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Aims and scope. Forest Ecology and Management publishes scientific articles concerned with forest management and conservation, and in particular the application of biological, ecological and social knowledge to the management of man-made and natural forests. The scope of the journal includes all forest ecosystems of the world. A refereeing process ensures the quality and international interest of the manuscripts accepted for publication. The journal aims to encourage communication between scientists in disparate fields who share a common interest in ecology and natural- resource management, and to bridge the gap between research workers and forest managers in the field to the benefit of both. The journal should be of interest to research workers, managers and policy makers in forestry, natural resources, ecological conservation and related fields. EDITORIAL BOARD Editor-in-Chief: Dr. D. Binkley, Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA, Tel.: +1-970 491 6519, E-mail: [email protected] Editors: Dr. M.A. Adams, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, University of Sydney, Australian Technology Park, Level 4, Biomedical Building, NSW 2015, Australia, Tel.: +61 2 8627 1010 (Fax: +61 2 8627 1099), E-mail: [email protected] Dr. T.S. Fredericksen, Environmental Science Program Coordinator, Associate Professor of Forestry and Wildlife, 212 Garber Hall, Ferrum College, Ferrum, VA 24088, USA, Tel.: +1-540-365-4360, E-mail: [email protected] Dr. J.-P. Laclau, CIRAD – USP/ESALQ, Caixa Postal 9, Cep 13418-900, Piracicaba SP, Brazil, E-mail: [email protected] Dr. C.E. Prescott, Professor and Associate Dean, Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, 2005-2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T1Z4, Tel.: +1 604 822 4701, E-mail: [email protected] Dr. H. Sterba, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstraße 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria, Phone: +43-1-47654-4201, Fax: +43-1-47654-4242, E-mail: [email protected] FOUNDING EDITOR: L.L. Roche  EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD S.R. Abella, Las Vegas, NV, USA P.M.S. Ashton, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA P. Attiwill, University of Melbourne, Ringwood, VIC, Australia C.L. Beadle, CSIRO, Hobart, TAS, Australia J-P. Bouillet, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba (SP), Brazil J.R. Boyle, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA J. Chen, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA C. Cieszewski, Athens, GA, USA J. Cortina Segarra, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain T.J. Dean, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA B. du Toit, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, South Africa B. Ewers, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA C.J. Fettig, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Davis, CA, USA C. Greenberg, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Asheville, NC, USA M.E. Harmon, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA H. Hasenauer, Universitat fu ¨ r Bodenkultur Wien (BOKU), Wien, Austria L.S. Heath, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Durham, NH, USA H-S. Helmisaari, Helsinki, Finland N. Higuchi, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM, Brazil R. Jandl, Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum fu ¨r Wald, Naturgefahren und, Wien, Austria D. Kashian, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA R. Keenan, University of Melbourne, Creswick, VIC, Australia P.K. Khanna, Institute of Soil Science and Forest Nutrition, Go ¨ ttingen, Germany T.E. Kolb, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA B.M. Kumar, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India K. Ma, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China J.E. Macı ´as-Sa ´ mano, ECOSUR, Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico A. Makela, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland D.C. Malcolm, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK C.R. McKinley, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA F. Montagnini, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA J.F. Negro ´ n, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO, USA J.A. Parrotta, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Arlington, VA, USA R.F. Powers, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Redding, USA S.W. Simard, Vancouver, BC, Canada P. Sist, INRA-CIRAD, Montpellier Cedex 5, France J.A. Stanturf, Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, Stoneville, MS, USA O.J. Sun, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, PR, China H. Temesgen, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA L. Vesterdal, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark X. Wei, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, Canada D. Weise, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Riverside, CA, USA T.B. Wigley, NCASI, Clemson, SC, USA R.D. Yanai, Syracuse, NY, USA Publication information: Forest Ecology and Management (ISSN 0378-1127). For 2013 Volumes 289–312 are scheduled for publication. Subscription prices are available upon request from the Publisher or from the Elsevier Customer Service Department nearest you or from this journal’s website (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ foreco). Further information is available on this journal and other Elsevier products through Elsevier’s website (http://www.elsevier.com). Subscriptions are accepted on a prepaid basis only and are entered on a calendar year basis. Issues are sent by standard mail (surface within Europe, air delivery outside Europe). Priority rates are available upon request. Claims for missing issues should be made within six months of the date of dispatch. Orders, claims, and journal enquiries: please contact the Elsevier Customer Service Department nearest you: St. Louis: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, MO 63043, USA; phone: (877) 8397126 [toll free within the USA]; (+1) (314) 4478878 [outside the USA]; fax: (+1) (314) 4478077; e-mail: [email protected] Oxford: Elsevier Customer Service Department, The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK; phone: (+44) (1865) 843434; fax: (+44) (1865) 843970; e-mail: [email protected] Tokyo: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 4F Higashi-Azabu, 1-Chome Bldg, 1-9-15 Higashi-Azabu, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-0044, Japan; phone: (+81) (3) 5561 5037; fax: (+81) (3) 5561 5047; e-mail: [email protected] Singapore: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 3 Killiney Road, #08-01 Winsland House I, Singapore 239519; phone: (+65) 63490222; fax: (+65) 67331510; e-mail: [email protected] Advertising information: If you are interested in advertising or other commercial opportunities please e-mail [email protected] and your enquiry will be passed to the correct person who will respond to you within 48 hours. Printed by Henry Ling Ltd., The Dorset Press, Dorchester, UK

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Aims and scope. Forest Ecology and Management publishes scientific articles concerned with forest management and conservation, and in

particular the application of biological, ecological and social knowledge to the management of man-made and natural forests. The scope of the journal

includes all forest ecosystems of the world. A refereeing process ensures the quality and international interest of the manuscripts accepted for

publication. The journal aims to encourage communication between scientists in disparate fields who share a common interest in ecology and natural-

resource management, and to bridge the gap between research workers and forest managers in the field to the benefit of both. The journal should be

of interest to research workers, managers and policy makers in forestry, natural resources, ecological conservation and related fields.

