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distributed with autotest magazine n. 19 / june 2011 SIAR IS AffIlIAted to InteRnAtIonAl fedeRAtIon of  AutomotIve enGIneeRInG SocIetIeS euRopeAn  AutomobIle enGIneeRS coopeRAtIon Ingineria Automobilului Society of Automotive Engineers of Romania Registrul Auto Român Automobile A Clean cleaner for a World • Interview with the Rector of Pitesti University • Burning mixtures petrol / diesel and the diesel engine n-butanol • Achievements Student Politehnica Timisoara • Determination of mechanical gear efciency • Cost effective distribu tion in transport logistics activities

Ingineria Automobilului 19 Eng

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distributed with autotest magazine

n. 19 / june 2011

SIAR IS AffIlIAted to


fedeRAtIon of








IngineriaAutomobilului Society of 


of Romania


AutomobileA Cleancleanerfor a World

• Interview with the Rector

of Pitesti University

• Burning mixtures petrol / diesel

and the diesel engine n-butanol

• Achievements Student Politehnica


• Determination of mechanical

gear efciency• Cost effective distribution in transport

logistics activities

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i all

Oil, he main energy source or

ranspor overall, supplying nearly 

100% o road ranspor uels, iscurrenly expeced o reach depleion on he

2050 perspecive.

Climae proecion and securiy o energy 

supply hereore boh lead o he requiremen

o building up an oil-ree and largely CO2


ree energy supply o ranspor on he ime

horizon o 2050.

oal CO2

emissions rom ranspor have increased by 24% rom 1990 o

2008, represening 19.5% o oal European Union (EU) greenhouse gas


Te EU objecive is an overall reducion o CO2

emissions o 80-95% by he

 year 2050, wih respec o he 1990 level. Decarburizaion o ranspor andhe subsiuion o oil as ranspor uel hereore have boh he same ime

horizon o 2050. Improvemen o ranspor eciency and managemen o 

ranspor volumes are necessary o suppor he reducion o CO2


 while ossil uels sill dominae, and o enable nie renewable resources o

mee he ull energy demand rom ranspor in he long erm.

Te upcoming Whie Paper on he European ranspor policy or he nex

decade should ouline a ranspor acion programme unil 2020. I should

dene he overall ramework or EU acion over he nex en years in he

elds o ranspor inrasrucure, inernal marke legislaion, echnology or

rac managemen and decarburizaion o ranspor hrough clean uels

and vehicles.

Te Exper Group on Fuure ranspor Fuels, according o is mandae,should consider he mix o uure ranspor uels o have he poenial or:

Full supply o he ranspor energy demand by 2050;-

Low-carbon energy supply o ranspor by 2050;-

Susainable and secure energy supply o ranspor in he longer erm,-

 beyond 2050.

  Alernaive uels are he ulimae soluion o decarbonize ranspor, by 

gradually subsiuing he ossil energy sources, which are responsible or

he CO2

emissions o ranspor.

 alv l p or subsiuing oil as energy source or propul-

sion in ranspor are:

elccy/y, and l (lq) as he main opions;

syc l as a echnology bridge rom ossil o biomass based uels;

 m (l ) as complemenary uels;LPg as supplemen.

sll l covering all ranspor modes would be echnically 

possible wih liquid biouels and synheic uels. Bu eedsock availabiliy 

and susainabiliy consideraions consrain heir supply poenial. Tus he

expeced uure energy demand in ranspor can mos likely no be me by 

one single uel. Fuel demand and greenhouse gas challenges will require

he use o a grea variey o primary energies.

T lv l should be available EU-wide wih harmonized

sandards, o ensure EU-wide ree circulaion o all vehicles. Incenives or

he main alernaive uels and he corresponding vehicles should be harmo-

nized EU-wide o preven marke disorions and o ensure economies o 

scale supporing rapid and broad marke inroducion o alernaive uels.Te main alernaive uels considered should be produced rom low-car-

 bon, and nally rom carbon-ree sources. Subsiuion o oil in ranspor

 by hese main alernaive uels leads hen inherenly o a decarburizaion o 

ranspor i he energy sysem is decarbonized. Decarburizaion o ranspor

and decarburizaion o energy should be considered as wo complemenary 

sraegic lines, closely relaed, bu decoupled and requiring dieren echni-

cal approaches, o be developed in a consisen manner.

T p require dieren opions o alernaive uels:

r p could be powered by elecriciy or shor disances, hy-

drogen and mehane up o medium disance, and biouels/synheic uels,

LNG and LPG up o long disance;

rly should be elecried wherever easible, oherwise use biouels; av should be supplied rom biomass derived kerosene;

 w ranspor could be supplied by biouels (all vessels), hydro-

gen (inland waerways and small boas), LPG (shor sea shipping), LNG

and nuclear (mariime).

(*) epor o he European Exper Group

on Fuure ranspor Fuels, January 2011

 Mircea Oprean

Summary „Ingineria Automobilului“ No. 19

European Union (EU) and the Fuels of the Future*

3 – European Union (EU) and he Fuels o he Fuure

5 – Inerview wih Mr. Pro. Univ. Dr. Gheorghe Barbu ecor o Piesi


6 – Inake Flow Visualizaion Using CFD

9 – Eec on combusion process o gasoline/diesel and n-buanol/diesel

 blends in an opical compression igniion engine

12 – esearch on he Consrucion and Perormances o he Tree Way 

Caalyic Used in Depolluing he S.I.E

16 – Minimizing Disribuion Coss – Direc versus Inermediae –

Plaorm ranspor

20 – Polluan Emissions Exhaused by a Spark Igniion Engine Operaing

 wih Convenional and Non-convenional Fuels

22 – Deerminaion o he Mechanical Eciency o he Gears

24 – Laboraorul de mooare cu ardere inern, Deparamenul

  Auovehicule uiere, Faculaea de Mecanic – Universiaea din


25 – Universiy esearch

26 – Creaiviy and enhusiasm or suden projecs

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i all

romanina  auomobiLe


General ManagerSoir SANCUechinical Manager


 auo es


eadu BUHăNIă 

Emilia VELCU

Cc:Calea Griviţei 391 A,

secor 1, cod poal 010719,Bucurei, omânia

el/Fax: 021/202.70.17E-mail: [email protected]



Faculy o ransporUniversiy POLIEHNICA o Buchares

Splaiul Independenţei 313oom JC 005

Cod poal 060032, secor 6Bucurei, omânia

el/Fax: 021/316.96.08E-mail: [email protected]


 ar grouP in srL

Sr. Vulurilor 12-14, secor 3Bucureşi

Full or parial copying o ex and picures

can be done only wih Auo es Magazine approval,

o he Romanian AuomobileRegiser and o SIAR 

soCieY oF auomoiVe engineers oF romania Presiden: Pro. e m nş

 Vice-presiden: Pro. C ac Vice-presiden: Pro.  al C Vice-presiden: Pro. i c

 Vice-presiden: Pro. Vc oţăGeneral Secreary: Dr. Cl a Vl

e C Pro. mc oPrean Universiaea Poliehnica Bucurei

dpy ePro. galx Rdu Universiaea ransilvania Braşov 

Con. Ş abaCu Universiaea din Pieşie

Con. a saCheLarie Universiaea Gh. Asachi IaşiCon. Dr. Ing. il dumiru Universiaea din Craiova

Lecor C CoLdea  Universiaea Cluj-Napocae de lucrri m bĂŢĂuŞ Universiaea Poliehnica Bucureşi

edioriaL board

sCieniFiC and adVisorY edioriaL boardPro. d a

Universiy o Michigan,Michigan,

Unied Saes o America

Pro. rc a. băăcUniversiy o IIlinois a Chicago

College o EngineeringUnied Saes o America

Pro. ncl bechnical Universiy o Cluj-Napoca


Dr. Flc e. CcEngines Insiue,

Naples, Ialy 

Pro. g dcConservaoire Naional

des Ars e Meiers de Paris,France

Pro. C dkUniversiy o Belgrade


Pro. P eInsiue or Applied

 Auomoive esearcharragona, Spain

Pro. r gcechnical Universiy 

 „Gh. Asachi”o Iai, omania

Pro. bl gülechnical Universiy 

o Darmsad, Germany 

Pro.  alx hlUniversié de echnologie deBelor-Monbeliard,France

Pro. P cUniversiy or Applied Sciences,Konsanz,Germany 

Pro. mc opPoliehnica Universiy o Buchares,omania Pro. ncl V. oleired Proessor, Universiy o Michigan

 Ann Arbor, M.I., USA 

Pro. P PvConservaoire Naionaldes Ars e Meiers de Paris,France

Pro.  a slInsiue o Mining and MeallurgicalMachine, Engineering,

 Aachen, Germany 

Pro. ulc spcKalrsuhe Universiy, Karlsruhe,Germany 

Pro. Cl s Wes Saxon Universiy o Zwickau, Germany 

Pro. d  Wayne Sae Universiy,Unied Saes o America

New series o he evisa Inginerilor de Auomobile din omânia (IA), 1992-2000Cod ISSN 1842 - 4074

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Interview with Mr. Prof. Univ. Dr. Gheorghe Barbu

Rector of Pitesti University

 Ingineria Automobilului (Automotive Engineering): Sir, how would you

assess the role of university research and innovation in engineering, its

integration into industrial research and the directions that will have to

be taken in the future?

Te scienic research is, as we all know, he main mechanism generaing

knowledge wihin our sociey. Equally, scienic research is a undamenal

axis o higher educaion so ha every universiy underaken his mission, oo.

Unorunaely, laely, in omania, he scienic research inegraed isel 

slighly wihin he indusrial projecs. Why? Which are he causes? We

need o discuss a lo here...

  Wihin he auomoive engineering, we could be beter, aking ino ac-

coun ha in omania, Dacia-enaul works very well since quie a long

ime ago. Te &D echnical cenre rom iu (enaul echnologie

oumanie) is already operaional, which obviously can avor he inegra-

ion o universiy scienic research in he indusrial world. Abou Ford

omania rom Craiova, as ar as I undersood, he hings are advancing,

so ha we can only hope o an improvemen o he connecions beween

universiy scienic researches wih he indusrial environmen.

I res my case by saying ha he universiy scienic research needs an

anchorage in he real, indusrial world and I do hope ha wihin he near

uure his will happen.  A.E: What would be Pitesti University`s contribution to resolve au-

tomotive challenges such as car environmental and energy problems,

which will have to faced in the future, in the context of foreseeable de-

 pletion of oil and natural gas resources?

Indeed, he imes we live are very challenging or his paricular eld.

  Wihin he Universiy o Piesi, over he ime here were and are pre-

occupaions on he subjec you menioned. I would like o ouline he

ac ha in Piesi, he echnical higher educaion wihin he auomoive

engineering is a radiion, is birh dae (1969) being conneced wih he

creaion o Dacia plan a Mioveni.

