İngilizce - Gramer

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GRAMER NOTLARI

1GRAMER NOTLARI

6TENSES

61-THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (Geni Zaman)

92-THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE (MDK ZAMAN)

123-THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE (GEM ZAMAN)

134-PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE (imdiki Zamann Hikayesi )

165-PAST PERFECT TENSE

196-PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

217-THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

25PRESENT PERFECT TENSETE KULLANILAN ZEL KALIPLAR

288- THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

319- THE FUTURE PROGRESSIVE TENSE

3210- THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

3311- FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

34DER FUTURE KALIPLAR

35SPECIAL STRUCTURES

351) AS IF / AS THOUGH (SANK\ MI GB)

362) S + WOULD RATHER/WOULD SOONER + SOMEBODY + V2 = SIMPLE FUTURE

363) S + WOULD RATHER / WOULD SOONER + SOMEBODY HAD + V3= PAST

364) S + HAD + HARDLY/SCARCELY/BARELY + V3 .. WHEN + S + V2

375) S + HAD + NO SOONER + V3 THAN+ S+ V2

38GERUNDS (VING)

421-PRESENT ACTIVE GERUND

422-Present Passive

423-Farkl Zamanlardaki Active Yaplar

434-Farkl Zamanlardaki Passive Yaplar

44INFINITIVES (to+V1)

441-Subject of a Sentence: Cmlenin znesi Konumunda

442-Infinitiveler cmlede ama bildirmek iin kullanlabilirler.

443-ngilizcede sfatlardan sonra kullanlacak olan bir fiil infinitiveolmak zorundadr.

444- Too ya da enoughyaplarndan sonra to infinitivekullanlr.

455- ngilizcede nesne zamirlerinden sonra to infinitiveyaps kullanlr.

456- ngilizcede belli fiillerden sonra kullanlacak olan ikinci bir fiil infinitive olmak zorundadr.

477-ngilizcede pasif, edilgen yaplardan sonra infinitivekullanlr.

478-To be fiilinden sonra to infinitive yaps kullanlr.

479-simlerden sonra bir fiil gelecekse infinitive ile kullanlr.

4710- The first yaplarndan sonra to infinitive yaps kullanlr.

4811-something/nothing/somewhere/nowhere/anywhere gibi ifadelerden sonra to infinitive kullanlr.

48HEM GERUND HEM INFINITIVE ALAN YAPILAR

481-Baz fiiller pelerinden, herhangi bir anlam deiiklii olmakszn, hem gerund hem infinitive alrlar.

492-Baz fiiller anlam deiikliiyle birlikte gerund ya da infinitive alabilirler.

513-See, feel, hear, watch, observe, smell gibi duyulara ynelik fiillerden sonra Vingyaps kullanlyorsa bahsedilen olayn sadece bir ksmna tank olduunuz ifade edilir.

531-PRESENT ACTIVE INFINITIVE

532-PRESENT PASSIVE INFINITIVE

533-PRESENT PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE INFINITIVE

534-PRESENT PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE INFINITIVE(YOKTUR

545-PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE

546-PERFECT PASSIVE INFINITIVE

547-PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE INFINITIVE

558-PRESENT PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE INFINITIVE(YOK

56MODALS

561. PERMISSION(zin istemek)

572. REQUEST (Rica bildirme)

573. ABILITY (Yetenek)

594. OBLIGATION (Zorunluluk)

625. SUGGESTION (neri)

626. OFFERING (Teklif)

637. CERTAINLY (Kesinlik, eminlik)

658. CRITIZING (Eletiri)

669. HABITS (Alkanlklar)

6710-PREFERENCE (Tercih)

6911-LACK OF NECESSITY (Gerekli olmamak)

702. PROHIBITION (Yasaklamak)

70OTHER MODAL EXPRESSIONS (Dier Modal fadeler)

73ACTIVE PASSIVE

731- Transitive Verbs

742- Intransitive Verbs

74ACTIVE VOICE (ETKEN ATI)

74PASSIVE VOICE (EDLGEN ATI)

76MODALLARIN PASF HALLER

77Thatli ve That Clause Cmleciklerinin Pasif Yaplmas

78EDATLI FLERN PASF YAPILMASI

79STATIVE PASSIVES (DURAAN PASF)

79GET LE YAPILAN PASFLER

79CAUSATIVES (ETTRGEN ATI)

81ADJECTIVE (RELATIVE) CLAUSES

811- Defining Adjective Clauses (Tanmlayan Sfat Cmlecikleri)

86Aklanacak olan isimden sonar edat hemen gelirse insanlarda Whom, eya ve hayvanlarda which, iyelikte whose kullanlr.

872- NON-DEFINING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES (Tanmlayan Sfat Cmlecikleri)

88NON-DEFINING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES: KULLANILDIKLARI YERLER

91NUMBERS AND QUANTIFIERS WITH RELATIVE PRONOUNS

92THE SUPERLATIVE FORMS

93REDUCTION OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

97NOUN CLAUSES (SM CMLECKLER)

981) SORU KELMELERYLE NOUN CLAUSES

982) WHETHER / IF

993- THAT

100The Fact That Yaps

100REPORTED SPEECH

101TIME CHANGES- ZAMAN DEKL TABLOSU

102MODAL CHANGE

104Emir Cmleleri

105Reduction of Noun Clauses

105zel Yaplar

107ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

107A) TIME

110B) PLACE

110C- MANNER (TARZ)

111D- CAUSE-REASON

113E- PURPOSE-(AMA BLDREN BALALAR)

116F- CONTINGENCY (BEKLENT BALALARI)

118G- RESULT- (SONU BLDREN BALALARI)

