the advantages I found from using the culturaly themed lessons teaching English to students is they can guess meanings of some English vocabulary by linking the word to their knowledge in Thai

  • • A compilation of reading materials in 20 units, portraying some aspects of Thai folklore, traditions, beliefs, living style, culture

    • Materials serve as a springboard in teaching reading with a focus to Thai students own culture or those who wish to have a glimpse of Thai culture

    • Materials more relevant and meaningful for the students needs in 21st century when the pedagogical approach in the framework of learning is education for international understanding , according to SEAMEO APCEIU 2013(Project Telling Tales from South East Asian and Korea confirmed the use of local culture in education especially in language classroom)

  • New proposed unit

    • Topic –based approach in each unit • Include the PPP sequence (presentation,

    practice, production) • Focus on reading skills and strategies only

    with other skills as expansion • 20 Units for Thailand under 4 main themes

    (Thai culture in general, Games, Arts and Beliefs, Festivals)

  • Sample unit

  • Sample Unit

  • UNIT Guideline • Find reading material with specific culture

    target • Develop it into a reading unit • Design Icebreaking or warm-up

    activity(presentation) • Design a series of reading activities with vocab

    exercises and reading strategies to enhance reading skills (practice)

    • Engage students in different communicative tasks (production)

    • Add Expansion activities

  • Culture in General

    • Rice • Thai Desserts • Thai Language • English for ASEAN • Transport • Thai Buddhism and Monks • Thai wedding • Traditional Music and Instrument • Funeral Traditions • Wai

  • Games

    • Sepak Takraw • Thai Boxing • Thai Kite flying • Traditional Games for Children

  • Arts & Beliefs

    • Thai Tattoo • Shadow Play • Khon • Thai Literature • Likay • Thai Superstitions and Beliefs • Ghosts

  • Festival

    • Phra Pradaeng Songkran Festival • Khao Phansa Candle Festival • Festival of Lights (Illuminated Boat

    Procession, Loy Krathong, Yee Peng)

  • Sample unit: Traditional Games for Children • 1 Intro(Presentation) • Prereading work in pair , look at photos and discuss look at photos and guess the name of each

    game 2 .1Text reading Guess the vocab meaning and read the text 2.2 Text reading and put proper vocab in the


  • • 2.3 Understand what you read(Choose the game being described)

    • 2.4 Sequencing • 2.4 Play the game

    • 3 Wrap Up/Expansion • 3.1 Write about the game students have performed • 3.2 write down 5 new vocab • 3.3 Crossward Puzzle

  • • Pair work Look at the ad and work with your partner:

    • 1 Discuss what are the differences between these massages

    • 2 Do you think the spa can relax our mind or not? Why?

  • • In recent years, Thailand has emerged as the region’s most active spa destination, breaking a new frontier as the hub of all things holistic…..

    • Look at the underlined words. Try to guess the word meaning from the text.

    • 1 frontier a a person who gets something

    • 2 holistic b relating to a persons spirit • 3 healing h the whole thing • 4 spiritual L the whole thing

  • • Use the correct form of the words in previous exercise to complete the following sentences

    • 1 …….The pharmacist can assist you with the treatment of common….

    • 2 For us the study of the mind and conscious defines the …..of biology

  • • Match the text with a title • A Holistic and medical spa • B Club spa • C Day Spa • D Detoxification spa

    • “Spas can be found in the major cities of Thailand, in

    particular in Bkk. While spa resorts are mainly aimed at the tourist market, day spas are cater to office workers and travelling business persons.This spa is a kind of inner-city haven with the majority of treatments being focused on stress relief and relaxation.”

  • Conclusion

    • Culture teaching in ELT curricula needs to include both “local culture” and “international culture” in order to help students using the language for both cross- cultural encounters and sharing insights about their own cultures with others

  • • Idea to balance the integration of some localized culture in the textbook that leads to education for a true international understanding in this 21st century

    • “ It is equally important to learn about the culture in which you are living as well”


  • • “Not o