INFSY540 Information Resources in Management

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INFSY540 Information Resources in Management. Lesson 6 Chapter 5 Database Management. Portfolio and Ecommerce HTML Assignment. Assignment is on course web space at http://www.courses.psu.edu/infsy/infsy540/rak13/HTML_Portfolio.html Part of the assignment is to do research on ecommerce. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>INFSY540Information Resources in ManagementLesson 6</p><p>Chapter 5Database Management</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Portfolio and Ecommerce HTML AssignmentAssignment is on course web space at http://www.courses.psu.edu/infsy/infsy540/rak13/HTML_Portfolio.htmlPart of the assignment is to do research on ecommerce.The first version of your portfolio.html page and subsequent sections of your site must be posted by the October 31st class. The final site must be online by November 28. There are individual and team activities that need to take place between these times.</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Case 2: Cisco Systems ArchitectureWhats this case about?When did Cisco go public?What does Cisco stand for?What is Ciscos mission?</p><p>IT Interaction Modelhttp://equity.stern.nyu.edu/~msilver/mbacore/itimhdo.htm</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Learning ObjectivesKnow the difference between a database and a spreadsheet.Identify the objects available in a relational database and their purpose.Know the difference between a query and a filter.Identify typical problems that occur with MS Access and other personal vice enterprise databases. </p><p>Slide *</p><p>Shared DataPoorly organized data prevents sharing that data with other databasesThink of all the databases that lists your name, department, etc.:Messiah College Phone List DatabaseStudents Using College Networked ComputersStudents Using Dining FacilityStudents Using Nursing Facility</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Database Management SystemComputer program designed to help a user store and retrieve dataAccess, Oracle, DB2</p><p>Slide *</p><p>DBMSabcd 1234defg 12asd 123kghb 112abcd 1234defg 12asd 123kghb 112abcd 1234 123asd 123 12kghb 112 34abcd 1234defg 12asd 123kghb 112tablesformsqueryabcd 1234defg 12asd 123kghb 112abcd 1234 123asd 123 12kghb 112 34reportslabelsDataDictionaryOutside ApplicationsDBMSEngineattachedimport</p></li><li><p>The Traditional versus the Database Approach to Data Management</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Fig 5.3</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Problems with the Traditional ApproachData redundancyProgram-data dependenceInflexibility</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Fig 5.4</p></li><li><p>Data Modeling &amp; Database Models</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Data Design IssuesContent: What data should be collected?Access: What data should be given to what users?Logical structure: How will the data be organized to make sense to a particular user?Physical organization: Where will the data actually be located?</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Data ModelingLogical designPhysical designPlanned data redundancyData model</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Data ModelsHierarchical modelsNetwork modelsRelational models</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Fig 5.6</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Fig 5.7</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Fig 5.8</p><p>Slide *</p><p>OperationsSelect rowsProject columnsJoin tables</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Fig 5.9</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Object-Relational Database Management SystemsStores objectsHypertextHypermediaSpatial data technology</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Database Management Systems (DBMSs)Provide a user viewProvide tools to create &amp; modify the databaseStore &amp; retrieve dataManipulate dataProduce reports</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Selecting a DBMSNumber of concurrent users Database sizePerformanceIntegrationFeaturesVendorCost</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Database DevelopmentsData warehousesData martsData miningOnline analytical processing (OLAP)</p><p>Slide *</p><p>What Is a Database?Database: Table:</p><p>Record: </p><p>Field: </p><p>Slide *</p><p>What Is a Database?Database: a collection of dataTable: the primary element for collecting data, organized into rows and columnsRecord: an individual entry in a table (row)Field: a piece of data in a record (column)</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Access97: A Database ExampleField (column)Record (row)Table</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Access Database ObjectsTable:</p><p>Query:</p><p>Form:</p><p>Report: </p><p>Macro/Module:</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Access Database ObjectsTable: Used to store and manipulate data.Query: Used to retrieve information.Form: Used to view one record of data.Report: Used to present, calculate, summarize, and print table data.Macro/Module: Used to automate frequently performed procedures.</p><p>Slide *</p><p>The database window is the command center; it provides the means to create, view, and edit database objects, such as tables, forms, and reports.Control iconObject tabsProcessing or Command Buttons</p><p>Slide *</p><p>What is the difference between a database and a spreadsheet?</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Excel SpreadsheetUse Microsoft Excel to analyze financial and statistical data.</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Cost Per Month</p><p>VideosMusic CDsTotal</p><p>Susie422567</p><p>Jacob383674</p><p>Total8061141</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Access DatabaseUse Microsoft Access to create, maintain, and summarize very large quantities of data.</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Why do databases in spreadsheets?Because we canWe use 1 or 2 massive tablesLots of tables make the database complexDiscomfort with databases and multiple tablesBecause we think its simpleSkip organizing the data into relational tablesGo straight to designing formsNAME POSITIONSPOUSECHILDRENPHONEJonesChiefGloria,Karen3274SmithClerkBetty3241JonesChiefMary Glorai, Karen3296</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Data Redundancy ProblemsRedundancy breeds errorsSame data defined in multiple places is BADSpelling/typographical error proneLack of data integrityInability to perform simple queriesInflexibility and inscalabilityImpossible to MAINTAIN!