In order o answer o your quesion, I enumerae some o he major

preoccupaions o my colleagues rom he Auomoive Engineeringeld, whose purposes is he minimizaion o he auomobile’s impac

upon he environmen: elecric/hybrid elecric vehicle (we do hope o

presen a prooype his all – maybe on he occasion o he CA2011

Inernaional Auomoive Congress , organized by Universiy o Piesi

 beween 2-4 November), variable valve acuaion, variable compression

raio (in our labs here are some original engine prooypes o his ype),

 biodiesel uelling and so on.

Tereore, I can only say ha we have he necessary resources (human

and maerial) in order o approach he subjec you reer o and o come

 back o he rs quesion, I believe hese resources o develop hemselves

more and more wihin he rame o research projecs carried ou in col-

laboraion wih he indusrial world. A.E.: From 2nd to 4th November, this year Piteşti University with SIAR, will or-

 ganize the 10th edition of the International Automotive Engineering Con-

  gress (CAR 2011) , under the patronage of FISIA and EAEC. How

would you describe this event and what are your expectations? 

Being a is 10h ediion, he CA Inernaional Auomoive Congress is a

scienic even well known in omania and no only; was is rs ediion

in 1978. Saring wih 1997, a srong inernaional componen was added,

so ha i became an imporan scienic even wih proved benes or

he omanian higher educaion and or omania

Te CA Inernaional Auomoive Congress is par o he scienic

evens cycle having SIA and FISIA paronage. ENAUL omania,

FOD, AVL Lis Ausria, HOIBA and ACAOM are amongs he

sponsors o our congress.

aking ino accoun he acual conex regarding he need or proec-

ing he environmen o which we reerred o earlier, he general heme

  which will govern our congress is „Auomoive Engineering and he


Our hope (as organizers) is ha he 10h ediion, as well, will oer o he

paricipans he rame o some ecien debaes and he opporuniy o 

esablishing cooperaion relaions wih he universiy/indusrial environ-

men rom omania/abroad.

  Ingineria Automobilului (Automotive Engineering): Tank you very

much, Mr. Gheorghe Barbu for this interview.

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Tis aricle was produced under he projec “Supporing young Ph.D sudens wih equency

by providing docoral ellowships”, co-nanced


he Secorial Operaional Program Developmen o 

Human Resources


Tis invesigaion presens resuls om a 3D nu-

merical simulaion o he air ow wihin an engine

  presening he possibiliy o coninuously vary he

inake valve li during operaion. Te purpose was


i all

Intake Flow Visualization Using CFD

 V. iorga, a. CLenCi

Universiy o Piei, omania; ConservaoireNaional des Ars e Méiers de Paris, France

i abaCuUniversiy o Piei, omania

P. PodeVin, a. deL aCroiX Conservaoire Naional des Ars e Méiers de Paris,France

F. 1. gy l

F. 2. 3d vl

F. 3. T vlcy vlv

Trotle plae Model assembly Inake valve

l 1. gy

Trotle valve diameer [mm] 63.5

Trotle valve diameer [mm] 29.5

Inake valve diameer [mm] 31.6

 Valve sea lengh [mm] 2.8

Cylinder diameer [mm] 75

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o obain resuls abou air velociy, urbulence a 

he valve gap, or a hrotle plae open a 20° and

dieren valve lis. Te 3D CFD simulaion was

carried ou using FLUEN soware wih k-ω SS 

urbulence model.

y: CFD, 3D model, seady ow, ow 



  Wih he adven o more powerul compuers,

now mahemaical models are increasingly ac-

ceped as design and opimizaion ools or en-

gine developmen and ow visualizaion, [1]

Our sudies revealed ha he abiliy o conrol

 valve lif cerainly oers he abiliy o conrol in-

ake air mass [3] bu also has he added bene

ha i improves uel-air mixing process and con-

rols air moion. Tis is paricularly imporan a

idle and low par loads when low lifs are o be

used or achieving he required power, [2].

Te CFD invesigaion was carried ou or 20°

opening o hrotle plae (corresponding o idle

operaion) and 4 valve lifs: 1.37 mm, 2.05 mm,

3.07 mm, 8.47 mm.

Te main goal o his sudy is o perorm a 3D

CFD simulaion on he eecs o valve lifing

heigh on he single cylinder lling process, us-

ing FLUEN sofware, [5]. Will be highlighed

he air velociy near he valve and air movemens

inside he cylinder

3d modeL geomerY 

Te geomery engine was creaed using he

CAIA V519. For his numerical simulaion,

only one cylinder, hrotle body, hrotle plae,

inake maniold, inake valve and he combus-

ion chamber were kep (gure 1). Basic dimen-

sions o he model are displayed in ollowing


 mesh geneRion and

numeriCaL sumuLaion

Geomery was ransormed in an IGES orma.

Tis *.igs le orma, used by several sofware

packages o exchange geomeries, is impored

in he pre-processor Gambi. Firs i was neces-

sary o eliminae unneeded planes, edges and

  verices and correc some disconinuiies and


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[mm] A 









[mbar] W 



1.37 94.7 446


598 152 190.03

2.05 142.2 441 531 90 132.41

3.08 213 474 529 55 104.09

8.47 587.84 460 468 8 61.84

l 2. Tl vlv p φ = 20°. m clcl vl

F. 4. Vlcy vc

. h=1.37 . h=2.05

c. h=3.08 . h=8.47

F. 5. 3d vl

. h=1.37

 . h=2.05

c. h=3.08

. h=8.47

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Te geomery grid is composed o 1007208

erahedral cells (gure 2). Mesh size varies

  beween 0.2 near he inake valve and hrotle

plae, growing o 2 mm or he res o geomery.

Pressure inle is one boundary condiion in he

hrotle plae body. Te pressure oule was cho-

sen as boundary condiion a he BDC (botom

dead cener) in cylinder.

Te rs sep in Fluen was o impor he mesh,

o veriy and scale i. Nex, pressure values need-

ed o be assigned o he inle and oule o 3D

model. Implici solver and k-ω SS urbulence

model was used o simulae he air ow.

Te sudy was perormed o simulae he sa-

ionary airow a an engine speed o 800 rev/

min, corresponding o he idle operaion. For

his paricular case, neiher he pison nor he

inake valve is moving.

In order o se he boundary condiions, daa

  were aken rom experimens perormed in a

seady-sae ow wihin he variable inake valve

lif engine ted wih in-cylinder and inake

maniold pressure sensors, [4].

resuLs and disCussion

In he ollowing, or dieren maximum valve

lifs and one opening o hrotle plae, velociy 

underneah he inake valve is highlighed (see

able 2 and gure 3, 4). Also, based on he CFD

simulaion, he uid moion inside he cylinder

is visualized (e.g. swirl and umble moion) –

gure 5. 

Te dierence in pressure beween he inake

maniold and he in-cylinder deermines he

ow velociy underneah he inake valve, Wsa ,

as shown in Figure 3. One could see ha he big-

ger he pressure drop, he bigger he velociy.

For a good visualizaion o he in cylinder ow,

he inside volume was cu wih a plane parallel

o he cylinder axis (gure 4). Te values o ow 

 velociy used in able 2 and gure 3 are acually 

he maximum ones aken rom gure 4.

In gure 5, he pah lines are ploted or each

case o valve lif heigh aoremenioned. Te

swirl or roaion o he ow around he cylinder

axis is clearly visible. Equally, he smaller he lif

he more disorganized is he moion, which a-

 vors he uel-air mixing process.

For a beter visualizaion o he in cylinder ow 

moion, he inside volume was cu wih a sec-

ond plane perpendicular o he cylinder axis

(gure 6). Slices are a common ool used oinvesigae he properies o he ow inside a

 volume. Tus, gure 6 reveals he swirl moion

on a surace placed in cylinder, a a disance o 

26.6 mm rom he combusion chamber, parallel

 wih he pison head.


CFD oers he opporuniy o view he progress

o ow in he lling process. In general, he op-

imal ow visualizaion echnique depends on

he needs o he user and he naure o vecor

eld. I is possible o emphasize and communi-

cae dieren visualizing characerisics o heow using 2D. Visualizing swirl ow using 3D

pah-lines and vecors is easier han or he case

o umble moion.

Coming back o he eecs o inake valve o he

inake process, he nal goal o he auhors is

o nd a correspondence beween he posiive

eec o improving he airow velociy and he

negaive eec o increasing he pumping work 

 when reducing he inake valve lif. Te nex sep

o his sudy is o perorm an unsaionary nu-

merical simulaion by aking ino consideraion

he inake valve and pison moions, as well.


i all


[1] M.H. Shojaeeard, A.., Noorpoor – Flow

Simulaion in Engine Cylinder wih Spring Mesh ,

 American Journal o Applied Sciences 5 (10):

1336-1343, 2008

[2] Clenci A., Podevin P., Descombes G.,

Berquez J. – Variable inake valve li on spark

igniion engine and is eecs on idle operaion ,

EAEC Congress, Braislava 2009

[3] Clenci A., Bîzîiac A. –   Disribuţia variabi-lă ca ehnică de conrol a moorului cu aprindere

 prin scâneie. Realizări recene la Universiaea

din Pieşi, evisa Ingineria Auomobilului,

aprilie 2006

[4] Iorga-Simn V., Clenci A., Podevin P.,

Descombes G. – On he eecs o he valve li-

ing heigh upon he lling process , Scienic bul-

lein, Faculy o Mechanics and echnology,

 Auomoive series, year XVI, no.20 ( 1 )

[5] *** Fluen 6.2 User’s guide. Fluen Inc.

. h=1.365

c. h=3.072

 . h=2.05

. h=8.47

F. 6. T l

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o mee he uure sringen emission sandards,

innovaive diesel engine echnology, exhaus gas

afer-reamen, and clean alernaive uels are re-

quired. Oxygenaed uels have showed a enden-cy o decrease inernal combusion engine emis-

sions. In he same ime, advanced uel injecion

modes can promoe a urher reducion o he

polluans a he exhaus wihou penaly or he

combusion eciency. One o he more ineres-

ing soluions is provided by he premixed low 

emperaure combusion (PLC) mechanism

 joinly o lower-ceane, higher-volailiy uels.

o undersand he role played by hese acors on

soo ormaion, opical echniques and were ap-

plied in a high swirl muli-jes compression igni-

ion engine. Combusion ess were carried ou

using hree uels: commercial diesel, a blend o 

80% diesel wih 20% gasoline (G20) and a blend

o 80% diesel wih 20% n-buanol (BU20). Te

uels were esed a 70MPa injecion pressure

and dieren imings using an open Common

ail injecion sysem. A lae injecion iming

coupled o high EG rae (50%), he blends

increased he igniion delay allowing o operae

in parially premixed LC (PPLC) regime in

 which he uel is compleely injeced beore he

sar o combusion. Srong reducion o engine

ou emissions o smoke and NOx were obained

 bu wih a litle penaly on engine eciency. Tislimiaion was overcome operaing a earlier in-

 jecion iming in which a mixing conrolled com-

 busion (MCC) LC regime was realized. In his

regime, a good compromise beween low engine

ou emissions and eciency was achieved.


