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INFORMATION ABOUT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS/PROJECT DIRECTORS(PI/PD) and co-PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS/co-PROJECT DIRECTORS Submit only ONE copy of this form for each PI/PD and co-PI/PD identified on the proposal. The form(s) should be attached to the original proposal as specified in GPG Section II.B. Submission of this information is voluntary and is not a precondition of award. This information will not be disclosed to external peer reviewers. DO NOT INCLUDE THIS FORM WITH ANY OF THE OTHER COPIES OF YOUR PROPOSAL AS THIS MAY COMPROMISE THE CONFIDENTIALITY OF THE INFORMATION. PI/PD Name: Gender: Male Female Ethnicity: (Choose one response) Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino Race: (Select one or more) American Indian or Alaska Native Asian Black or African American Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander White Disability Status: (Select one or more) Hearing Impairment Visual Impairment Mobility/Orthopedic Impairment Other None Citizenship: (Choose one) U.S. Citizen Permanent Resident Other non-U.S. Citizen Check here if you do not wish to provide any or all of the above information (excluding PI/PD name): REQUIRED: Check here if you are currently serving (or have previously served) as a PI, co-PI or PD on any federally funded project Ethnicity Definition: Hispanic or Latino. A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. Race Definitions: American Indian or Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. WHY THIS INFORMATION IS BEING REQUESTED: The Federal Government has a continuing commitment to monitor the operation of its review and award processes to identify and address any inequities based on gender, race, ethnicity, or disability of its proposed PIs/PDs. To gather information needed for this important task, the proposer should submit a single copy of this form for each identified PI/PD with each proposal. Submission of the requested information is voluntary and will not affect the organization’s eligibility for an award. However, information not submitted will seriously undermine the statistical validity, and therefore the usefulness, of information recieved from others. Any individual not wishing to submit some or all the information should check the box provided for this purpose. (The exceptions are the PI/PD name and the information about prior Federal support, the last question above.) Collection of this information is authorized by the NSF Act of 1950, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 1861, et seq. Demographic data allows NSF to gauge whether our programs and other opportunities in science and technology are fairly reaching and benefiting everyone regardless of demographic category; to ensure that those in under-represented groups have the same knowledge of and access to programs and other research and educational oppurtunities; and to assess involvement of international investigators in work supported by NSF. The information may be disclosed to government contractors, experts, volunteers and researchers to complete assigned work; and to other government agencies in order to coordinate and assess programs. The information may be added to the Reviewer file and used to select potential candidates to serve as peer reviewers or advisory committee members. See Systems of Records, NSF-50, "Principal Investigator/Proposal File and Associated Records", 63 Federal Register 267 (January 5, 1998), and NSF-51, "Reviewer/Proposal File and Associated Records", 63 Federal Register 268 (January 5, 1998). NSF Form 1225(10/99) Albert R Young

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  • INFORMATION ABOUT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS/PROJECT DIRECTORS(PI/PD) andco-PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS/co-PROJECT DIRECTORS

    Submit only ONE copy of this form for each PI/PD and co-PI/PD identified on the proposal. The form(s) should be attached to the originalproposal as specified in GPG Section II.B. Submission of this information is voluntary and is not a precondition of award. This information willnot be disclosed to external peer reviewers. DO NOT INCLUDE THIS FORM WITH ANY OF THE OTHER COPIES OF YOUR PROPOSAL ASTHIS MAY COMPROMISE THE CONFIDENTIALITY OF THE INFORMATION.