121CONDITINAL CLAUSES

1211) If Clauses

123INVERTED STRUCTURES

124MIXED TYPES

127I) WISH CLAUSES

129- CONTRAST

133J- RESERVATION (UYMAZLIK)

133K) COMPARISON (KARILATIRMA YAPILARI)

134L) PROPORTION (ORAN)

136SENTENCE CONNECTORS (CMLE BALAYICILARI)

136A- CONTRAST (ZITLIK BLDREN CONNECTORLAR)

139B-RESULT (Sonu Bildiren Balayclar)

141C-SEQUNCE (DZ, SIRA, DZN)

142D- REINFORCEMENT- GLENDRC

144E- EXAMPIFICATION-RNEKLEME

146F- EXPLANATION- AIKLAMA

147G-SIMILARITY-BENZERLK

148G- EMPHASIS- Vurgulamak

149H- CONCLUSION- SONU

149I- TRANSITION

150J- EXCEPTION- STSNA

151K- GENERALIZATION- GENELLEME

152L- AND OTHERS

154CONJUNCTIONS (BALALAR)

157REDUCTION OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

159NOUNS

162UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS (saylamayan isimler)

162ABSTRACT NOUNS

163POSSESIVES- YELKLER- SAHPLKLER

164PRONOUNS- ZAMRLER

165QUANTIFIERS-BELRLEYCLER

178ARTICLES

184TAG QUESTIONS

186TOO, SO / NEITHER / NOR / EITHER

189ADJECTIVES

191COMPERATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES

192KARILATIRMA YAPILARI

195MODIFICATION OF COMPARATIVES (SIFATLARIN GLENDRLMES)

196MODIFICATION OF SUPERLATIVES

197ADVERBS- ZARFLAR

199STATIVE PASSIVES

204COMPLEX PREPOSITIONS

206DSDE IKAN BAZI ZARFLAR

210DSDE IKAN BAZI PHRASAL VERBLER

218DSDE SIKA IKAN SZCKLER

TENSES

1-THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (Geni Zaman)

S+V+O+adverb of place+adverb of time

Geni zaman gemite, u anda, gelecekte doru ve geerli olan durumlar iin kullanlr.Kullanm Yerleri:

1) Var olan bir durumu anlatr.

Tim knows Jennifer. (Tim Jennifer bilir.)

I have two sisters. (Benim iki kz kardeim var)

Her mother wears glases. (Onun annesi gzlk takar.)

2) Alkanlklar ve gnlk rutin olarak yaplan eylemleri ifade eder.Every year I go on a holiday on 15th July. (Her yl 15 Temmuzda tatile giderim.

They always go to school on food. (Onlar daima okula yayan giderler.

I get up at 6 oclock every morning. (Her sabah 6da kalkarm.)

3) Her zaman genel geerlilii ve doruluu olan bilimsel gerekleri ifade etmekte kullanlr.The earth revolves around the sun. (Gne dnya etrafnda dner.)

Coffee grows in Brazil. (Kahve Brazilyada yetiir.)

The sun rives in the east. (Gne doudan ykselir.)

4) Fikir ve dnceleri ifade ederken kullanlr.He thinks that his sister does not study for her lessons.

He think you are very clever.(Sizin ok zeki olduunuzu dnyorum.)

5) Duygular ifade etmek iin kullanIr.I dont like soop-operas. (Ben pembe dizilerden holanmyorum.)

My doughter enjoys cantoons. (Kzm izgi filmlerden holanr.)

6) Bir zaman izelgesine bal olarak gelecek zamana ait olaylar ifade etmek iin kullanlr. Bu tr cmlelere mutlaka gelecek zaman ifade eden bir zaman zarf eklenir.

The film at the Odean begins at 10:30 pm tonight.(Odeanda film akam 10:30da balayacak.)

We leave for Venice at six in the morning.(Sabah altda Venedik iin ayrlacaz.)

(bir yere gitmek iin ayrlmak,tek bana leave ayrlmak)

forcmleden karlrsa:Sabah altda Venedikten ayrlacaz.

SIKLIK ZARFLARIalways: daima

almost always: hemen hemen daima

often: sk sk

fruquently: sk sk

generally: genellikle

sometimes: bazen

occasinally: ara sra

seldom: nadiren

rarely: nadiren

hardly ever: hemen hemen hi Cmleyi olumsuz yapar.

never: asla hi

ZAMAN ZARFLARIone a day: gnde bir kez

twice a week: haftada iki kez

three times a mounth: ayda kez

several times a year: ylda birka kez

these days: bu gnlerde

every day: her gn

at weekends: hafta sonlarnda

at night: geceleri

on mondays: pazartesi gnleri

this time everyday: her gn bu zaman

all the time: her zaman

on occasion: zaman zaman

as usual: her zamanki gibi

at times: bazen

from time to time: zaman zaman

after

.when

.as soon as + S+ Simple Presnt. Tense , S + Simple Presnt.Tense

.before.until

YAN CMLE / TEMEL CMLE

After I get up, I brush my teeth.

(Kalktktan sonra dilerimi fralarm.)

When I go to stanbul, I visit the Topkap Palace.

(stanbula gittiim zaman Topkap Sarayn ziyaret ederim.)

Until my children arrive home, I do not go to bed. (ocuklarm eve gelene kadar yatmam.) Whenever I go to Ankara, I spend a lot of time.(Ne zaman Ankaraya gitsem ok zaman harcarm.)

Yan cmlede hibir zaman future tense kullanlmaz.

2-THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE (MDK ZAMAN)

S+amisare +Ving+ O+Adverb of Place+Adverb of Time Kullanm Yerleri: