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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

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Page 1: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

Page 2: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

1.Era of traditional approaches(ancient-1938):cultural

&mechanical practices like crop rotation, field

sanitation, deep ploughing, flooding etc developed by

farmers through experience.

2.Era of pesticides(1939-1975):Synthetic inorganic and

organic pesticides, highly toxic to living organisms.

Began with discovery of DDT,BHC,HCH etc.

3.Era of IPM(1976 onwards):Idea of integrated control-

Hoskins et al. First defined by Stern et al. Idea of

protective population management – Gier and Clark

ORIGIN OF IPM ?

Page 3: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

ORIGIN OF IPM ?

Page 4: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

1.Era of traditional approaches(ancient-1938):cultural

&mechanical practices like crop rotation, field

sanitation, deep ploughing, flooding etc developed by

farmers through experience.

2.Era of pesticides(1939-1975):Synthetic inorganic and

organic pesticides, highly toxic to living organisms.

Began with discovery of DDT,BHC,HCH etc.

3.Era of IPM(1976 onwards):Idea of integrated control-

Hoskins et al. First defined by Stern et al. Idea of

protective population management – Gier and Clark

ORIGIN OF IPM ?

Page 5: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological

approach in pest management I n which all the available

necessary techniques like physical

,chemical,cultural,mechanical and biological control are

consolidate unified programme so that pest populations

can be managed in such a manner that economic

damage is avoided and adverse side effects are

minimized

WHAT IS IPM ?

Page 6: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological

approach in pest management I n which all the available

necessary techniques like physical

,chemical,cultural,mechanical and biological control are

consolidate unified programme so that pest populations

can be managed in such a manner that economic

damage is avoided and adverse side effects are

minimized

WHAT IS IPM ?

Page 7: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological

approach in pest management I n which all the available

necessary techniques like physical

,chemical,cultural,mechanical and biological control are

consolidate unified programme so that pest populations

can be managed in such a manner that economic

damage is avoided and adverse side effects are

minimized

WHAT IS IPM ?

Page 8: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological

approach in pest management I n which all the available

necessary techniques like physical

,chemical,cultural,mechanical and biological control are

consolidate unified programme so that pest populations

can be managed in such a manner that economic

damage is avoided and adverse side effects are

minimized

WHAT IS IPM ?

Page 9: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

COMPONENTS OF IPM

Page 10: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical
Page 11: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

.

Page 12: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Mango leaf hoppers

►Predators: Chrysoperla lacciperda, Coccinella septumpunctata, Oecophylla smargadina, Isyndus heros etc.

►Spray of botanicals and non hazardous formulations made with starch

C.lacciperda C.septumpunctata

Page 13: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Snow scales -Chloropulvinaria polygonata,

Aspidiotus destructor, Aulacaspis tubercularis

►Biological control

Cryptolaemus montrouzeri 20-25 adults/ tree - ovisacs

Chilocorus nigrita, Mallada astur, C. circumdatus etc

► Parasitoid: Spalgis epius and Spray of botanicals or non

pesticide solutions like starch to prevent moulds

(Secondary infections)

C. Montrouzeri C. nigrita

Page 14: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Need for Pest Management (or) Why Pest

Management

► 1. Development of resistance in insects against insecticides

e.g. OP and synthetic pyrethroid resistance in Helicoverpa armigera.

► 2. Out break of secondary pests e.g. Whiteflies emerged as major pest when spraying insecticide against H. armigera.

► 3. Resurgence of target pests e.g. BPH of rice increased when some OP chemicals are applied.

► 4. When number of application increases, profit decreases.

► 5. Environmental contamination and reduction in its quality.

► 6. Killing of non-target animals and natural enemies.

► 7. Human and animal health hazards.

Page 15: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Stages in crop protection leading to

IPM

► 1. Subsistence phase : Only natural control, no insecticide use

► 2. Exploitation phase : Applying more pesticides, growing HY varieties and get more yield and returns

► 3. Crisis phase : Due over use pesticides, problem of resurgence, resistance, secondary pest out break, increase in production cost

► 4. Disaster phase : Due to increased pesticide use - No profit, high residue in soil - Collapse of control system

► 5. Integrated Management Phase: IPM integrates ecofriendly methods to optimize

► control rather than maximise it.