    PI/PD Name:

    Gender: Male Female

    Ethnicity: (Choose one response) Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino

    Race: (Select one or more)

    American Indian or Alaska Native

    Asian

    Black or African American

    Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander

    White

    Disability Status: (Select one or more)

    Hearing Impairment

    Visual Impairment

    Mobility/Orthopedic Impairment

    Other

    None

    Citizenship: (Choose one) U.S. Citizen Permanent Resident Other non-U.S. Citizen

    Check here if you do not wish to provide any or all of the above information (excluding PI/PD name):

    REQUIRED: Check here if you are currently serving (or have previously served) as a PI, co-PI or PD on any federally fundedproject

    Ethnicity Definition:Hispanic or Latino. A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardlessof race.Race Definitions:American Indian or Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa,or other Pacific Islands.White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

    WHY THIS INFORMATION IS BEING REQUESTED:

    The Federal Government has a continuing commitment to monitor the operation of its review and award processes to identify and addressany inequities based on gender, race, ethnicity, or disability of its proposed PIs/PDs. To gather information needed for this importanttask, the proposer should submit a single copy of this form for each identified PI/PD with each proposal. Submission of the requestedinformation is voluntary and will not affect the organizations eligibility for an award. However, information not submitted will seriously underminethe statistical validity, and therefore the usefulness, of information recieved from others. Any individual not wishing to submit some or all theinformation should check the box provided for this purpose. (The exceptions are the PI/PD name and the information about prior Federal support, thelast question above.)

    Collection of this information is authorized by the NSF Act of 1950, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 1861, et seq. Demographic data allows NSF togauge whether our programs and other opportunities in science and technology are fairly reaching and benefiting everyone regardless ofdemographic category; to ensure that those in under-represented groups have the same knowledge of and access to programs and otherresearch and educational oppurtunities; and to assess involvement of international investigators in work supported by NSF. The informationmay be disclosed to government contractors, experts, volunteers and researchers to complete assigned work; and to other governmentagencies in order to coordinate and assess programs. The information may be added to the Reviewer file and used to select potentialcandidates to serve as peer reviewers or advisory committee members. See Systems of Records, NSF-50, "Principal Investigator/ProposalFile and Associated Records", 63 Federal Register 267 (January 5, 1998), and NSF-51, "Reviewer/Proposal File and Associated Records",63 Federal Register 268 (January 5, 1998).

    NSF Form 1225(10/99)

    Albert R Young

  • INFORMATION ABOUT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS/PROJECT DIRECTORS(PI/PD) andco-PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS/co-PROJECT DIRECTORS

    Submit only ONE copy of this form for each PI/PD and co-PI/PD identified on the proposal. The form(s) should be attached to the originalproposal as specified in GPG Section II.B. Submission of this information is voluntary and is not a precondition of award. This information willnot be disclosed to external peer reviewers. DO NOT INCLUDE THIS FORM WITH ANY OF THE OTHER COPIES OF YOUR PROPOSAL ASTHIS MAY COMPROMISE THE CONFIDENTIALITY OF THE INFORMATION.

    PI/PD Name:

    Gender: Male Female

    Ethnicity: (Choose one response) Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino

    Race: (Select one or more)

    American Indian or Alaska Native

    Asian

    Black or African American

    Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander

    White

    Disability Status: (Select one or more)

    Hearing Impairment

    Visual Impairment

    Mobility/Orthopedic Impairment

    Other

    None

    Citizenship: (Choose one) U.S. Citizen Permanent Resident Other non-U.S. Citizen

    Check here if you do not wish to provide any or all of the above information (excluding PI/PD name):

    REQUIRED: Check here if you are currently serving (or have previously served) as a PI, co-PI or PD on any federally fundedproject

    Ethnicity Definition:Hispanic or Latino. A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardlessof race.Race Definitions:American Indian or Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa,or other Pacific Islands.White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

    WHY THIS INFORMATION IS BEING REQUESTED:

    The Federal Government has a continuing commitment to monitor the operation of its review and award processes to identify and addressany inequities based on gender, race, ethnicity, or disability of its proposed PIs/PDs. To gather information needed for this importanttask, the proposer should submit a single copy of this form for each identified PI/PD with each proposal. Submission of the requestedinformation is voluntary and will not affect the organizations eligibility for an award. However, information not submitted will seriously underminethe statistical validity, and therefore the usefulness, of information recieved from others. Any individual not wishing to submit some or all theinformation should check the box provided for this purpose. (The exceptions are the PI/PD name and the information about prior Federal support, thelast question above.)