</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Relational DatabasePROJECTCHIEFProject Project ChiefComputing 333-22-1111Intranet 987-65-4321Contracting 123-45-6789Jordan 333-22-1111DEPARTMENTSDeptDept. DirectorRoomEngr181-94-5676B115Math987-65-4321123M&amp;B123-45-6789147EMPLOYEESLNameFNameSSN DeptJonesMike123-45-6789 M&amp;BSmithTony987-65-4321 MathLeeBruce 567-89-1234 EngrrDoodleYankee333-22-1111 M&amp;B11</p><p>Slide *</p><p>ExampleEmployeeSSNL NameF NameRankSpouseChildrenOffice Phone#Home Phone#Office Room#Dept Dept. ChiefEmpProjProject NameEmployee SSN Function</p><p>Must know all constraints on dataproject name is uniqueonly one chief per projectemployees can have more than one phone#employees can have only one officemany employees can use the same office</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Just a ReminderA table is a single object within a databaseA database can have other objects such as queries, forms, reports, macros, and programming modulesHowever, at least one table object must be created before you can create any other type of object</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Database Design TemplatesCHOOSE: File, New Database or CLICK: New Database buttonDesignTemplates</p><p>Slide *</p><p>How Do I Create a Table?Using Datasheet View (Usually used for entering data into records)Using the Table Wizard (Usually used for creating tables)Using Design View (Usually used for creating tables and editing fields)Sample Table in Datasheet View</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Using the Table WizardPick fields from existing business and personal table structures</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Using Design ViewSpecify field names, data types, and indexes from scratchDefine fields and data typesDefine field propertiesNote: Fields are shown in rows in the design view, not in columns.</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Field Data TypesTextMemoNumberDate/TimeCurrencyAutonumberYes/NoOLE ObjectHyperlinkLookup Wizard</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Field PropertiesField SizeFormatDecimal PlacesInput MaskCaptionDefault ValueValidation RuleValidation TextRequiredAllow Zero LengthIndexed</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Primary Keys (Are extremely important in databases.)Primary key is a field that uniquely identifies each record in a tableData is automatically displayed in the datasheet sorted by the primary key.There are 3 types of primary keys: AutoNumber, Single-Field, and MultiField.You can use Access AutoNumber as a primary key (since it is unique) but it is not a good idea.CHOOSE: Edit, Primary Key or CLICK: Primary Key button</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Primary KeysA primary key is one or more data fields (columns) that uniquely identify each record in the tableWhat would the primary key be below?table of employees, assigned to a department.EMPLOYEESLNameFNameSSNDeptJonesMike123-45-6789MathSmithTony987-65-4321 M&amp;BLeeBruce 567-89-1234Science</p><p>Slide *</p><p>IndexesLike Primary Key, can be used to determine the order in which data is displayedCLICK: Indexes buttonPrimary KeyIndex DefinitionIndexes can slow down data entry. Access automatically creates indexes for fields with ID in their names. </p><p>Slide *</p><p>Access Uses Automatic Saving CLICK: a cell using the mouse pointerMake changes to the cells information.SELECT: another record to save the changesCHOOSE: Edit, Undo from the menu if you want to reverse the most recent changesNote: This is a very important difference between Access and other Office 2000 products..</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Customizing Datasheet ViewRemember: formatting changes are not saved automatically. Only structural and data changes are saved automatically.</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Adjusting Column WidthsDRAG: the column border between the field names at the top of the window DOUBLE-CLICK: the column border to have Access calculate the best-width Column Borders</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Adjusting Row HeightsDRAG: the border between rows to change all row heights in the datasheetRow Borders</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Reordering FieldsSELECT: the entire field columnDRAG: field name to move the columnTo save the Datasheet view: CLICK: Save button</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Sorting RecordsAllows you to better organize and present data; makes information out of raw data (alphabetical phone listing)SELECT: column or field to sort CLICK: Sort Ascending button CLICK: Sort Descending button</p><p>Slide *</p><p>FiltersLets you limit the display of records in a table using a simple matching criterionMethods for filtering data: Filter For Input Filter By Selection Filter Excluding Selection Filter By Form Advanced Filter/Sort</p><p>Slide *</p><p>What Is a Query?A query is a question you ask of your databaseHow many customers live in Chicago?What is the average age of our employees?There are two types of queriesSelect queries let you retrieve informationAction queries let you modify information</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Queries versus FiltersAlthough similar to filters, queries provide additional functionality:you can display data from multiple tablesyou can control which fields displayyou can perform calculations on field valuesWhile filters are temporary, queries are saved as independent database objects</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Query Design WindowA graphical query-by-example tool.Displays tableson which youvechosen to baseyour queryDisplays the gridthat you use to specify your criteriaand sorting options</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Query Grid AreaField: used to add a field to the gridTable: used to clarify the fields tableSort: used to sort the resulting tableShow: used to hide or show the fieldCriteria: used to set the query criteriaOr: used to specify a second criterion</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Specifying a Search CriteriaEnter an example of value you are searching for in the Criteria rowUse the question mark (?) wildcard to represent a single unknown characterUse the asterisk (*) wildcard to represent more than one characterUse operators (, =) to limit records between a range of values or dates</p><p>Slide *</p><p>Examples of Search CriteriaLike Sm?th returns records with Smyth and SmithLike Ch*ng returns records with Chang and ChickeringBetween 21 And 65 returns records with values from 21 to 65</p></li></ul>

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