Te rade-o beween NOx and pariculae

mater (PM) emissions rom diesel engines is

a well-known weakness o convenional diesel

combusion. NOx and PM ormaion are inu-

enced by in-cylinder local equivalence raio and

combusion emperaure [1]. Tereore, i hecombusion can be shifed ouside he regions

 where he local equivalence raio, he simulane-

ous reducion o NOx and PM emissions can be

achieved. Tis is he concep o low emperaure

combusion (LC) ha can be based on wo

dieren mechanism: Homogeneous Charge

Compression Igniion (HCCI) and Mixing

Conrolled Combusion (MCC) [2-8]. HCCI is

a premixed combusion mechanism in which he

equivalence raio is less or equal o 1 (φ≤1). I

is srongly dependen on kineics, emperaure,

combusion iming. HCCI has he ollowing po-

enial limiaions: dicul o conrol he com-

 busion iming; possible knocking and high NOx 

and PM emissions a high loads; possible liquid

uel impingemen on he in-cylinder suraces;

incomplee combusion a ligh loads (misre,

high UHC and CO). In he Mixing Conrolled

Combusion (MCC) he equivalence raio is

equal or higher han 1 (φ≥1). I can be realized

in convenional diesel engines wih appropriae

uel composiion, modulaion o injecion and

high level o EG. MCC presens addiional

advanages compared o he HCCI, such as low 

combusion noise and he conrol o combus-ion phasing by he injecion sraegy.

LC operaional range and ceane number are

conneced.. In a ligh-duy diesel engine work-

ing a high loads, a low-ceane uel allowed an

homogeneous lean mixure wih improved NOx 

and smoke emissions join o a good hermal e-

ciency. A blend o diesel and gasoline, ermed

“dieseline”, is benecial or engine ou emissions

and combusion sabiliy. [8][9][10][11][12]

Neverheless, he growing energy demand and

limied peroleum uel sources in he world have

guided researchers owards he use o clean aler-naive uels like alcohols or heir beter endency 

o decrease he engine emissions. Alcohols have

less carbon, sulur conen and more oxygen han

radiional ossil-based uels. On he oher side,

alcohol uels, generally, produce higher evapo-

raive emissions due o higher vapor pressures

 while heir low energy densiy causes a drop in

engine perormance. However, he very low ce-

ane number limis he usage o nea alcohols

in diesel engines; hey should be blended wih

diesel uel wihou any modicaions in he en-

gine uel sysem. n-buanol has more advanages

han ehanol and mehanol. Buanol has a lower

auo-igniion emperaure han mehanol and

ehanol. Tereore, i can be ignied easier when

used in diesel engines. Besides, buanol is much

less evaporaive and releases more energy per

uni mass han ehanol and mehanol. Buanol

has also a higher ceane number (12) han eha-

nol (8) and mehanol (3) making i a more ap-

propriae addiive or diesel uel. Buanol is less

corrosive han ehanol and mehanol and i can

 be blended wih diesel uel wihou phase sepa-

raion. Finally, buanol can be produced by er-

Effect on combustion process of gasoline/diesel

and n-butanol/diesel blends in an optical compression ignition engine

i m Cnr, npl ily E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected].

i; [email protected]; [email protected] auhor Dr Simona Silv ia Merola

physics MD - chem.eng. phD esearcherIsiuo Moori – CN, Via Marconi, 8 - 80125Napoli (Ialy) www.im.cnr.i [email protected]

el. +39 081 7177224

Lc marChito

Flc e.CorCione

 al mazzei

s s. meroLa 


g VaLenino

F. 1. opclly ccl

Optical detectionsystem


combustion bowl

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menaion o biomass, such as algae, corn, and

oher plan maerials conaining cellulose ha

could no be used or ood and would go, oher-

 wise, o wase. [13][14][15][16]eXPerimenaL se-uP and resuLs

Te experimens were carried ou in an exernal

high swirl opically accessed combusion bowl

conneced o a single cylinder 2-sroke high

pressure common rail compression igniion en-

gine (Figure 1). Te exernal combusion bowl

(50 mm in diameer and 30 mm in deph) is

suiable o sabilize, a he end o compression

sroke, swirl condiions o reproduce he uid

dynamic environmen similar o hose wihin a

real direc injecion diesel engine. Te injecor

  was mouned wihin his swirled chamber wihis axis coinciden o he chamber axis; in his

 way he uel, injeced by he nozzle, is mixed up

hrough a ypical ineracion wih he swirling air

ow. Te combusion process sars and mainly 

proceeds in he chamber. As soon as he pison

moves downward, he ow reverse is moion

and he ho gases ow hrough he angenial

duc o he cylinder and nally o he exhaus

pors. A common rail injecion sysem was ar-

ranged by a solenoid conrolled injecor wih a

micro-sac 7 hole, 0.141 mm diameer, 148° spray 

angle. An exernal roos blower provided an in-

ake air pressure o 0.217 MPa wih a peak pres-

sure wihin he combusion chamber o 4.9 MPa

under moored condiions.

Combusion ess were carried ou using hree

uels. Te baseline uel was he European low 

sulphur (10 ppm) commercial diesel wih a ce-

ane number o 52. Moreover, wo blends were

esed; he rs was obained by blending 80% o 

he baseline diesel and 20% o commercial 98 oc-

ane gasoline by volume, denoed as G20 in he

ollowing. Te second blend was composed by 

80% o he baseline diesel and 20% o n-buanol

F. 2. e x k (l) nox () v jc (soi) ll pv c.

F. 3. uVVis dl, g20 bu20 l, soi=11 Cad bdC (50%egr)

F. 4. uVVis dl, g20 bu20 l, soi=1 Cad adC (50%egr)

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  by volume and denoed as BU20. All combus-

ion ess were carried ou running he engine

a he xed speed o 500 rpm, injecing a uel

amoun o 30mg ±1% a he pressure o 70 MPa.

ess were carried ou seting he elecronic in-

 jecion iming (SOI) o 11 CAD BDC, 3 CAD

BDC, 1 CAD ADC and 5 CAD ADC a woEG raes, 0% and 50%.

One o he main arges o he premixed low 

emperaure combusion is he reducion in

engine ou emissions wihou a signican pen-

aly in uel consumpion. Te engine eciency 

decreased linearly rearding he sar o injec-

ion a which an increase o he igniion delay 

is mached. Te limi value or engine sabil-

iy and eciency was reached a SOI =5 CAD

 ADC, which gave an increase in he igniion

delay ha enhanced he air-uel mixing beore

combusion, realizing a Parially Premixedegime. A xed SOI he blend BU20 gave

a higher engine eciency, due o he beter

uel volailiy and mixing rae han diesel uel

(abou 5%). Te average reducion in hermal

eciency beween he esed uels, comparing

he SOI=-11 CAD BDC and SOI=5 CAD

 ADC was lower han 20%, wihou any inu-

ence rom EG raes.

egarding he exhaus emissions (Figure 2),

he blends G20 and BU20 allowed o ge he

  bes compromise beween NOx and smoke, a

accepable engine eciency. A rearded SOC,he PPLC mechanism was dominan: smoke

and NOx emissions were close o zero bu he

engine eciency decreased. A early injecion

iming (11 CAD BDC), he blend BU20

and G20 allowed o operae in mixing conrol-

led combusion (MCC) supplying he highes

 working area and a good compromise beween

NOx and smoke emissions. In paricular, he

 blends wih EG=50% guaraneed he bes op-

eraive condiion ataining a reducion in engine

ou emissions wihou a signican penaly in

engine eciency.

Opical invesigaions realized in he combus-

ion chamber allowed o sudy he eecs o he

esed uels on he combusion process. (Figures

3 and 4) Te rs image o sequence corresponds

o he rs well resolvable Ulraviole-visible

  wavelengh signal hus o he rs exohermic

luminescence reacions. Te auo-igniion oc-

curred near he ip o he uel jes; afer his ime

he ame wen up he direcion o he spray axis,

ollowing he soichiomeric air-uel raio pah.

Due o he srong swirl, he ame, previously 

induced, spreads in he combusion chamber

dragged by he aniclockwise air moion. Tis

had a sronger eec on he longer lif-o jes.

For all he condiions, he igniion delay o he

G20 and BU20 blends was longer han he die-

sel uel, a he same SOI and EG values. Te

minimum igniion delay was measured or he

SOI=3 CAD BDC ha corresponded o hehighes smoke emission, or each condiion

more rearded SOI, he opical SOC increased

abou linearly rearding he injecion iming,

a EG=50% and wih uels more resisan o

auo-igniion (BU20). In paricular, he BU20

a EG=50% showed he longes igniion de-

lay, excep or he mos advanced SOI, a which

G20 wih EG=50% prevailed. In he exreme

case SOI=5 CAD ADC wih 50% EG he

  whole amoun o uel is injeced beore he

sar o combusion, realizing a premixed low 

emperaure regime (PLC). Tis occurred or boh he blends. I should be noed ha no spray 

evidence was deeced also or BU20 a he con-

diion wih SOI=5 CAD ADC and boh EG 

raes. In his way, he BU20 blend induced a

PLC mechanism in wider range o condiions

compared o G20.


In-cylinder opical invesigaions, correlaed

  wih convenional measuremens o engine pa-

rameers and exhaus emissions, demonsraed

ha he blends increased he igniion delay par-

icularly a lae injecion iming allowing o op-

erae in PPLC regime in which he uel is com-pleely injeced beore he sar o combusion.

In his regime, srong reducion o engine ou

emissions o smoke and NOx were obained. On

he oher hand his combusion regime reduced

he engine eciency. o overcome his limia-

ion a mixing conrolled combusion (MCC)

LC regime was realized by an earlier injecion.

In his regime, a good compromise beween low 

engine ou emissions and a good eciency was

demonsraed. Te eec o he uel qualiy and

injecion on he ame lif-o lengh and soo

ormaion were sudied. Te increase o lif-o lengh well mached o a decrease o in-cylinder

soo producion. Te BU20 blend, a 50% o 

EG and lae injecion iming, allowed o op-

erae in LC regime in which a srong decrease

o soo ormaion joined o reduced engine ou

emissions were obained.


[1] Heywood, J. B.,   Inernal Combusion Engine

Fundamenals , McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988.[2] Kook, S.; Bae, C.; Miles, P.; Choi, D.; Picket, L.

