2. Location Cerebral Hemisphere Connected with the primary/secondar somatosensory areas amygdale , prefrontal cortec, etc. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/Gray743_insular_cortex.png
3. Functions Bodily Awareness Risky Decision Making Taste-Processing Gustatory Process
4. Disfuntional Insular Cortex Hard time evaluating pain, and processing it. Plays a positive role in addiction.
5. Study 1: Sacktor, Weizmann Institute of Science (Rehovot, Israel) Aim: To determine result of blocking an enzyme that strengthens the neuron connections, creating long-term memory. Result: Memories erased by injecting the inhibitor into the insular cortex (taste-processing gustatory process). http://www.ethikpartei.ch/neuron2.jpg
6. Study 2: Dr. Urbanik Aim: To examine whether men and women respond differently to danger. Results: Mens insular cortex is more activated than womens, which creates a physical reaction of fight or flight rather than an emotional. http://www.paniccure.com/images/Fight-or-Flight-72.jpg http://www.adoptionblogs.com/media/OpenAdoption/girl-scared-and-wet.jpg
7. Study 3: Nasir Naqvi, University of Iowa Aim: To see whether head injury that leads to dysfunction of the Insular Cortex will have an effect on drug addiction. Results: Cigarette smokers for example who suffer from damage of the Insular Cortex due to a stroke had their addiction to cigarettes almost eliminated. Up to 136 more likely to stop smoking then smokers who suffer damage to another part of the brain. Make this area of the brain a promising target for anti-addiction medications.
8. Works Cited Simon, Moss Dr. Insular Cortex. Psychlopedia. Web. 3 Nov 2009. Swaminathan, Nikhil. Continuous Motor Underlies Long-Term Memory Storage. Scientific American. 17 Aug 2007. Web. 2010. Podsiadlo, Lilianna. Men and Women May Respond Differently to Danger. ScienceDaily. 30 Nov 2009. Web. 2009. Craig, A. D. Mapping Pain in the Brain. The Welcome Trust. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. Damage to the Insula Disrupts Addiction to Cigarette Smoking . Science Mag. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. Insular cortex. Absolute Astronomy. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2010. Nagai, K, K Kishi, and S Kato. Insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders. PubMed U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2010.