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Input and Output: (HARDWARE) Chapter 1 Input and Output Input Users submit input data Output Users get processed information

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  • Input and Output: (HARDWARE) Chapter 1
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  • Input and Output Input Users submit input data Output Users get processed information
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  • Input Data from the user to the computer Converts raw data into electronic form
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  • Keyboard Traditional Looks like typewriter with extra keys Non-traditional Fast food restaurants Each key represents a food item rather than a character
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  • Keyboard Function Keys Give commands Software specific Main Keyboard Typewriter keys Special command keys
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  • Keyboard Numeric Keys Num Lock toggle On n umeric data & math symbols Off cursor movement Cursor Movement Keys
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  • Keyboard Special Keys Enter Esc Alt Ctrl Caps Lock Shortcut Windows Shift
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  • Pointing Devices Position a pointer / cursor on the screen Controls drawing instruments in graphics applications Communicate commands to a program
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  • Pointing Devices Mouse Types Mechanical Optical Wireless Features Palm-sized 1 or 2 buttons Wheel
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  • Other Pointing Devices Trackball Upside-down mouse Ball on top Roll ball with hand Laptop computers Touchpad Pressure-sensitive pad Cursor moves as you slide your finger Laptop computers
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  • Other Pointing Devices Pointing stick Pressure-sensitive post Mounted between G and H keys on keyboard Apply pressure in a direction to move cursor Joystick Short lever Handgrip Distance and speed of movement control pointer position Try THIS BEFORE YOU PROCEED FURTHER :http://downloads.racoindustries.com/downloads/pos/DEMO.swf
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  • Graphics Tablet Digitizing tablet Rectangular board Invisible grid of electronic dots Write with stylus or puck Sends locations of electronic dots as stylus moves over them Creates precise drawings Architects and engineers
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  • Touch Screens Human points to a selection on the screen Types Edges emit horizontal and vertical beams of light that crisscross the screen Senses finger pressure Light pen for pointing
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  • Touch Screens Kiosks Self-help stations Easy to use Where found Malls Disney World Government offices
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  • Pen-based Computing Small hand-held devices Electronic pen (stylus) Pointer Handwritten input Personal Digital Assistants (PDA)
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  • Source Data Automation Special equipment to collect data at the source Sent directly to a computer Avoids need to key data Related input areas Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition Scanners Optical recognition devices Voice
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  • MICR Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition Read characters made of magnetic particles Numbers on the bottom of checks MICR inscriber adds characters to check that show amount cashed
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  • Optical Scanners Optical recognition Light beam scans input data Most common type of source input Document imaging converts paper documents to electronic form Converts snapshots into images Converts scanned picture into characters OCR Exact computer-produced replica of original Exact computer-produced replica of original
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  • Types of Scanners Flatbed One sheet at a time Scans bound documents Sheetfeed Motorized rollers Sheet moves across scanning head Small, convenient size Less versatile than flatbed Prone to errors
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  • Types of Scanners Handheld Least expensive Least accurate Portable User must move the scanner in a straight line at a fixed rate Wide document causes problems
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  • Optical Recognition Optical mark recognition (OMR) Mark sensing Exams Recognizes the location of the marks Optical character recognition (OCR) Light source reads special characters OCR-A is ANSI standard typeface for optical characters
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  • Optical Recognition Wand Reader Retail stores Libraries Hospitals Factories
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  • Optical Recognition Bar Code Reader Photoelectric device Reads bar codes Inexpensive Reliable Where Used? Supermarket UPC Federal Express
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  • Optical Recognition Handwritten Characters Must follow rigid rules Size Completeness Legibility
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  • Voice Input Speech Recognition Speech recognition devices Input via a microphone Voice converted to binary code Problems Speaker-dependent Voice training
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  • Voice Input Changing radio frequencies in airplane cockpits Placing a call on a car phone Requesting stock-market quotations over the phone Command from physically disabled users
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  • Voice Input Discrete work systems Understand isolated words Pause between words Difficult for dictation Continuous work systems Normal speaking pattern Easy to use Faster and easier to dictate than to key
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  • Digital Cameras Photos stored in electronic form No film Point and shoot Edit
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  • Output Information for the user Types Screen soft copy Printer hard copy Voice Sound Graphics
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  • Monitor Data that is entered appears on the screen Screen is part of the monitor
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  • Monitor Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Flat panel display Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
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  • Flat-panel Screens Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Primarily on laptops Moving to desktop Skinny (depth) regardless of size
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  • Flat-panel Screens Crisp, brilliant images Easy on eyes No flicker Full dimension is useable More expensive that CRT monitors
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  • Printer Produces information on paper Orientation Portrait Landscape Methods of printing Impact Nonimpact
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  • Impact Printers Line printer One line at a time High volume Low quality Dot-matrix printer One character at a time
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  • Nonimpact Printer Laser Printer
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  • Transfers images to paper using a light beam Prints one page at a time 600-1200 dpi High quality Speed Personal laser printers: 8-10 ppm Network laser printers: 35-50 ppm High-volume laser printers: up to 1000 ppm Black and white / color
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  • Nonimpact Printer Ink-jet Printer Spray ink at paper Black and white / color Excellent graphics Good quality Slower than laser
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  • Nonimpact Printer Choose based upon: Speed Quality Black and white vs. color Price
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  • Sound Creates multimedia output Multiple sight and sound effects Speakers Sound card
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  • Voice Output Speech Synthesis Enables machines to talk to people Types Voice synthesizers Voice output devices Audio-response units Convert data in storage to vocalized sounds Synthesis by analysis human sounds are stored and reproduced as needed Synthesis by rule creates artificial speech
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  • Voice Output Speech synthesis Uses Automobiles Telephone surveys Catalog order is ready Your payment is late reminder
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  • Music and Other Sounds MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) Communicates between MIDI devices and computer Rules that produce and process digital music signals MIDI information tells synthesizer When to start and stop playing a note Volume Modulation Software is available for composing and editing per MIDI standard
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  • Terminals Device that provides input and output capabilities Dumb terminal Keyboard and monitor Connects to host for processing Intelligent terminal Keyboard, monitor, memory, and processor Connects with host Point-of-sale terminal (POS) Input and output device Captures retail data
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  • Computer Graphics Business Education Science Sports Computer art Entertainment
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  • Business Graphics Types Maps Charts Help Compare data Spot trends Make decisions quickly Attention-getting Updated instantaneously Rendered quickly
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  • Video Graphics Animated graphics Prepared one frame at a time Examples Cartoons Commercials without humans Television networks logo Arcade games
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  • CAD/CAM Computer-Aided Design Computer-Aided Manufacturing CAD Software creates 2-D and 3-D designs CAM Controls production equipment CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) Bridge between design and manufacturing CAD/CAM integrated into manufacturing process Provides balanced, efficient production process
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  • Ethics and Data Computer data can be Used Sold Altered What is legal? THIS WE WILL SEE IN CHAPTER 12
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