(2005) Te Inuence o Charge Diluion and Injecioniming on Low-emperaure Diesel Combusion and

 Emissions. SAE ech. Paper n. 2005-01-3837.[3] Kimura, S., Aoki, O., Kiahara, Y.,and Aiyoshizawa, E.(2001) Ulra-Clean Combusion echnology Combining 

a Low-emperaure and Premixed Combusion Concep 

 or Meeing Fuure Emission Sandards . SAE ech. Papern. 2001-01-0200[4] Henein N.A, Bhatacharyya A, Schipper J, Bryzik,

 W. (2005)Combusion and Emission Characerisics o a

Small Bore HSDI Diesel Engine in he Convenional and

 LC Combusion Regimes  , SAE ech. Paper n. 2005-24-045.[5] Horibe N., Ishiyama . (2009) Relaions among 

 NOx, Pressure Rise Rae, HC and CO in LC Operaion

o a Diesel Engine. SAE ech. Paper n. 2009-01-1443[6] de Ojeda, W., Zoldak, P., Espinosa, ., and Kumar,.,(2008)  Developmen o a Fuel Injecion Sraegy or 

 Diesel LC , SAE Paper n. 2008-01-0057.[7] Yun, H., Sellnau, M., Milovanovic, N., and Zuelch,S. (2008)  Developmen o Premixed Low-emperaure

 Diesel Combusion in a HSDI Diesel Engine. SAE Papern. 2008-01-0639[8] L. Pesan, L. Fori, N. Jeuland (2008)  Eec o Fuel

Characerisics on he Perormances and Emissions o an

 Early-injecion LC /Diesel Engine. SAE Paper n. 2008-01-2408.[9] Kalghagi, G., isberg, P., and Ångsröm H-E(2006) Advanages o uels wih high resisance o auo-

igniion in lae-injecion, low-emperaure, compression igni-

ion combusion , SAE Paper n. 2006-01-3385.[10] Spliter, D.A., Hanson, ., Kokjohn, S., ein,K., Sanders, S., and eiz, .D. (2010)   An Opical

  Invesigaion o Igniion Processes in Fuel Reaciviy

Conrolled PCCI Combusion , SAE paper 2010-01-0345.[11] Collings, N. and Weall, A.J. (2007)  Invesigaion

ino parially premixed combusion in a ligh-duy muli-

cylinder diesel engine uelled wih a mixure o gasoline

and diesel [12] Han, D., Ickes, A. M., Bohac, S. V., Huang, Z.

 Assanis, D. N. (2010) Premixed low-emperaure com-

busion o blends o diesel and gasoline in a high speed

compression igniion engine Energy Fuels, vol. 24 (6), pp3517–3525.[13] Lujaji F., Kriso L., Bereczky A., Mbarawa M.82011)   Experimenal invesigaion o uel properies,

engine perormance, combusion and emissions o blends

conaining croon oil, buanol, and diesel on a CI engine,

Fuel , Vol. 90 (2), pp. 505-510

[14] D.C. akopoulos, C.D. akopoulos, .G.Papagiannakis, D.C. Kyrisis, (2011) Combusion hea 

release analysis o ehanol or n-buanol diesel uel blends in

heavy-duy DI diesel engine  , Fuel, Vol. 90(5), pp. 1855-1867[15] D.C. akopoulos, C.D. akopoulos, E.G.Giakoumis, A.M. Dimaraos, D.C. Kyrisis (2010) Eecs

o buanol-diesel uel blends on he perormance and emissi-

ons o a high-speed DI diesel engine. Energy Conversionand Managemen, Vol. 51 (10) pp.1989-1997[16] Minga Yao, Hu Wang, Zunqing Zheng, Yan Yue,(2010)  Experimenal sudy o n-buanol addiive and

muli-injecion on HD diesel engine perormance and

emissions , Fuel, Vol. 89 (9), pp. 2191-2201.

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Te paper presens a synhesis o he varians

o Tree Way Caalyic used in a depolluing

sysem o a S.I.E., highlighing he eecs o he

consrucive and working parameers (running

emperaure, advanced ingniion) on he conver-

sion eciency. Ten one presens he oucomes

o an experimenal research on a medium class

car on he es sand. One esablishes, hus, a

correlaion beween he run-up ime o a .W.C.

and he speed o he car, making reerence o helow charges and engine roaions cases.

he neCessiY oF eXhaus gases

CaaLYiC reamen oF s.i.e.

Nowadays, one o he major problems he car

aces is represened by he environmen pol-

luion. Tereore, he more and more severe

European sandards (able 1) have esablished

he developmen o complex procedures o en-

sure he perecioning o he working processes

o spark igniion engine (SIE). Builders have

channelled heir research on wo undamenal

direcions. A rs direcion is represened by 

he genesis depolluion by ways which aim a

improving he ormaion and burning o hemixure. Te second one presupposes obligao-

rily he gases caalyic reamen. In his case he

polluion sandards impose he use o he Tree

 Way Caalyric (.W.C.) which proved o be an

indispensable soluion.

he CaaLYs Case – ConsruC-

iVe eLemens and woring


Te caalys case is a componen o he exhaus

gases reamen sysem me boh a spark igni-

Research on the Construction and Performances of

the Three Way Catalytic Used in Depolluting the S.I.E

Pro. univ. dr. ing. Fl iVanCaedra AuomobileFaculaea de Mecanic i ehnologieUniversiy o [email protected]@yahoo.com

Universiy o Piei

drd. ing.dl LiŢĂ 

drd. ing.  a buŞoi

ll 1. evl euro s.i.e.

(g/km) Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 5+ Euro 6

CO 2,72 2,2 2,3 1 1 1 1

HC(NMHC) - - 0,2 0,1 0,1(0,068) 0,1(0,068) 0,1(0,068)

Nox - - 0,15 0,08 0,06 0,06 0,06

HC+NOx 0,97 0,5 - - - - -

PM (GDI) - - - - 0,005 0,0045 -0,0045

PN - - - - - - ?

F. 2. T k c c .w.C.

F. 1. a y clyc cc

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ion injecion engines in he admission valve, as

 well as a hose wih direc gas injecion (in heengine cylinder).

Generally, a caalys case presupposes he ol-

lowing componens: meallic case, insulaing

and mainaining maerial or he ceramic/meal

 base, ceramic/meal base (also called monolih)

covered wih aluminium oxide, surace in which

one has impregnaed he acive maerial, made

up o noble meals (plainum, palladium, rho-

dium) and Cerium oxide CeO2 which reains

oxygen.Figure shows synheically he consrucion o a

caalys case.

Ceramic monolihs have heir srucure shaped

in a honeycomb and hey are obained by pre-

synhesis. Tey can have dieren shapes:

round, oval, recangular. Te cell walls are cca.

0.3 cm hick. From a working poin o view, one

has in view ha he monolih srucure should

no lead o counerpressures in order o com-

promise he dynamic and economic perorm-

ances. Te working emperaure o he mono-

lih should no be higher han 900°C, having as

meling poin 1355°C.

For example /1/, a medium class car has he

main ollowing eaures o a caalys case: oal volume: 1.4 [l]; rs zone volume: 0.5 [l]; sec-

ond zone volume: 0.9 [l]; diameer: 125 [mm];

specic geomeric surace: 3 [m2 /l]; he mae-

rial densiy: 1.7 [g/cm3]; cell number/cm2:


 An imporan working parameer is represened

 by he necessary hea quaniy rom 0 o 100°C

in he case o he caalyic volume. Experience

has shown ha in he case o a ceramic monolih

his parameer reaches medium values 60-65


One has o sress he ac ha he making cosso such a caalyic are generally imporan and

are shared as ollows (gure 2):

Te meallic monolih has been used more

and more laely, because i has he ollowing

advanages: he necessary hea quaniy rom 0

o 100°C in he case o a one lier monolih is

o 31 kJ which reduces signicanly he run-up

ime o he caalys case, a more improved reli-

abiliy as o he ceramic one, a smaller volume

due o he less hick walls which leads o a lower

counerpressure in he exhaus way, a simplied

consrucion (i doesn’ need xing sysems), i works a higher emperaures (1100°C).

  As o he disadvanages, menion should be

made o: he quicker cooling a low charges due

o he low mass and o he high hermic conduc-

iviy; his disadvanage is parly eliminaed by 

seting near he engine. Te acive caalyic sur-

ace is a laying o noble meals (plainum, pal-

ladium, rhodium). In he case o he hree way 

F. 3. T clyc c .w.C.

F. 4. wk .w.C. F. 5. .w.C. eccy .w.C.

Table 2.The effect of the noble materials on pollutatns

Noble maerial/Noxa

HC CO Nox  

P (plainum) + + + + + +

Pd (palladium) + + + + + + + +

h (rhodium) + + + + + + +

+ + + grea efciency; + + medium efciency; + low efciency

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caalyic one usually uses a mixure o plainum-

rhodium. Te eec o hese noble meals on

polluans is rendered synheically in able 2.

Te role o he .W.C. is o rea hree kinds o 

Noxa which resul afer he burning o he air-

uel mixure (gure 3). HC (unburn hidro-

carbs), CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nirogen

oxides), resuling unharmul elemens: H2O

(waer vapours), CO2 (carbon dioxide) and N2(nirogen).

Te reacions ake place in wo phases: in he

rs phase Co and HC are reaed by oxidaion,

he necessary burning oxygen being exraxed as

residual oxygen, due o he incomplee burning,

and in he second phase he reducion o he

nirogen oxides akes place (Nox). Te caalys

case ullls an exra uncion, ha o socking


Tis uncion is ensured by he presence o ce-

rine oxide, CeO2, in he composiion o he ma-

erial covering he acive caalyic surace. Te

cerine oxide acs as regulaor o he oxygen con-cenraion in he case o poor mixures i socks

oxygen, and in he case o high mixures his one

gives oxygen o oxidize CO and HC in CO2.

Experience shows ha he conversion degree

o .W.C. is srongly inuenced by admited

mixure qualiy in he engine’s cylinders. Te

mixure qualiy is characerized by he excess air

coecien, λ, or by he excess uel coecien,

=1/λ – someimes also called enriching (rich-


  As one noices in ugure 4 and gure 5, wo

undamenal requiremens are necessary or he

caalys case o work wih maximum eciency (cca. 98%): he values o λ and be esablished

  wihin he range o 1 0,03 (conrol window),

and he working emperaure (run-up) be over


Te rs condiion is ullled by using he lock 

loop conrol hrough he injecion compuer.

Te key elemen ha ensures he mainainance

o λ in he conrol window area is he Lambda

 well – he elemen measuring he oxygen con-

en in he exhaus gases.

iCing-oFF mehods and he

eFFeC on dePoLLuing


Generally, here are wo kicking-o mehods:

he reducion ull advance mehod and he air

injecion mehod in he upsream o he caalys


Te rs mehod leads o he exension o he

 burning process o he release moion so ha

he gases reaching he .W.C. have a high em-

peraure. Obviously, he mehod presupposes a

sacrice o dynamic and consumpion perorm-


Figure 6 presens he evoluion o he .W.C.

F. 6. T c ll vc c F. 7. T c ll vc c h

F. 8. T cc jc kck y

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  working emperaure depending on he reduc-

ion o he preigniion, and gure 7 highlighs

he eec on he HC concenraion.

One noices a sligh delay in he elecric spark 

sar (2…3 0 RC afer he superior dead poin

– SDP) which leads no only quick sar o he

caalys case bu also o he minimum o HC

concenraion. A diminishing o he NOx con-

cenraion (eec known in he ull advance re-ducion).Tis kicking-o way has he advanage

o he consricive simpliciy, bu also he disad-

 vanage o he uel consumpion increase.

