İngİlİzce Derslerİ

  • Published on
    17-Nov-2014

  • View
    1.439

  • Download
    6

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<p>NGLZCE DERSLERBalang (ELEMENTARY)</p> <p>NGLZCE AHIS ZAMRLERI YOU HE SHE IT We You They Ben Sen O O O(Erkekler iin kullanlr) (Diiler iin kullanlr)</p> <p>(Canszlar ve hayvanlar iin kullanlr)</p> <p>Biz Siz Onlar</p> <p>rnekler1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I am a student. You are a teacher. He is a policeman. She is a housewife. It is a dog. We are doctors. You are politicians. They are businessmen. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Ben bir renciyim. Sen bir retmensin. O bir polistir. O bir ev hanmdr. O bir kpektir. Biz doktoruz. Siz siyasetisiniz. Onlar i adamdr.</p> <p>TO BE (am-is-are) olmak fiilinin ahslara gre kullanmI am.................... You are............... He is................... She is.................. It is..................... We are................ You are............... They are.............. Ben............................im. Sen............................sin. O (Erkek)...................dr. O (Bayan)...................dr. O (Hayvan, Eya)........dr. Biz...............................iz. Siz...........................siniz. Onlar......................drlar.</p> <p>TO BE Fiilinin Simple Present Tense -Geni Zamana Gre- ekimiAffirmative (Olumlu)Long form (Uzun ekil) I am You are He is She is It is We are You are They are Short Form (Ksa ekil) I'm You're He's She's It's We're You're They're</p> <p>Negative (Olumsuz)Long form (Uzun ekil) I am not You are not He is not She is not It is not We are not You are not They are not Short Form (Ksa ekil) I'm not You aren't He isn't She isn't It isn't We aren't You aren't They aren't</p> <p>Interrogative (Soru)Question Form (Soru ekli)</p> <p>Am I? Are You? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are you? Are they?</p> <p>To Be Fiilinin Soru ve Ksa Cevap ekilleriQuestion Soru Are you? Am I? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are they? Positive Olumlu Yes, I am. Yes, you are. Yes, he is. Yes, she is. Yes, it is. Yes, you are. Yes, they are. Negative Olumsuz No, I'm not. No, you aren't. No, he isn't. No, she isn't. No, it isn't. No, you aren't. No, they aren't.</p> <p>Examples - rnekler : 1) Are you from Istanbul? -Yes, I am.</p> <p>2) Is Jenny eleven -No, she isn't. years old? 3) Is George in the -No, he isn't. park? 4) -Are Nick and -Yes, they are. Jenny brother and sister?</p> <p>Articles (a/an/the)Trke'de karl tanmlk olan article belirli (definite), belirsiz (indefinite) olamak zere ikiye ayrlr. INDEFINITE ARTICLE - Belirsiz Tanmlk A/an belirsizlik tanmlk olarak kullanlr. kisi de ayn anlama sahiptir. Sadece saylabilir tekil (countable singular nouns) isimlerle kullanlr. Sessiz harfle balayan isimler a, sesli harfle balayanlar ise an alr.</p> <p>Examples - rnekler : a book a banana a brother a lesson a pencil an egg an actor an arm an eye an apple</p> <p>Articles (Devam) DEFINITE ARTICLE - Belirli Tanmlk Belirli bir nesneden bahsediyorsak the kullanlr. The saylabilir tekil - countable singular - ya da saylamaz uncountable - isimlerin hepsiyle kullanlr.</p> <p>Examples - rnekler : the book the table the doctor the boy the children the exercise the old people the actor the apple the orange</p> <p>Plurals of nouns - simlerin oul halleri</p> <p> Regular Plurals - Dzenli oullar ngilizce'de isimler sonuna getirilen "s" taksyla tekil halden oul hale getirilir. Ancak baz isimlerin sonundaki harflerin zelliine gre deiiklik gsterir.</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :Singular -Tekil a book - (bir) kitap a pen a pencil a boy a girl Plural-oul books -kitaplar pens pencils boys girls</p> <p>Irregular plurals - Dzensiz oullar</p> <p> ngilizce'de isimleri oul hale getirirken btn kelimelerin sonuna "s" taks gelmez. Baz kelimelerin kendine has oul ekilleri vardr. Bunlar ok az olup, ok kullanlan isimlerdir.</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :Singular - Tekil one child - bir ocuk one man - bir adam one person- birkii one tooth one foot bir di Plural - oul children - ocuklar men people teeth mice</p> <p>one woman- birkadn women</p> <p>bir ayak feet</p> <p>one mouse- bir fare</p> <p>Possessive Adjectives -yelik Sfatlar yelik sfatlar, isimlerden nce gelerek onlar nitelerler.</p> <p>my your his her its our your their</p> <p>benim senin onun (erkekler iin kullanlr) onun (diiler iin kullanlr) onun (canszlar ve hayvanlar iin) bizim sizin onlarn</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :my name your book his ball her skirt its tail our school your car their family benim adm senin kitabn onun topu onun etei onun kuyruu bizim okulumuz sizin arabanz onlarn ailesi</p> <p>Genitive apostrophe "s" - iyelik eki ngilizcede insan, hayvan, yer ve zaman isimlerine iyelik anlam vermek, bir eyin kime ait olduunu belirtmek iin kullanlr. stisnalar dnda eyalar iin kullanlmaz. Trkedeki tam karl; -n, -in,-un, -n; -nn, -nin, -nun, -nn ekleridir. Tekil isimlerde s eklinde oul isimlerde de sadece s eklinde gelir. Dzensiz oullarda (irregular plurals) da yine s olarak kullanlr.</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :Singular Formcats tail-kedinin kuyruu girls bag - kzn antas mans hat - adamn apkas childs toys-ocuun oyunca Ayes pen - Aye'nin kalemi Janes school - Jane'inokulu</p> <p>Plural Formcats tails - kedilerin kuyruklar girls bags - kzlarn antalar mens hats adamlarn apkalar childrens toys ocuklarn oyuncaklar womens room - kadnlarn odas my brothers' names kardelerimin isimleri mices hole farelerin delii</p> <p>Georges father George'nin babas</p> <p>Demonstrative - aret Sfatlar This, that, these, those Belirtme sfatlarnn Trke karlklar this=bu that=o,u demektir. Ancak, ngilizcede, iaret edilen eyin tekil veya oul olma durumuna bal olarak iaret sfatlar da tekil ve oul ekiller alr</p> <p>Demonstrative - aret Sfatlar This, that, these, those Yakn eyleri iaret ederken Tekil eyler iin THIS: this book, oul iin THESE: these books Uzak eyleri iaret ederken Tekil iin THAT: that book oul eyler iin THOSE: those books aret sfatlar , tek bana zne eklinde de kullanlr. rnek: This is a pencil. These are pencils. That is a pencil. Those are pencils</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :</p> <p>Singular this (bu)</p> <p>Plural these (bunlar) that (o,u) those (onlar,unla r)</p> <p>Examples - rnekler : Singular this book this pencil this man this lemon this child that person that cat that school Plural these books these pencils these men these lemons these children those people those cats those school</p> <p>Have Got Have Got fiili ngilizcede sahip olmak anlamn verir. ahslara gre cmledeki ekimi ise yledir; nc tekil ahslarda he, she, it has got eklini alr.</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :Affirmative (Olumlu)Long form (Uzun ekil)I have got You have got He has got She has got It has got We have got You have got They have got</p> <p>Negative (Olumsuz)Long form (Uzun ekil)I have not got</p> <p>Interrogative (Soru)Question Form (Soru ekli)Have I got? Have you got? Has he got? Has she got? Has it got? Have we got? Have you got? Have they got?</p> <p>Short Form (Ksa ekil)Ive got Youve got Hes got Shes got Its got Weve got Youve got Theyve got</p> <p>Short Form (Ksa ekil)I havent got</p> <p>You have not got You havent got He has not got She has not got It has not got We have not got He hasnt got She hasnt got It hasnt got We havent got</p> <p>You have not got You havent got They have not gotThey haventgot</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :Long Form I have got a car You have got a brother Short Form Ive got a car Youve got a brother Negative I havent got a car You havent got a brother He hasnt got a pen</p> <p>He has got a pen Hes got a pen She has got a book It has got a tail</p> <p>Shes got a book She hasnt got a book Its got a tail It hasnt got a tail</p> <p>COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS ngilizcede isimler saylabilen