EDITORIAL BOARD

Editor-in-Chief:Dr. D. Binkley, Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA, Tel.: +1-970 491 6519,E-mail: [email protected]

Editors:

Dr. M.A. Adams, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, University of Sydney, Australian Technology Park, Level 4, Biomedical Building, NSW 2015,Australia, Tel.: +61 2 8627 1010 (Fax: +61 2 8627 1099), E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. T.S. Fredericksen, Environmental Science Program Coordinator, Associate Professor of Forestry and Wildlife, 212 Garber Hall, Ferrum College,Ferrum, VA 24088, USA, Tel.: +1-540-365-4360, E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. J.-P. Laclau, CIRAD – USP/ESALQ, Caixa Postal 9, Cep 13418-900, Piracicaba SP, Brazil, E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. C.E. Prescott, Professor and Associate Dean, Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, 2005-2424 MainMall, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T1Z4, Tel.: +1 604 822 4701, E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. H. Sterba, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstraße 82, A-1190Vienna, Austria, Phone: +43-1-47654-4201, Fax: +43-1-47654-4242, E-mail: [email protected]

FOUNDING EDITOR:

L.L. Roche�

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

S.R. Abella, Las Vegas, NV, USA

P.M.S. Ashton, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

P. Attiwill, University of Melbourne, Ringwood, VIC, Australia

C.L. Beadle, CSIRO, Hobart, TAS, Australia

J-P. Bouillet, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba (SP), Brazil

J.R. Boyle, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA

J. Chen, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA

C. Cieszewski, Athens, GA, USA

J. Cortina Segarra, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain

T.J. Dean, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

B. du Toit, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, South Africa

B. Ewers, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA

C.J. Fettig, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Davis, CA, USA

C. Greenberg, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service,

Asheville, NC, USA

M.E. Harmon, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA

H. Hasenauer, Universitat fur Bodenkultur Wien (BOKU), Wien, Austria

L.S. Heath, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service,

Durham, NH, USA

H-S. Helmisaari, Helsinki, Finland

N. Higuchi, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA),

Manaus, AM, Brazil

R. Jandl, Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum fur Wald,

Naturgefahren und, Wien, Austria

D. Kashian, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA

R. Keenan, University of Melbourne, Creswick, VIC, Australia

P.K. Khanna, Institute of Soil Science and Forest Nutrition, Gottingen, Germany

T.E. Kolb, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA

B.M. Kumar, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India

K. Ma, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China

J.E. Macıas-Samano, ECOSUR, Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico

A. Makela, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

D.C. Malcolm, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

C.R. McKinley, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

F. Montagnini, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

J.F. Negron, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service,

Fort Collins, CO, USA

J.A. Parrotta, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service,

Arlington, VA, USA

R.F. Powers, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service,

Redding, USA

S.W. Simard, Vancouver, BC, Canada

P. Sist, INRA-CIRAD, Montpellier Cedex 5, France

J.A. Stanturf, Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, Stoneville, MS, USA

O.J. Sun, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, PR, China

H. Temesgen, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA

L. Vesterdal, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark

X. Wei, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, Canada

D. Weise, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service,

Riverside, CA, USA

T.B. Wigley, NCASI, Clemson, SC, USA

R.D. Yanai, Syracuse, NY, USA

Publication information: Forest Ecology and Management (ISSN 0378-1127). For 2013 Volumes 289–312 are scheduled for publication. Subscription prices are

available upon request from the Publisher or from the Elsevier Customer Service Department nearest you or from this journal’s website (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/

foreco). Further information is available on this journal and other Elsevier products through Elsevier’s website (http://www.elsevier.com). Subscriptions are accepted on a

prepaid basis only and are entered on a calendar year basis. Issues are sent by standard mail (surface within Europe, air delivery outside Europe). Priority rates are

available upon request. Claims for missing issues should be made within six months of the date of dispatch.

Orders, claims, and journal enquiries: please contact the Elsevier Customer Service Department nearest you:

St. Louis: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, MO 63043, USA; phone: (877) 8397126 [toll free within the USA]; (+1) (314)

4478878 [outside the USA]; fax: (+1) (314) 4478077; e-mail: [email protected]

Oxford: Elsevier Customer Service Department, The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK; phone: (+44) (1865) 843434; fax: (+44) (1865) 843970;

e-mail: [email protected]

Tokyo: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 4F Higashi-Azabu, 1-Chome Bldg, 1-9-15 Higashi-Azabu, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-0044, Japan; phone: (+81) (3) 5561 5037;

fax: (+81) (3) 5561 5047; e-mail: [email protected]

Singapore: Elsevier Customer Service Department, 3 Killiney Road, #08-01 Winsland House I, Singapore 239519; phone: (+65) 63490222; fax: (+65) 67331510; e-mail:

[email protected]

Advertising information: If you are interested in advertising or other commercial opportunities please e-mail [email protected] and your enquiry will be

passed to the correct person who will respond to you within 48 hours.

Printed by Henry Ling Ltd., The Dorset Press, Dorchester, UK