Te second mehod presupposes he injecion

o some air quaniy in he upsream o he

.W.C. using a sysem made up o he ollowing

elemens (gure 8): air pump, air injecor and

anireurn valve. Te injeced air ensures he

necessary oxygen or he pos-oxidaion reac-

ions or CO and HC so ha one obains a quick 

emperaure increase. In his way he .W.C.

manages o reach easily he running empera-


Experimenal research in he es sand

/2/,/6/,/7/ in he case o a middle class car run-

ning afer he urban cycle (NEDC) have shown

ha his soluion leads o a signican reducion

o he run-up ime (gure 9). Te graphics have

he ollowing signicance : curve 1 represens

he gas emperaure enering he caalys case,

curve 2 represens

Te emperaure o he rs caalyic core, curve

3 – he emperaure o he second caalyic core,

and curve 4 represens he rs sequence, re-

sprecively he second one o running-speed –

in he European cycle (NEDC).

I resuls ha he rs caalyic core eners he

hermic range (300°C) afer almos 20 seconds,

and he second core almos 35 seconds, i he car

speed isn’ higher han 15 km/h. Tereore, he

soluion allows or he quick kicking-o o he

.W.C. in low charges and roaions o he spark 

igniion engine condiions, ha is he criicalcondiions regarding Noxa (Co and HC).


Te analysis o he consrucive soluions o ca-

alys cases used o rea he exhaus gases in he

depolluing sysem o he spark igniion engine

highlighs he ac ha obension o an opimal

 varian in poin o cos and conversion perorm-

ances require large scale research. Funcionally,

or a middle class car hese research have o aim

wo objecives: 1. he reducion o he preigni-

ion unil one reaches a sligh delay o he elec-

ric spark (2…3 0 RC afer he superior dead

poin – SDP); 2. he reaching o he working

emperaure o 300°C beween 20 and 30 sec-

onds a he end o he rs running sequence

afer he urban cycle (NEDC), case in which he

eciency o he .W.C. is o minimum 90%.

* noe: Te heme was done in col-

laboraion wih he Universiy o 

Piesi, suppored by he docoral

scholarships programme POSDU


F. 9. gpc p kck


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SAE, Hardbound, 2005

[2] Plin, J., Maryr, ., Engine esing , Teory &

 Pracice , SAE, Casebound,2007

[3] Khair, M., Majewski, A.,   Diesel emissions

and heir conrol , SAE, Hardbound,2006

[4] Ivan, F., Li, D., Conribuion o he impro-

ving o he eaures o a quick cold sar Diesel en-

 gine, ESFA Bucurei, Volumul 2, 2009

[5] Li, D., Ivan, F., Consrucion, uncion

and inuence o exhaus gas recirculaion upon

 polluans, Bulein Şiinţic Universiaea din

Piei, Numarul 19, Volumul B, 2009

[6] Li, D., Ivan, F., Ways o improving he par-

icle lers’ perormances used in depolluing he

quick Diesel engines, CONA Braov, Volumul

2, 2010

[7] Li, D., Ivan, F.,  Experimenal research re-

 garding he depolluion o he ormaion and he

improvemen o op dynamic perormances o cars

hrough he opimizaion o he nal momen o 

injecion, Bulein Şiinţic Universiaea din

Piei, 2010

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i all i all


Te paper ocuses on he key variables o be ak-

en ino consideraion while choosing he righ

archiecure or he disribuion nework.

y: disribuion nework, ranspor,

choice o vehicles, warehouse cos managemen,

ranspor coss

I begins by presening he mos commonly used disribuion archiecures discussing heir

srenghs and weaknesses. In he second sec-

ion, i ackles he issue o he opimal vehicle

choice aking as key variable he quaniy o be

ranspored and adoping a marginal cos analy-

sis. Te choice or he disribuion nework is

discussed nex wih a special ocus on he choice

  beween direc disribuion and he use iner-

mediae warehouses. Opimizaion mehods

are used based on cos minimizaion. Te las

secion o he sudy presens he conclusions o 

case sudy poining ou he exen o which he

disribuion coss migh be reduced should he

righ disribuion archiecure be used.inroduCion

Disribuion is one o he cenral pillars o he

logisic aciviy. oday, in a very compeiive

economy, disribuion opimizaion has o ace

he challenges o narrowing he delivery ime,

gaining exibiliy and minimizing coss and


omanian companies ace oday he srong

oreign compeiion o he wesern European

markes which are more experimened, have

 beter-organized producion ows and inegra-

ed logisic chains. Tereore, hey have o keeppace by nding soluions in order o opimize as

much as possible heir ows o resources.

Tis paper will ocus on one key par o he lo-

gisic chain o a company, namely disribuion

o goods, discussing he choice or he righ ar-

chiecure o he disribuion nework. As road

ranspor is he mos commonly used means o 

ranspor or reigh disribuion in omania, we

 will narrow our analysis on road disribuion.

disribuion arChieCures

Producion companies having heir producion

sies in omania or somewhere else, have o

organize heir disribuion nework on he er-

riory o he counry in order o opimize heirneworks. Several objecives such as shoren

delivery ime, reducing coss, gaining exibiliy,

proximiy o he core cliens may be aken ino


wo decades ago, disribuion was made direc-

ly rom he producion plan o he reailers and

seldom was he loading rae o a ruck aken ino

accoun. Te pace o disribuion was as well no

as inensive as i is oday, and more ime could

 be waied unil he goods were sen o a locaion.

oday, disribuion neworks are ar more com-

plex and he objecive is o reduce he inensiy o he use o ranspor by narrowing he number

o kilomeers raveled by he ows o goods.

Logisic soluions oday inend grouping he re-

sources and he means o ranspor. Tereore, a

lo o companies build inermediae logisic pla-

orms (We will reer in his paper o a inermedi-

ae logisic plaorm as o a inermediae ware-

house and we will ignore all he oher uncion

a logisic plaorm migh have.) which allow or

grouped ransporaion operaed by big capac-

iy rucks o he merchandise going o dieren

locaions up o a locaion near hem (where he

Minimizing Distribution Costs – Direct versus

Intermediate – Platform Transport

C manea Caholic Universiy o Louvain,Belgium

F.1. d cc k Surce (2): Serre, G., L’enrepô dans la chaîne logisique d’un indusriel de grande consommaion, présenaion au CGPC, 2002

) exclvly pl ) i pl c

c) C pl

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regional warehouse can be ound). From here,

ranspor is operaed by smaller rucks o each

reailer. Tereore, by using big rucks wih a low 

uni cos per kilomeer up o a poin, he oal

cos o ranspor may reduce signicanly (and

consequenly so may he cos o disribuion)

and by using smaller rucks up o each reailerhe company may gain in exibiliy.

However, using inermediae plaorms is no

oday a universal soluion. I depends primary 

on he quaniies o goods ha have o be rans-

pored which are depending boh on he de-

mand o goods o each reailer and he organiza-

ion o he producion ows (or insance, i hey 

are in Jus in ime (JI) or no). Moreover, he

cos o disribuion doesn’ mean only he cos

o ranspor, so he cos o managing a regional

plaorm versus he sum o coss o several small

local plaorms have as well o be aken ino ac-coun (ofen, when using direc disribuion and

he ranspor is operaed by big capaciy rucks,

small local warehouses have o build in each ciy 

 because hese ypes o vehicles are no allowed

o ener he urban area).

 As we have already poined ou, he grea advan-

age o building inermediae plaorms is ha

he goods can be ranspored a low uni cos

per kilomeer up unil hese warehouses as he

oal quaniy o goods ha has o be disribued

in he region can be ranspored ogeher and

hus, big capaciy rucks wih a high loading rae

can be used. Inuiively, his implies ha here

 will be a signican advanage in using regional warehouses as long as he quaniy ha has o

 be disribued o he reailers is no large enough

so as o be direcly ranspored by big capaciy 


Te quaniy o be ranspored can be a sheer

uncion o he demand o goods, bu i can as

  well be inuenced by he organizaion o he

producion ows. Jus in ime ( JI) procedures

or insance, require a quasi-coninuous produc-

ion ow as hey are aiming a reducing socks

o zero. Consequenly, his signicanly narrows

he quaniy o be disribued o each reailer ashe disribuion has o be operaed more ofen.

 When designing he archiecure o he disribu-

ion nework all hese aspecs have o be aken

ino accoun. Tis is why here are disribuion

neworks which use exclusively direc disribu-

ion or exclusively inermediae plaorms (g.

1a) or a mixure o hem(g. 1b).

Tere are as well companies specialized in disri-

 buion which develop sraegies o ows coming

rom dieren producion plans cenralizaion

up o a common plaorm rom where he disri-

 buion o reailers is going hen o be operaed

(g. 1c).

Tis evoluion was made possible hanks o heprogress o inormaics which allowed or an

l 1 ul pc [3] l pc [ x 3] c vcl p

yp vcl

d lpc  Vl


ul Vl[  

p 3]

 wy l

p l pc




i l


i w[]




 Auo châssis wih a


14,45 2,48 2,91 104 102 17 2 3

2 Auo chassis wih a

semirailer 11,9 2,48 2,91 85,9 84 14 2 3

3rack wih a

railer atached2 x 5,8 =

11,92,48 2,91

42,95 x 2= 85,9

842 x 

7=142 3


rack wihou

railer 5,95 2,48 2,91 43 42 7 2 3

5 Van

6,2 1,7 1,94 20,44 202

5 2

F. 2. u c p k l

842 ck l c

F.3. Cp c/k 423 ck 20 3 v

 A „uni o ranspor” reers o a sandard box placed on a sandard euro-palle wih a volume o 1m3 (eurobox); Te „useul volume” o a vehicle can be easily measured boh in number o unis o ranspor (euroboxes) and m3 as he volume o a eurobox is 1m3.

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inegraed managemen o he producion anddisribuion ows adaping he parameers o

a large array o he quaniaive and qualiaive

  variables ha need o be aken ino considera-

ion. «Supply Chain Managemen» echniques

help resource planning and opimizaion by re-

ducing socks and coss.

ChoiCe oF he VehiCLes

Te ranspor o goods could be made by several

  vehicles o dieren capaciies. In he able be-

low (able 1) here are he mos commonly used

 vehicles ogeher wih he number o sandard

  boxes on palles ha can be ranspored wiheach o hem.

 While choosing he righ vehicle or ranspor

 we usually ry o have a minimum uni cos by 

kilomeer. In he analysis we are going o sup-

pose ha we are working wih ligh loads and

hereore we are going o use volumes insead o 

 weighs. Moreover, i he loads are ligh we can

atach o a 42m3 ruck a 42m3 railer wihou

 biasing is racion and breaking perormances.