Page 16: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Objectives of pest management

► 1. To reduce pest status below economic injury level. Complete

elimination of pest

► is not the objective.

► 2. To manage insects by not only killing them but by preventing feeding,

► multiplication and dispersal.

► 3. To use ecofriendly methods, which will maintain quality of environment (air,

► water, wild life and plant life)

► 4. To make maximum use of natural mortality factors, apply control measures only

► when needed.

► 5. To use component in sustainable crop production

Page 17: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Requirements for successful pest

management programme

► 1. Correct identification of insect pests

► 2. Life history and behaviour of the pest

► 3. Natural enemies and weather factors affecting pest population

► 4. Pest surveillance will provide above data

► 5. Pest forecasting and predicting pest outbreak

► 6. Finding out ETL for each pest in a crop

► 7. Need and timing of control measure - Decision

► 8. Selection of suitable methods of control

► 9. Analysis of cost/benefit and benefit/risk of each control measure

► 10. Farmer’s awareness and participation

► 11. Government support

Page 18: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

TOOLS OR COMPONENTS OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

Cultural method or use of agronomic

practices

► 1. Crop rotation 5. Pruning or thinning

► 2. Crop refuse destruction 6. Fertilizer management

► 3. Tillage of soil 7. Water management

► 4. Variation in time of 8. Intercropping

► planting or harvesting 9. Trap crop

Page 19: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

TOOLS OR COMPONENTS OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

►ii. Host plant resistance - Antixenosis, antibiosis, tolerance

Page 20: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

TOOLS OR COMPONENTS OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

►iii. Mechanical methods of pest control

►1. Hand destruction

►2. Exclusion by screens, barriers

►3. Trapping, suction devices, collecting machine

►4. Crushing and grinding

Page 21: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

TOOLS OR COMPONENTS OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

►iv. Physical methods

►1. Heat

►2. Cold

►3. Energy - light trap, irradiation, light regulation

►4. Sound

Page 22: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

TOOLS OR COMPONENTS OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

►v. Biological methods

►1. Protection and encouragement of NE

►2. Introduction, artificial increase and colonizing specific parasitoids and

►predators

►3. Pathogens on insects like virus, bacteria, fungi and protozoa

►4. Use of botanicals like neem, pongam, etc.

Page 23: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

TOOLS OR COMPONENTS OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

►1. Attractants

►2. Repellents

►3. Insecticides - OC, OP, carbamates, pyrethroids, etc.

►4. Insect growth inhibitors

►vi. Chemical methods

►5. Chemosterilants

Page 24: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

►vii.Behavioural methods

►1. Pheromones

►2. Allelochemics

Page 25: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

►viii. Genetic/biotechnology method

►- Release of genetically incompatible/sterile pests

►- Transgenic plant

Page 26: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

►ix. Regulatory/legal method

►- Plant/animal quarantine

►- Eradication and suppression programme

Page 27: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Decision making in Ipm

Page 28: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Representation of one or several processes assiciated

with pest development and control

Can be a mathamatically or atleast computer based

representation of a pest population ,its development

and mortality process.

Types:Statistical model,Mechanized modeland

optimization model

MODELLING IN IPM

Page 29: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

► Institutional constraints: Lack of coordination among

disciplines,amond displines,reserch extension and

implementation among institutes hampers the

promotion of IPM

► Informational constraints: Lack of information about

IPM to farmers from Extension workers

► Sociological constraints: Convincing farmers about the

benefits of IPM

►Political constraints: Pesticide subsidy by the Govt for

political reasons

CONSTRAINTS OF IPM

Page 30: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

IPM AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Page 31: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Employment of principles of IPM is essential in

optimizing sustainability of agricultural systems.

1.Ecological stability:Ipm do not danger environment

2.social stability: inputs used in IPM are from local

sources, Pesticides from pesticide corporate industry.

3.Economical:IPM is cheap ,Feasible &Economical

When compared with pesticide

IPM AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Page 32: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...Integrated Pest management refers to an ecological approach in pest management I n which all the available necessary techniques like physical ,chemical,cultural,mechanical

Thank You