Instructional Strategies for Teaching Speaking - 3_04262011_Speaking...Instructional Strategies for Teaching Speaking ... Teaching Speaking Handout 4: ... • Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching

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  • Instructional Strategies

    for Teaching Speaking

    ELC688 Methods I

    Survey of Best Practices in TESOL

    Lecturers: Carol Haddaway and Teresa Valais

    E-Teacher Scholarship Program

  • Warm-up:

    Find Someone Who

    Learners: motivate, involve, focus,

    create expectations, introduce topic

    Teaching Speaking Handout 1: Bingo Warm-Up 2

  • Aim of ESL classrooms

    Meaning and its Negotiation (Strategic Competence)


  • 4

    Coping Strategies to Negotiate

    Meaning Repetition

    Im sorry. Could you please repeat that?

    Paraphrase/restate in simpler words


    In other words, you mean .?


    Can you give an example of..?


    Could you say that in a different way?

    Hesitation (um, eh, well, sort of, like)

    Teaching Speaking Handout 2: Conversation Topics

  • 5 5

    Reflections and Considerations

    for the Oral Skills Class

    Who are the learners?

    Why are they there?

    What do they expect to learn?

    What am I expected to teach?

  • 6 6


    Low level learners Build on their experience (LEA)

    Share their expertise

    Use realia to keep learning as concrete as possible

    Non Academic learners (BICS) Survival English

    Basic communication functions with strong structural components

    Academic learners (CALP) Class participation

    Discussions and presentations

    Interacting with peers and professors

    Asking and answering questions

    Interpersonal communication

    Teaching Speaking Handout 3: BICS and CALP

    (Dixon & Nessel, 1983)

    (Cummins, 1979)

  • 7 7

    Why Speaking in the Target

    Language (TL) Can Be Difficult

    It takes place in real time

    Speakers worry about producing utterances

    with many errors or oddities in them

    Pronunciation that is not intelligible

    The effects of the Affective Principles

    language ego, self-confidence, risk-taking

    (Brown, 2001)

  • 8

    What Makes a Good

    Speaking Class

    Think of at least two criteria for a good speaking class under the following headings:






  • 9 9

    Implications for Teaching

    Create a relaxed atmosphere

    Lowers the affective filter

    Pair and group work

    More speaking time and lower inhibitions

    Plenty of natural speech

    Integrate pronunciation work in lesson

    Combine listening and speaking in natural


  • 10

    Affective Filter


  • 11 11

    Accuracy and Fluency

  • 12 12


    Main objective is to get learners to begin producing formally correct versions of the new items

    Practice typically involves using only the new items

    Focus on pronunciation, vocabulary, word formation, and sentence formation

    Errors are usually dealt with immediately

  • 13


    The objective is for learners to use items in conversations and other communication without hesitation, even if they make mistakes.

    The ability to link units of speech together with facility and without strain or inappropriate slowness or undue hesitation.

    Natural language use Focus on ideas, meaning and its negotiation

    Speaking strategies are used

    Overt correction is minimized

    Errors are tolerated (Hedge, 1993, p. 275-276)

  • 14 14

    Developing Oral Proficiency

  • 15 15

    Hypothesis 1

    Opportunities must be provided for students

    to practice using language in a range of

    contexts likely to be encountered in the target



    (adapted from Omaggio, 2001)

  • 16

    Hypothesis 2

    Opportunities should be provided for students

    to practice carrying out a range of

    communicative functions likely to be

    necessary in dealing with others in the target


    (adapted from Omaggio, 2001)

  • 17 17

    Hypothesis 3

    The development of accuracy should be

    encouraged. As learners produce (speaking

    and writing) language, instruction and

    feedback can help facilitate the progression

    of their skills toward more precise and

    coherent language use.

    (adapted from Omaggio, 2001)

  • 18 18

    Hypothesis 4

    Instruction should be responsive to the

    affective as well as the cognitive needs of

    students. Their different personalities,

    preferences, and learning styles should be

    taken into account.

    (adapted from Omaggio, 2001)

  • 19

    Hypothesis 5

    Cultural understanding must be promoted in

    various ways so that students are sensitive to

    other cultures and are prepared to live more

    harmoniously in the target-language


    (adapted from Omaggio, 2001)

  • 20 20

    Characteristics of a Successful

    Speaking Activity Learners talk a lot

    learner talk versus teacher talk/pauses

    Participation is even discussion not dominated by a minority of talkative


    Motivation is high learners are eager to speak

    interested in topic

    Language is of an acceptable level utterances are easily comprehensible

    acceptable level of accuracy

  • 21 21

    Activities to Promote


    Information gap activities


    Role plays

    Discussions & Conversations


    (Lyman, 1981)

  • Information Gap


    To exchange information to find a solution

    To convey or request information


  • Information Gap


    Main attention is to information

    Need to communicate to reach objective

    Learners must fill the gap

    Teaching Speaking Handout 4: Information Gap Activity, Student A

    Teaching Speaking Handout 5: Information Gap Activity, Student B


  • Information Gap Activity


    Promote language awareness

    Allow for comprehensible input (i+1)

    Help lower students affective filter

    Teaching Speaking Handout 6: Information Gap Sleep Questionnaire

    24 (Krashen, 1981)

  • The Output Hypothesis

    Learners produce language

    Output pushes learners to undertake

    complete grammatical processing

    25 (Swain, 1993)

  • 26 26

    Feedback and Error Correction

    Self Correction

    Give learners the opportunity to correct

    themselves, helping as necessary

    Peer Correction

    If learner cannot self-correct, invite other learners

    to make the correction

    Teacher Correction

    If no other learner can make the correction, make

    the correction yourself

  • 27 27


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    Krashen, S. (1985) The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. Longman.

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    Lightbown, P. (2000). How languages are learned. Oxford University Press.

    Lyman, F. (1981). The responsive classroom discussion. In Anderson, A. S. (Ed.), Mainstreaming

    Digest. College Park, MD: University of Maryland College of Education.

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    Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: some roles of comprehensible input and

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    Swain, M. (1993). The output hypothesis: Just speaking and writing arent enough. In The

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