Instructional Strategies for Teaching Speaking - 3_04262011_Speaking...Instructional Strategies for Teaching Speaking ... Teaching Speaking Handout 4: ... • Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching

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  • Instructional Strategies

    for Teaching Speaking

    ELC688 Methods I

    Survey of Best Practices in TESOL

    Lecturers: Carol Haddaway and Teresa Valais

    E-Teacher Scholarship Program

  • Warm-up:

    Find Someone Who

    Learners: motivate, involve, focus,

    create expectations, introduce topic

    Teaching Speaking Handout 1: Bingo Warm-Up 2

  • Aim of ESL classrooms

    Meaning and its Negotiation (Strategic Competence)

    3

  • 4

    Coping Strategies to Negotiate

    Meaning Repetition

    Im sorry. Could you please repeat that?

    Paraphrase/restate in simpler words

    Verification

    In other words, you mean .?

    Clarification

    Can you give an example of..?

    Circumlocution

    Could you say that in a different way?

    Hesitation (um, eh, well, sort of, like)

    Teaching Speaking Handout 2: Conversation Topics

  • 5 5

    Reflections and Considerations

    for the Oral Skills Class

    Who are the learners?

    Why are they there?

    What do they expect to learn?

    What am I expected to teach?

  • 6 6

    Learners

    Low level learners Build on their experience (LEA)

    Share their expertise

    Use realia to keep learning as concrete as possible

    Non Academic learners (BICS) Survival English

    Basic communication functions with strong structural components

    Academic learners (CALP) Class participation

    Discussions and presentations

    Interacting with peers and professors

    Asking and answering questions

    Interpersonal communication

    Teaching Speaking Handout 3: BICS and CALP

    (Dixon & Nessel, 1983)

    (Cummins, 1979)

  • 7 7

    Why Speaking in the Target

    Language (TL) Can Be Difficult

    It takes place in real time

    Speakers worry about producing utterances

    with many errors or oddities in them

    Pronunciation that is not intelligible

    The effects of the Affective Principles

    language ego, self-confidence, risk-taking

    (Brown, 2001)

  • 8

    What Makes a Good

    Speaking Class

    Think of at least two criteria for a good speaking class under the following headings:

    teacher

    learners

    atmosphere

    correction

    activities

  • 9 9

    Implications for Teaching

    Create a relaxed atmosphere

    Lowers the affective filter

    Pair and group work

    More speaking time and lower inhibitions

    Plenty of natural speech

    Integrate pronunciation work in lesson

    Combine listening and speaking in natural

    interaction

  • 10

    Affective Filter

    10

  • 11 11

    Accuracy and Fluency

  • 12 12

    Accuracy

    Main objective is to get learners to begin producing formally correct versions of the new items

    Practice typically involves using only the new items

    Focus on pronunciation, vocabulary, word formation, and sentence formation

    Errors are usually dealt with immediately

  • 13

    Fluency

    The objective is for learners to use items in conversations and other communication without hesitation, even if they make mistakes.

    The ability to link units of speech together with facility and without strain or inappropriate slowness or undue hesitation.

    Natural language use Focus on ideas, meaning and its negotiation

    Speaking strategies are used

    Overt correction is minimized

    Errors are tolerated (Hedge, 1993, p. 275-276)

  • 14 14

    Developing Oral Proficiency

  • 15 15

    Hypothesis 1

    Opportunities must be provided for students

    to practice using language in a range of

    contexts likely to be encountered in the target

    situation.

    .

    (adapted from Omaggio, 2001)

  • 16

    Hypothesis 2

    Opportunities should be provided for students

    to practice carrying out a range of

    communicative functions likely to be

    necessary in dealing with others in the target

    situation.

    (adapted from Omaggio, 2001)

  • 17 17

    Hypothesis 3

    The development of accuracy should be

    encouraged. As learners produce (speaking

    and writing) language, instruction and

    feedback can help facilitate the progression

    of their skills toward more precise and

    coherent language use.

    (adapted from Omaggio, 2001)

  • 18 18

    Hypothesis 4

    Instruction should be responsive to the

    affective as well as the cognitive needs of

    students. Their different personalities,

    preferences, and learning styles should be

    taken into account.

    (adapted from Omaggio, 2001)

  • 19

    Hypothesis 5

    Cultural understanding must be promoted in

    various ways so that students are sensitive to

    other cultures and are prepared to live more

    harmoniously in the target-language

    community.

    (adapted from Omaggio, 2001)

  • 20 20

    Characteristics of a Successful

    Speaking Activity Learners talk a lot

    learner talk versus teacher talk/pauses

    Participation is even discussion not dominated by a minority of talkative

    students

    Motivation is high learners are eager to speak

    interested in topic

    Language is of an acceptable level utterances are easily comprehensible

    acceptable level of accuracy

  • 21 21

    Activities to Promote

    Speaking

    Information gap activities

    Think-Pair-Share

    Role plays

    Discussions & Conversations

    Presentations

    (Lyman, 1981)

  • Information Gap

    Objectives

    To exchange information to find a solution

    To convey or request information

    22

  • Information Gap

    Characteristics

    Main attention is to information

    Need to communicate to reach objective

    Learners must fill the gap

    Teaching Speaking Handout 4: Information Gap Activity, Student A

    Teaching Speaking Handout 5: Information Gap Activity, Student B

    23

  • Information Gap Activity

    Interviews

    Promote language awareness

    Allow for comprehensible input (i+1)

    Help lower students affective filter

    Teaching Speaking Handout 6: Information Gap Sleep Questionnaire

    24 (Krashen, 1981)

  • The Output Hypothesis

    Learners produce language

    Output pushes learners to undertake

    complete grammatical processing

    25 (Swain, 1993)

  • 26 26

    Feedback and Error Correction

    Self Correction

    Give learners the opportunity to correct

    themselves, helping as necessary

    Peer Correction

    If learner cannot self-correct, invite other learners

    to make the correction

    Teacher Correction

    If no other learner can make the correction, make

    the correction yourself

  • 27 27

    References

    Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by principles. Longman.

    Davies, P. & Pearse, E. (2000). Success in English teaching. Oxford University Press.

    Dixon, C.N., & Nessel, D. (2008). Using the language experience approach with English language

    learners: Strategies for engaging students and developing literacy. Corwin Press.

    Farrell, T. (2006). Succeeding with English language learners. Corwin Press.

    Krashen, S. (1981). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. English Language

    teaching series. London: Prentice-Hall International (UK) Ltd.

    Krashen, S. (1985) The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. Longman.

    Lazaraton, A. (2001). Teaching oral skills. In Celce-Mircia, M. (Ed.), Teaching English as a second

    or foreign language 3rd ed. Heinle & Heinle.

    Lightbown, P. (2000). How languages are learned. Oxford University Press.

    Lyman, F. (1981). The responsive classroom discussion. In Anderson, A. S. (Ed.), Mainstreaming

    Digest. College Park, MD: University of Maryland College of Education.

    Omaggio, H.A. (2001). Teaching language in context 3rd ed. Heinle & Heinle.

    Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: some roles of comprehensible input and

    comprehensible output in development. In Gass, S. and Madde, C. (Eds.), Input in SLA. Newbury

    House.

    Swain, M. (1993). The output hypothesis: Just speaking and writing arent enough. In The

    Canadian Modern Language Review, 50, 158-164.