Using his kind o srucure, he cos by kilom-

eer will signicanly reduce as he price o he

auo chassis wih a semi-railer o 84m3 is higher

hen he one o a ruck o 42m3 wih a 42m3 rail-

er atached. Moreover, he axes in he case o an

auo chassis are much higher (almos double in

omania) han in he case o a ruck (here is no

supplemen or he railer)

However, he uni cos per kilomeer depends

on he loading rae o he ruck. I is rue ha i 

 we alk abou vehicles loaded a heir ull capac-

iy he uni cos by kilomeer will be lower i he

capaciy o he ruck is bigger. However, i he

 vehicle does no run a is ull capaciy, he unicos raises progressively (g 2).

I he quaniy o goods is large enough so as o

allow he ranspor wih big vehicles loaded a

heir ull capaciy, direc disribuion migh be

he righ choice. By conras, i he quaniies o

each reseller are no large enough he soluion

o inermediae plaorms migh be he opimal


Using inermediae plaorms, he quaniies

ha have o be ranspored up o he regional

 warehouses are larger (as i responds o he de-

mand o all reailers in he secor) and hus, can be ranspored or a racion o he disance a

lower uni coss per kilomeer by large capaciy 


By conras, he ranspor rom he regional

  warehouse o each reailer is operaed by ve-

hicles o smaller capaciy. Te choice or hese

 vehicles has o be made depending on he quan-

iy ha has o be ranspored. For insance, a

42m3 ruck can be he righ soluion, bu i i is

no loaded a is ull capaciy he uni cos per

kilomeer can be higher han he one obained

 wih a smaller vehicle (a 20 m3 van or example)

  whose loading rae would be much higher. As

 we can see in gure 3, an atenive analysis has

o be drawn.

Te issue is o deermine he limi (in number o 

euroboxes) saring rom which i is beter o use

 vans o 20m3 insead rucks o 42m3. In gure

3 we can see he variaion o he uni cos per

kilomeer depending on he loading rae o he

 vehicle or a 42m3 ruck and a van o 20m3. As

saring wih 21 ranspor uniies a second van

has o be used, he marginal cos o he 21s

uniy is very high (a single box bears he whole cos

per kilomeer o he van).

  As we can see in his graphic, or a quaniy 

smaller han 20 uniies i is cheaper o use vans

o 20m3 (he uni cos curve depending on he

loading rae o a van is laying below he one o a

ruck o 42m3). For quaniies larger han 20m3 

 we need o draw he average uni cos curve as

wo vans are used. We can see ha in his case

i is beter o use 42m3rucks, even i hey are

no loaded a heir ull capaciy insead o vans

o 20m3

(he curve o he uni cos dependingon he loading rae or a ruck o 42 m3 is laying

 below he average uni cos o wo 20m3 vans or

a quaniy equal or larger han 21 m3).

ChoiCe oF he disribuion

newor and Cos oPimisaion

Disribuion coss include boh he cos o rans-

por and he cos o warehouses managemen.

Tereore, when choosing he disribuion ne-

 work archiecure boh wo componens have o

 be aken ino accoun.

Direc disribuion usually imply ha small local

 warehouses have o be build in each ciy where

he reailers can be ound i ranspor is oper-

aed by large rucks as he ype o vehicles are

no allowed o ener he urban area. By conras,

  when choosing o build a regional inermedi-

ae plaorm small local warehouse are useless,

as ranspor rom he plaorm o each reseller

is operaed by smaller capaciy rucks which are

allowed o ener he ciy zone. Tereore, using

an inermediae plaorm migh conribue o

he reducion o he cos o disribuion i he

F. 4.1. sc p ( c pl) F. 4.2. sc p ( c c

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annual managemen cos o a regional ware-

house is lower han he sum o annual coss o 

all local warehouses in he region.

 A large par o he cos o disribuion is repre-

sened by he cos o ranspor and hus, his

componen has o be as well opimized: depend-

ing on quaniies ha have o be ranspored and

heir desinaion (which depend as well on oh-

er characerisics we have already discussed in

previous secions) he righ archiecure o he

disribuion nework has o be chosen.

Te wo componens (ransporaion cos and

 warehouse managemen cos) have o be simul-

aneously aken ino accoun so as o be able o

compare oal disribuion coss or dieren

ypes o neworks (direc, inermediae-pla-

orm or mixed) and o ake a decision.

  According o a recen sudy on a omanian

company wih a counry-wide disribuion ne-

 work and a JI producion srucure, is annual

disribuion cos may be narrowed by 23,98%

should i use a disribuion nework wih re-

gional warehouses insead o a direc one. Tis

reducion is he resul o a 16% reducion in he

cos o ranspor and 45% reducion in he cos

o annual warehouse managemen coss.

Te lower cos o ransporaion comparaively 

o direc disribuion comes rom he ac ha

he uni cos per kilomeer is signicanly lower,

as a larger racion o he oal disance is oper-

aed wih larger and more loaded o heir ull ca-

paciy rucks han in he case o direc disribu-

ion. I we look a gure 4, we can see ha in he

case o inermediae plaorms 46% o he oal

disance is operaed by 84 m3 rucks loaded a

89% o heir ull capaciy, while in he case o di-

rec disribuion only 39% o he oal disance

is operaed by 84m3 rucks loaded a only 67%

o heir ull capaciy. Moreover, he ranspor

on he residual kilomeers are beter opimized

in he case o inermediae plaorms as 46% is

operaed wih 42m3 a 95% level o loading and

he res o 13% wih vans o 20m3

 , while in heoher case he rucks o 42m3 are used a 73% o 

heir capaciy.

Te analysis o coss has been made afer rans-

por opimizaion boh in he case o direc and

inermediae plaorm. For he mehod used as

 well or all he calculaion o coss see reerence

(1). Tere are as well a grea number o specic

sofware developed or ranspor opimizaion

  which ake ino consideraion disances ha

have o be raveled and quaniies ha have o

 be ranspored in order o oer he proper dis-

ribuion archiecure. Te analysis can be madeusing managemen accouning daa rom he

pas or uure esimaes.

 As or he oher componen o he disribuion

cos, he warehouses managemen cos (g5),

having one inermediae plaorm in each region

insead o several local ones (one in each ciy o 

he region) signicanly lowered he annual cos

o warehouses managemen as is proporion in

he oal disribuion cos is only 18% in he case

o inermediae plaorms versus 25% in he case

o direc disribuion (moreoever, we have o

keep in mind ha in he presen case sudy hecos o disribuion in he case o inermediae

plaorms is lower han in he case o direc one

 which implies he 18% o he disribuion cos

in he rs case is lower han 25% o he disribu-

ion cos in he second).


  As we can see, choosing he righ archiecure

or he disribuion nework as well as using ve-

hicles wih he righ capaciy can largely conrib-

ue o he opimizaion o he resource use and

can help o gain compeiiveness on he marke.


[1] MANEA C., Variables sraégiques dans

l’emplacemen des plaeormes inermédiaires lo-

 gisiques , Bachelor’s Degree Tesisi, Economics

Sudies Buchares, 2009

[2] SEE, G., L’enrepô dans la chaîne logis-

ique d’un indusriel de grande consommaion ,

CGPC presenaion, 2002.

F. 5.1. Cp c p c p c c pl

F. 5.1. Cp c p c p c c c

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Under he circumsances o an increasing rend in

he number o vehicles, as a daily need, he aricle

aim is o evaluae and reduce he polluan emis-

sions level in urban rac. Mos dangerous eecso polluion produced by inernal combusion en-

gines are represened by he emission o harmul

gases in he amosphere. Experimenal simulaion

perormed on he roller sand LPS 3000, argeed

areas wih high congesion o vehicles, boh a peak 

and low rac imes. Te analyzed rail has a lengh

o 2km. Te CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions

  values exhaused by a BMW 535i car, equipped

 wih a spark igniion engine and powered by con-

 venional and non-convenional uels, were evalu-

aed. Te soluion o NONEUO vehicles opera-

ing wih GPL in urban rac is advanageous romhe polluan emissions poin o view.

y: noxious, rac, polluion, roller sand,

gasoline, Liqueed Peroleum Gas


Te rend o increasing he number o vehicles, as a

daily necessiy, ollows he evaluaion o he pollu-

an emissions reducion o a vehicle equipped wih

spark igniion engine [2]. On his purpose were

simulaed in he laboraory o real driving condi-

ions or he BMW E28 535i vehicle equipped

  wih spark igniion engine, running on LPG and

perol. Te sudied roue creaes he vehicles ran-

sien mode condiions, which involves idling or

unloaded, used o sar he engine (engine cold)

and waiing siuaions (rac lighs, congesion),

acceleraion, deceleraion, ec. Te ess carried on

have allowed a large experimenal daa recording,

plus hose obained by calculaion based on meas-

ured values [1]. Te experimenal invesigaions

  were perormed in he Auomoive Engineering

Laboraory o he Universiy Poliehnica o 

imisoara, and in rac. Experimenal researches

 were ocused on areas wih vehicles rac conges-

ion boh a peak hours and low period o rac.

Te sudied roue has a lengh o 2km, when he

movemen, a peak hours akes place „bumper

o bumper“. Te our rac lighs crossroads, a

roundabou (Fig. 1) and six pedesrian crossings

 wihou rac lighs on a relaively shor disance

creae high agglomeraion areas o polluion wih

obvious eecs on he environmen polluion.

he insaLLaion used For esings

In order o accomplish he experimenal model o 

simulaion or running in rac (Fig. 2) i was used

Pollutant Emissions Exhausted by a Spark Ignition Engine

Operating with Conventional and Non-conventional Fuels

Universiaea Poliehnica din imioara,Faculaea de Mecanic, Caedra .M..A..

[email protected]

 a.negoiŢesCu  a.oKr L. mihon

F. 1. T L Vc sq, F. 2. T xpl l

F. 3. Co2


F. 4. Co v

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he chassis dynamomeer LPS3000 correlaed

 wih AVL Dicom 4000 gas analyzer or polluans

measuring [3], [4].

LPS3000 allows he engine perormance esing.

Te simulaion on he dynamomeer is perormed

  wih an eddy curren braking sysem, and can

measure he Oto and Diesel engines power. Te

cooling an or cooling allows he air resisance

simulaion. For sampling exhaused emissions

 AVL Dicom 4000 gas analyzer was used rom he

laboraory. Te inrared measuring is used as he

measuremen principle or CO, HC, CO2, and

elecrochemical measuremen or NOx.

ComPaRiVe sudY oF he

eXPerimenaL resuLs obained

under he simuLaed waY 


Te evaluaion o he possibiliy o simulae on he

es sand was done by ollowing he nex seps: A 

roue deerminaion which includes a leas one

rac ligh and one wihou rac ligh crossing

(Fig. 1), pedesrian crossings wih and wihou

rac lighs; Te roue passing in order o record

he ime and rac condiions; Te roue simula-

ion on he chassis dynamomeer; Te creaion

o climae condiions similar o hose o rac in

he laboraory. Evaluaions were made on a vehicle

equipped wih BMW spark igniion engine ype

(supplied wih perol and LPG), wih he passen-

ger area wih air-condiioning uni urned o.