countable ve saylamayan - uncountableisimler diye ikiye ayrlr. Saylabilirlik ve saylamazlk kavramlar Trke ve ngilizcede farkl olarak kabul edilmektedir. Bu nedenle saylabilirlik kavramlarn Trke mantna gre dnmemek gerekir</p> <p>Countable Nouns Saylabilen simler - : Saylabilen isimler, sayma saylar ile birer birer saylp miktar daha kesin olarak ifade edilebilen isimlerdir. A ve an gibi belirleyicileri sadece saylabilir isimlerle kullanabiliriz. Birka, biraz anlamna gelen some hem saylabilen hem de saylamayan isimlerle llanlar. Saylabilen bir nesneden birden ok sayda olduunu belirtirken (two, three,four...veya some eklinde says belirtilirken) nesnenin de oul hale getirilmesi gerekir</p> <p>Examples - rnekler : Singular A lemon (Bir limon) A boy An apple An egg A dog A room Plural two lemons (ki limon) three boys four apples some eggs some dogs two rooms</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :A pen An apple two pens three apples Weve got two pens.Bizim iki kalemimiz var Youve got three apples.Senin tane elman var Hes got four books.Onun drt kitab var Shes got five children.Onun [bayan]be ocuu var. Ive got some oranges.Benim birka portakalm var.</p> <p>A book A child</p> <p>four books five children</p> <p>An orange</p> <p>some oranges</p> <p>Yukardaki rneklerde grld gibi adet olarak birden fazla sayda bir isimden sz ettiimiz iin ismi oul ekliyle belirttik. Bu kural Trkede uygulanmayan bir kural olduu iin Trke karlklarnda isim, tekil olarak gsterilmitir</p> <p>Uncountable Nouns (Saylamayan simler): ngilizcede soyut isimler, madde isimleri gibi baz isimler saylamayan isimler (uncountable nouns) olarak adlandrlr. Saylamayan isimler her zaman tekildirler ve a/an artikelleri ile kullanlmazlar ve sonlarna oul s taksn almazlar. Onun yerine some, a little, little, a lot of gibi ayrntl aklamasn ileride greceimiz miktar bildiren sfatlarla kullanlrlar.</p> <p>Examples - rnekler : milk (st) cheese (peynir) water (su) bread (ekmek) time (zaman) time (zaman) some milk-biraz st some cheese-biraz peynir some water-biraz su some bread-biraz ekmek some time-bir sre some meat-biraz et</p> <p>Prepositions (Edatlar/lgeler) ITek balarna anlamlar olmayan, ancak aralarna girdikleri szck mlecik ya da deyilerin anlamlarn kuvvetlendiren ya da belirleyen szcklerdir. eitlere ayrlrlar Prepositions of place - yer adatlar : in, on, under, next to, behind Nesnelerin yerlerini belirtmek iin yer edatlarn kullanrz. ngilizcede ok sayda yer edat vardr. Bunlardan bazlarn inceleyelim.</p> <p>Examples - rnekler : in: iinde in the box (kutunun iinde) on: stnde on the box (kutunun stnde) under: altnda under the box (kutunun altnda) next to: yannda next to the box (kutunun yannda behind: arkasnda behind the box (kutunun arkasnda)</p> <p>There is / There are Nerede neyin, ya da nerede kimin var olduunu (ya da var olmadn) anlatmaya yarayan ifade eklidir. Affirmative (Olumlu) Affirmative (Olumlu) Negative (Olumsuz) Negative (Olumsuz) Interrogative (Soru)</p> <p>Long form Singular Plural There is There are</p> <p>Short form Theres *</p> <p>Long form</p> <p>Short form</p> <p>Question form Is there ?</p> <p>There is not There isnt There are not</p> <p>There arent Are there ?</p> <p>*Thereare yapsnn olumlu eklinin ksa yazl yoktur Interrogative (Soru) Affirmative Is there ...........? Are there.........? Yes, there is. Yes there are. Short Answer (Ksa Cevap) Negative No, there isnt No, there arent</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :Affirmative Negative Question Is there a school ? Is there a woman?</p> <p>There is a school. There isnt a school. There is a woman. There are two dogs There are two trees. There isnt a woman.</p> <p>There arent two Are there two dogs. dogs? There arent two Are there two trees. trees?</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :Affirmative Sentences 1) There is a cat on the box. 2) There is a dog in the garden. 