 When operaing on LPG vehicle i can be observed

a signican decrease in CO2

concenraion, com-

pared o perol operaing modes. Furhermore, or

an increase o he engine hermal modes, he CO2 

concenraion reducion in exhaus gases is even

more relevan, rom 30% o 10%. Te measured

  values are below he calculaed ones, he curves

 variaion showing he same o allure (Fig. 3).

  When he engines run on LPG, CO emissions

have an almos linear rend, alling below 0.2%, be-

ing signicanly lower han he engine running on

gasoline. In his siuaion he dierences beween

experimen and calculaion are very high his ime,

he calculaed values exceeding he measured ones

(Fig. 4). Te concenraion o NOx emissions is

abou 15ppm, recording a slighly increasing rend

along he roue and calculaed values are consider-

ably higher han he measured ones (Fig. 5). While

ollowing he deaul roue, he concenraion o 

HC emission presens an increasing rend rom

150ppm o over 1100ppm. I can be observedha he maximum values are recorded in he roue

zone wih several sops and sars, and a higher

speed operaion hese values are much lower.

Te measured values are above hose calculaed,

recording approaches beween hose measured

and calculaed afer he Firs gear operaion mode.

 When LPG is used as uel, HC concenraions are

comparable o hose recorded when he engine

runs on gasoline (Fig. 6).


I can be concluded ha LPG is an alernaive or

 vehicles ha are orced o be wihin he emissionsandards which became more sringen, and or

hose NONEUO (he esed car) is a necessiy.

Te LPG combusion produces up o 15-20% less


compared o gasoline engines. Modern gaso-

line engines are excellenly suiable or gas con-

  version. Te idling operaing mode is in average

around 20-30% used, he acceleraion mode 20-

25%, deceleraion around 17-20% and 30-40% he

consan speed operaing mode, bu hey largely 

depend on he vehicle echnical characerisics,

rac naure, road qualiy, uel, weaher, driver

physical and menal condiion sae, ec.By aking under consideraion he large regisered

NONEUO number o vehicles which are sill

in rac, he soluion or heir operaion on LPG

under hese condiions is advanageous in erms

o emissions, even hough here are also some dis-

advanages o using his uel ype (power loss, he

pison - rings wear or 50000-60000 km).

i all


[1] okar A., Cerceări privind ineracţiunea

dinre auomobilul echipa cu moor cu ardere

inernă şi mediu  , eza de docora, Ediura

Poliehnica imioara, 2009.

[2] Negrea V.D., Sandu V., Combaerea po-

luării mediului în ransporurile ruiere , Ediura

ehnic Bucurei, 2000

[3] *** Chassis Dynamomeer LPS3000, Sand

Operaing Insrucions and Users Manual , MAHA 

Maschinenbau Haldenwang GmbH&Co.KG,

87490 Haldenwang, Germany, 2003.

[4] *** AVL DiCom4000, User Manual version

1.01 , AVL LIS GMBH, Graz, Ausria, 1998.

F. 5. nox v

F. 6. hC v

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Te paper presens an original mehod o deermi-

ne he eciency o he gear. Te originaliy o his

mehod relies on he eliminaed ricion modulus.

Te paper is analyzing he inuence o a ew para-

meers concerning gear eciency. Tese parame-ers are: z1 - he number o eeh or he primary 

 wheel o gear; z2 - he number o eeh o he se-

condary wheel o gear; α0 - he normal pressure an-

gle on he divided circle; β - he inclinaion angle.

 Wih he relaions presened in his paper, one can

make he synhesis o he gear’s mechanisms.

y : Gear, eciency, ooh, pressure angle,



In his paper he auhors presen an original me-

hod o calculaing he eciency o he gear.

Te originaliy consiss in he way o deerminai-on o he gear’s eciency because one hasn’ used

he ricion orces o couple (his new way elimina-

es he classical mehod). One eliminaes he ne-

cessiy o deermining he ricion coeciens by 

dieren experimenal mehods as well. Te eci-

ency deermined by he new mehod is he same

like he classical eciency, namely he mechanical

eciency o he gear.

Some mechanisms work by pulses and are rans-

miting he movemen rom an elemen o anoher

 by pulses and no by ricion. Gears work pracical-

ly only by pulses. Te componen o slip or ricion

is pracically he loss. Because o his he mecha-

nical ecacy becomes pracically he mechanical

eciency o gear.

Te paper is analyzing he inuence o a ew para-

meers concerning gear eciency. Wih he relai-

ons presened in his paper, one can synhesize he

gear’s mechanisms. oday, he gears are presen

every where in he mechanical’s worl

deermining he momenarY me-

ChaniCaL eFFiCienCY 

Te calculaing relaions are he nex (1-20), (see

he g. 1-2.a):





- he moive orce (he driving orce);t F 

- he ransmited orce (he useul orce); y F  - he

slide orce (he los orce); 1v - he velociy o ele-

men 1, or he speed o wheel 1 (he driving whe-

el); 2v - he velociy o elemen 2, or he speed o 

 wheel 2 (he driven wheel); v12- he relaive speed

o he wheel 1 in relaion wih he wheel 2 (his is a

sliding speed); (see g. 2.a);


Te consumed power (in his case he driving

power) akes he orm (2). Te useul power (he

ransmited power rom he prole 1 o he pro-le 2) will be writen in he relaion (3). Te los

power will be writen in he orm (4).



Te momenary eciency o couple will be calcu-

laed direcly wih he relaion (5).


Te momenary losing coecien will be writen

in he orm (6).



One can easily see ha he sum o he momenary 

eciency and he momenary losing coecien is

1. I deermines now he geomerical elemens o 

he gear. Tese elemens will be used in synhesis

o he couple eciency, η.

he geomeriCaL eLemens

oF he gear 

 And now i can see he nex geomerical elemens

o he exernal gear (or he righ eeh, b=0): Te

radius o he basic circle o wheel 1 (o he driving

 wheel) (7); he radius o he ouside circle o wheel

1 (8); he maximum pressure angle o he gear (9).




 And one deermines he same parameers or he

 wheel 2: he radius o basic circle (10) and he ra-

dius o he ouside circle (11). We can see now he

minimum pressure angle o he exernal gear (12),

and, or he exernal gear, he minimum (12) and

he maximum (9) pressure angle or he righ e-eh. For he exernal gear wih bended eeh (b¹0)

one uses he relaions (13, 14 and 15). For he in-

ernal gear wih bended eeh (b¹0) one uses he

relaions (13 wih 16, 17-A or wih 18, 19-B).
















Determination of the Mechanical Efciency of the Gears

1Polyechnic Universiy o Buchares, [email protected]@gmail.com



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deerminaion oF he eFFiCienCY 

Te eciency o he gear will be calculaed hrou-

gh he inegraion o momenary eciency on all

secions o gearing movemen, namely rom he

minimum pressure angle o he maximum pressu-

re angle; he relaion (20).

deermining oF gearing eFFiCi-

enCY in FunCion oF he ConaC


One calculaes he eciency o a geared ransmissi-

on, having in view he ac ha a one momen here

are several couples o eeh in conac, and no jusone. Te sar model has go our pairs o eeh in

conac (4 couples) concomianly. Te rs couple

o eeh in conac has he conac poin i, dened

 by he ray ri1 , and he pressure angle a

i1; he orces

 which ac a his poin are: he moor orce Fmi , per-

pendicular o he posiion vecor ri1

a i and he or-

ce ransmited rom he wheel 1 o he wheel 2 hro-

ugh he poin i, Fi , parallel o he pah o acion and

 wih he sense rom he wheel 1 o he wheel 2, he

ransmited orce being pracically he projecion o 

he moor orce on he pah o acion; he dened

 velociies are similar o he orces (having in view he original kinemaics, or he precise kinemaics

adoped); he same parameers will be dened or

he nex hree poins o conac, j, k, l (Fig. 2.b-4).

For saring we wrie he relaions beween he ve-

lociies (21). From relaions (21), one obains he

equaliy o he angenial velociies (22), and makes

explici he moor velociies (23).






Te orces ransmited concomianly a he our

poins mus be he same (24). Te moor orces

are (25). Te momenary eciency can be writen

in he orm (26).





elaions (27) and (28) are auxiliary.

One keeps relaions (28), wih he sign plus (+) or

he gearing where he drive wheel 1 has exernal e-

eh (a he exernal or inernal gearing) and wih

he sign (-) or he gearing where he drive wheel 1,

has inernal eeh (he drive wheel is a ring, only or

he inernal gearing). Te relaion o he momena-

ry eciency (26) uses he auxiliary relaions (28)

and akes he orm (29).





In expression (29) one sars wih relaion (26)

 where our pairs are in conac concomianly, buhen one generalizes he expression, replacing he

4 (our pairs rom g. 2.b) wih E couples; repla-

cing gure 4 wih he E variable, which represens

he whole number o he conac raio +1, and afer

resricing he sums expressions, we replace he va-

riable E wih he conac raio e12, as well.

Te mechanical eciency oers more advanages

han he momenary eciency, and will be calcu-

laed approximaely, by replacing in relaion (29)

he pressure angle α1, wih he normal pressure

angle α0 he relaion aking he orm (30); whe-

re e12 represens he conac raio o he gearing,and i will be calculaed wih expression (31) or

he exernal gearing, and wih relaion (32) or he

inernal gearing.






Te bes eciency can be obained wih he inernal

gearing when he drive wheel 1 is he ring; he mi-

nimum eciency will be obained when he drive

 wheel 1 o he inernal gearing has exernal eeh. For

he exernal gearing, he bes eciency is obained

 when he bigger wheel is he drive wheel; when one

decreases he normal angle a0 , he conac raio increases

and he efciency increases as well.

F. 2. .

F. 2. .

bibLiogRFie:Perescu, .V., Perescu, F.I.,Popescu, N.,   Deermining Gear Efciency. GearSoluions magazine, 19-28, March (2007)

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Laboratory for Internal Combustion EnginesRoad Vehicles Department

University of Craiova, Faculty of Mechanics

In order o adap he educaional process

o modern sociey’s requess, all he high

educaional eniies are orced o correlae

he heoreical knowledge o day-o-day prac-

ice, hereore enabling uure graduaes o be

qualied according o he economical and so-

cial demands.

Te inernal combusion engines laborao-ry orm he oad Vehicle Deparmen o he

Faculy o Mechanics rom Craiova has bene-

ed rom an increased atenion rom he a-

culy members so ha i has received modern

equipmens wih unds obain due o research

aciviies bu also rom an excellen coopera-

ion wih various vehicle manuacurers (and

especially FOD).

Nowadays, he aciviy here concerns:

• structural and functional analysis of thermal


• the study of thermal processes that occurs in-side he engines

• determination of various functional and

srucural parameers

• the analysis of engines based on their perfor -


In he case o he deerminaion and analysis

o uncional parameers, i can be done very 

accuraely using a chassis dynamomeer.

Tis equipmen allows research sudies con-


• thermal eciency determination

• various dependencies: torque – engine speed,

power – engine speed, specic consumpion –

engine speed;

• hour fuel consumption, specic fuel con-sumpion;

• thermal working range

• various studies based on imposed conditions

I also allows:

• graphical determination of power and torque

• visual reading of speed, engine speed, oil tem-


• power engine determination according to

EEC 80/1269, ISO 1585, DIN 70020;• live data

• possible connection to gas analysis equip-


• possible connection to equipments for fuel

consumpion deerminaion

• OBD module

Tere are also hree es sands made by he

ormer “Uzina de Auomobile din Craiova”,

ha are also used or various engine deermi-

naion, bu only in he case o spark engines.

Beside hese, here are also presen several

mono and muli cylinder engines, boh spark and compression ypes, sands which were

donaed by Ford and Dacia, sand or esing

injecion pumps, or esing injecors ec.

Tere is also he possibiliy or he sudens o

use modern equipmens in order o perorm

  various analyses o he engines (Gumann

eser, Bosch KS eser and Bosch Esironic

daabase ec)

Lecurer il dumiruFaculaea de Mecanic din CraiovaDirecor Deparamen Auovehiculeuiere

F. 1. a c y x c, p


F. 3. eqp c cl cv

F. 2. spk

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University Research

Tcl xpl c p yc  c pplc; y c v

rc vlp pv cl pc  

 l ll pcl vcl. Pjc: id_705, . 696/20092011

fc pc

talon de abonamenDoresc să mă abonez la revista Auto Test pe un an

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subcripion FormI subscribe to the Auto Test magazine for one year

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Calderon Branch, Account RO38BRDE410SV18417414100(SWIFT BIC: BRDEROBU).

 a: PhD suden Eng. BOICEAN Cosmin C-inTis research projec is susained by he Secorial Operaional Humanesources Developmen 2007-2013. Te main objecive o his research iso ry o implemen in he developmen o urbochargers new way o susa-in urbochargers shafs wih addiional damping, which reach considerableroaional speeds reaching 200.000 rev/min. For he rs sage o he projechere were sudied dynamical phenomena o urbochargers roors susainedon rolling bearings wih ceramic rolling elemens and also he mehods oreduce vibraions o hese urbochargers roors using addiional dampingdevices. Also here were made comparaive ess using specialized sofwaresoluions, beween he classical urbochargers roors and he new roors whi-ch were adaped or rolling bearings. Using FEM mehods here were accom-plished series o ess which include hermal behavior, modal analysis and

also specral analysis, o he wo urbocharger roors. Te ess included alsolaboraory ess accomplished on specialized plaorms in order o ideniy henaural requencies o he wo urbochargers roors, menioned above. In heollowing i will be made mahemaical models which will oer an image o he dynamic behavior, over he classical urbocharger roors and also o heurbocharger wih rolling bearings, concluding wih a rigorous analysis o hewo urbocharger soluions and also esing he soluions. I will be preseneda mahemaical model which will be capable o analyze he dynamic behavior by modiying uncioning and consrucion parameers and also i will be pre-sened some mehods o reduce and o conrol vibraions ha could appear inhe uncioning o high speed urbochargers.Cc p:BOICEAN Cosmin C-in; Universiy ransilvania Brasov,[email protected] 

Te world energy demand is increasing rapidly due o excessive use o heuels bu because o limied reservoirs; hereore, he researchers are loo-king or alernaive uels. Biodiesel can be one o he bes alernaives. I ismade rom he oils o various ypes o oi lseed crops like sunflower, palm,cotonseed, rapeseed, soybean and peanu. Cold sar diesel engine is oneo is sensiive poins. Due o physical and chemical properies o biodie-sel ( 10, v iscosiy, Cloud poin), cold saring o he engine uelled wihpure biodiesel or diesel-biodiesel blends is dieren and more dicul.Te projec aims o develop a mehod o improve he qualiy o cold saro engines uelled wih biodiesel or vehicles wih special purposes: rans-poraion in areas wih environmenal resricions (hisoric urban ceners,naural reserves, ec.), underground (e.g. hydropower, mining), indoors(warehouses), ranspor-aion o dangerous subsances (ammable), ec.

Te proposed mehod consiss o injecing diehyl eher in diesel engineinake.Preliminary resuls:- Numerical simulaion o injeced combusible subsance processes sue-red in he inake maniold (uen cd)- Experimenal research o deermine perormance on cold sar (-20°C) o a diesel engine ueled wih dieren proporions o biodiesel anddiesel; hey were conduced wih he suppor o specialiss rom enaulechnologie oumanie; he eam provided he know-how and he equi-pmen.Cc: odica NICULESCU, Adrian CLENCI, Universiy o Piesi, Auomoive Deparmen, el: +40.348 453 166, Fax: +40.248 216 448,email: [email protected], [email protected]

C   Assoc. Ph.D., Ilie DUMIU Deparmen o AuomoiveEngineering o he Faculy o Mechanical Engineering, Universiy o Craiova.Te research eam is composed o proessors rom he Faculies o Mechanical Engineering and Auomaion and specialiss in road rac o he Urcosys Company in Craiova. Te sudies are aimed a quaniying heinerdependencies specic o cases o racking in modern roads. Te appli-caion o hese sudies was issued by regional auhoriies and covers a largenumber o modernized roads. Te research eam, based on experience and

is own logisics has developed evaluaion algorihms using dedicaed sof- ware packages have evaluaed hrough sysems oupu ypes he ollowinggroups o indicaors: rac saey, minimized duraion o ranspor, speed,ranspor egulariy; riding comor, qualiaive and quaniaive inegriy o goods, reducing coss, reducing environmenal polluion. Achieving he-se sudies will be carried ou in 2011 or various modernized roads, onceagain sresses he complexiy o ranspor and rac engineering eld.Cc p Pro. Eng Ing. DUMIUEmail [email protected]

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E very year uure graduaes have passed a -

nal exam, more demanding, more serious

and cerainly as mos “convincing” or he

examinaion: he diploma exam. No oher complex 

laboraory work, no projec o he year, in any dis-

cipline, involves so much creaive energy, ideas and

soluions, looking or a pracical realizaion in a po-

siion o prove he enire sock o knowledge accu-

mulaed during aculy. Ideas and soluions comerom solid documenaion, inercolegiale discussi-

ons and / or in consulaion wih eachers and are

applied wih grea condence in he projec. Te

goal is one: he desire o he nal oucome asses-

smen, mos ofen resuled in a prooype, wih a

pracical applicaion, wih an experimenal sand.

 A he “Poliechnica” Universiy o imisoara here

are numerous examples o projecs, wih pracical

implemenaion, resuling in he consrucion o 

 vehicles, rom original ideas or rom exising cars

and parially or compleely rebuil. Hours o sudy,

concepion and design, abricaion, assembly andesing go unnoiced and are no quanied and

no setled on any payroll, bu does no compare

 wih any oher maerial rewards ha could come

ino quesion i such “services”. Te ime devoed

o preparaion and compleion o degree, all he-

se young enhusiass “orge” or oher concerns,

orm work eams, coninuously exended working

hours and shorer breaks o see he amazing nis-

hed piece, componen, subassembly or “end” o

comparable o year colleges or group who, in urn,

is working on anoher projec or anoher achieve-

men worhy o consideraion. One such car was

execued by a eam o our enhusiasic sudens

saring rom our classic Dacia 1300, rom which

have reained only he engine and ransmission,

and oher assemblies, such as suspension, seering

and braking sysem have been adaped and mo-

died accordingly. During he six monhs requi-

red or nish his projec have made he “jalopy”

purchased a a minor cos resuling in a splendid

errain vehicle. Young people have worked oge-

her in a suden’s campus area rom imisoara.

 All have made a grea eor and have conribued

ideas and soul o his projec, as well as one suden

said. Tey changed he main geomery and whe-

elbase and rack, wih he whole arrangemen o 

he engine drive and conrol sysem, ully adaped

o he ransmission and rear racion wih a com-

pleely redesigned and changed seering sysem.

emoving body srucure o he original car gave

he bigges headaches or he design and imple-

menaion o a compleely original rame srucu-

re, he new soluion o powerrain placemen and

organizaion o he cockpi were hose requiringmore deailed sudies and more complex analy-

sis. Te braking sysem has been redesigned and

more easily adaped o a vehicle, being improved in

erms o eciency and response ime. Te seaer

driver proecion was anoher imporan elemen

in mind, bu whose realizaion is saised everyone

 who saw his vehicle. And nally, because he pro-

 jec needed o have a name, hey ound an inspired

and unny ile, i.e. “Mergedes,” o secure a long

erm working ime and wihou compensaion. No

less commendable is he iniiaive o anoher group

o sudens who waned o creae a small vehicle,

and easily adaped o an urban rac sysem. Since

he vehicle was designed or hree people places

(wo in ron and one rear, side) and “some” spa-

ce or luggage, placemen o he equipmen creae

a serious problem in he power rain soluion “all

in ron” and minimal comor respecively. Te

manuacuring o he vehicle sared rom a muli-

layer polymeric resins and ber glass monocoque

srucure, which was donaed by a local business

company. Te engine was chosen, in he rs in-

sance, on purely economic consideraions, being

  bough a wo-sroke engine wih a displacemen

o less han 600 cm3, bu clearly enough or such

a srucure and poor perormance or which i was

designed. olling elemens, conac wih soil, sus-

pension, seering and braking are required o adap

ideas and original soluions. Small size, nice and easy 

handling operaion, more popular and loved color

o he Universiy (purple) made his vehicle in a

shor ime o become “he masco” o he Faculy o 

Mechanical Engineering and is sudens. Wha ha

all hese examples wan o prove? Te ac, exerme-ly joyul, ha he spiri and desire o work among

 young people has no ceased o exis, and especially 

he desire o own somehing wih an eor o cha-

racerize he mos personal way during he suden

period. Tere is however a necessary minimum ele-

mens ha mus be provided: a minimum o space

required and equipped or such aciviies, a good

collaboraion wih eachers and qualied sa ha

are always willing o give a helping hand o carry 

ou he projecs. Wih grea joy and condence we

 welcome he iniiaive o he oubreak in an insiu-

ional ramework, o prepare a suden engineering

compeiion, which will moivae and bring o he

ore he rue creaiviy o hose who have embra-

ced wih such condence, and no only, he eld

o Auomoive Engineering. We hope o mobilize

adequae and suppor he concree and subsanial

as he major producion companies o he main sup-

pliers o auomoive producs and services. Clearly,

as I said quie ofen, personal and in various oher

occasions, Polyechnic Universiy o imisoara

hrough he Termodynamics, Termal Machines

and oad Vehicles Deparmen wans and suppors

any iniiaive in his direcion.

Creativity and enthusiasm

for student projects

Con. dr. ing.Lv mihonimisoara branchresponsible or SIA 

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