3) There is a boy behind the car. 4) There is a picture on the wall. 5) There are houses next to the park. 6) There are trees and flowers in the park. 7) There are some people behind the door. 8) There are two children next to the apartmen</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :Questions Short Answers1) Is there a cat on the box? Yes, there is. / No, there isnt. 2) Are there girls in this class? 3) Is there a dog in the garden ? 4) Is there a picture on the wall ? 5) Are there children in the room? Yes, there are. / No, there arent Yes, there is. / No, there isnt. Yes, there is. / No, there isnt. Yes, there are. / No, there arent.</p> <p>Possessive Pronouns Used as Nouns (sim Olarak Kullanlan yelik Zamirleri) nceki derslerde isimlerden nce gelerek onlar niteleyen iyelik sfatlarn (Possesive Adjectives) grmtk (5. Ders). Bu derste de iyelik sfatlar ile balantl olarak iyelik zamirlerini (Possesive Pronouns) inceleyelim. yelik zamirleri tek bana bir isim (noun) yerine kullanlabilirler. yelik sfatlar isim ile birlikte kullanlrken, iyelik zamirleri tek balarna hem iyelik sfatnn hem de ismin yerini tutarlar</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :Possessive Adjectives (yelik Sfatlar) my your his her its our your their (benim) (senin) (onun -erkek-) (onun -dii-) (onun) (bizim) (sizin) (onlarn) Possessive Pronouns (yelik Zamirleri) mine yours his hers*</p> <p>(benimki) (seninki) (onunki -erkek-) (onunki -dii-)</p> <p>ours yours theirs</p> <p>(bizimki) (sizinki) (onlarnki)</p> <p>* I "iy liks tn iy likz m i o r kk r l y k r " ts e fa n e a ir laa a o tu.</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :Possesive Adjective + Noun1) This is my book. (Bubenimkitabmdr.)</p> <p>=</p> <p>Possesive PronounThis book is mine. : (Bu kitap benimki dir.) This is mine. Bu benimki dir.)</p> <p>2) These are my books. These books are mine. : These are mine (Bunlar benim kitabmdr.) (Bu kitaplar benim [kiler] dir. (Bunlar benim [kiler] dir. 3) This is your pencil. (Buseninkalemindir.) (Busizinkaleminizdir This pencil is yours. : (Bu kalem seninki dir senindir-.) This is yours. (Bu seninki dir - sizinkidir- .)</p> <p>4) These are his children. These children are his. : These are his. (Bunlar onun ocuklardr.) (Bu ocuklar onun [kiler] dir (Bunlar onun [kiler] dir. 5) That is her skirt. (uonuneteidir.) 6) Those are our bags. (unlarbizimantamzdr. 7) These are their pictures. (Bunlaronlarn.resimleridir.) That skirt is hers. : (u etek onunki dir.) Those bags are ours. (u antalar bizim[kiler]dir-.) These pictures are theirs. (Bu resimler onlarn [kiler] dir. That is hers. (u onunki dir.) Those are ours. unlarlar bizim[kiler]dir-.) These are theirs. Bunlar onlarn [kiler] dir</p> <p>Adjectivesa) Position of Adjectives ngilizcede sfatlar iki ekilde kullanlrlar. a) simlerden nce: A red apple; Big, blue eyes b) Bir fiilden sonra: This man is fat. Ahmet is good.</p> <p>AdjectivesExamples (rnekler):</p> <p>1) 2) 3) 4) 5)</p> <p>a a a a a</p> <p>thick book thin girl short boy big orange tall man</p> <p>This book is little.. These bags are small.. The house is old.. Your father is young.. The children are happy..</p> <p>Adjectivesb) Nationality Adjectives (Milliyet Sfatlar) Country (lke ) America Egypt England France Germany Greece Italy Spain Turkey Adjective / Language (Sfat Hali / Dil ) American Egyptian English French German Greek Italian Spanish Turkish</p> <p>Examples - rnekler :1) A Spanish girl 2) Two American ladies 3) A Turkish man 4) The Turkish language 5) The German language Mehmet is Turkish. Carlo is Italian. Dimitris is Greek. Kate is English. Hermut is German.</p> <p>Not: ngilizcede lke, dil ve milliyet sfatlar byk harfle yazlr.</p> <p>The Simple Present Tense (Geni Zaman) I</p> <p>Her zaman yaptmz ileri, alkanlk, gelenek, grenek ve olaylar anlatmakta kullandmz Geni Zaman ( The Simple Present Tense)'da ahslar iki gruba ayrlr</p> <p>The Simple Present Tense (Geni Zaman) I1. Grub I : Ben "Birinci tekil ahs" You : Sen "kinci tekil ahs"- Siz "kinci oul ahslar" We : Biz "Birinci oul ahslar" They : Onlar "nc oul ahslar" 2. Grub (3...</p>