    Collection of this information is authorized by the NSF Act of 1950, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 1861, et seq. Demographic data allows NSF togauge whether our programs and other opportunities in science and technology are fairly reaching and benefiting everyone regardless ofdemographic category; to ensure that those in under-represented groups have the same knowledge of and access to programs and otherresearch and educational oppurtunities; and to assess involvement of international investigators in work supported by NSF. The informationmay be disclosed to government contractors, experts, volunteers and researchers to complete assigned work; and to other governmentagencies in order to coordinate and assess programs. The information may be added to the Reviewer file and used to select potentialcandidates to serve as peer reviewers or advisory committee members. See Systems of Records, NSF-50, "Principal Investigator/ProposalFile and Associated Records", 63 Federal Register 267 (January 5, 1998), and NSF-51, "Reviewer/Proposal File and Associated Records",63 Federal Register 268 (January 5, 1998).

    NSF Form 1225(10/99)

    Charles W Mayo

  • INFORMATION ABOUT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS/PROJECT DIRECTORS(PI/PD) andco-PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS/co-PROJECT DIRECTORS

    Submit only ONE copy of this form for each PI/PD and co-PI/PD identified on the proposal. The form(s) should be attached to the originalproposal as specified in GPG Section II.B. Submission of this information is voluntary and is not a precondition of award. This information willnot be disclosed to external peer reviewers. DO NOT INCLUDE THIS FORM WITH ANY OF THE OTHER COPIES OF YOUR PROPOSAL ASTHIS MAY COMPROMISE THE CONFIDENTIALITY OF THE INFORMATION.

    PI/PD Name:

    Gender: Male Female

    Ethnicity: (Choose one response) Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino

    Race: (Select one or more)

    American Indian or Alaska Native

    Asian

    Black or African American

    Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander

    White

    Disability Status: (Select one or more)

    Hearing Impairment

    Visual Impairment

    Mobility/Orthopedic Impairment

    Other

    None

    Citizenship: (Choose one) U.S. Citizen Permanent Resident Other non-U.S. Citizen

    Check here if you do not wish to provide any or all of the above information (excluding PI/PD name):

    REQUIRED: Check here if you are currently serving (or have previously served) as a PI, co-PI or PD on any federally fundedproject

    Ethnicity Definition:Hispanic or Latino. A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardlessof race.Race Definitions:American Indian or Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa,or other Pacific Islands.White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

    WHY THIS INFORMATION IS BEING REQUESTED:

    The Federal Government has a continuing commitment to monitor the operation of its review and award processes to identify and addressany inequities based on gender, race, ethnicity, or disability of its proposed PIs/PDs. To gather information needed for this importanttask, the proposer should submit a single copy of this form for each identified PI/PD with each proposal. Submission of the requestedinformation is voluntary and will not affect the organizations eligibility for an award. However, information not submitted will seriously underminethe statistical validity, and therefore the usefulness, of information recieved from others. Any individual not wishing to submit some or all theinformation should check the box provided for this purpose. (The exceptions are the PI/PD name and the information about prior Federal support, thelast question above.)

    Collection of this information is authorized by the NSF Act of 1950, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 1861, et seq. Demographic data allows NSF togauge whether our programs and other opportunities in science and technology are fairly reaching and benefiting everyone regardless ofdemographic category; to ensure that those in under-represented groups have the same knowledge of and access to programs and otherresearch and educational oppurtunities; and to assess involvement of international investigators in work supported by NSF. The informationmay be disclosed to government contractors, experts, volunteers and researchers to complete assigned work; and to other governmentagencies in order to coordinate and assess programs. The information may be added to the Reviewer file and used to select potentialcandidates to serve as peer reviewers or advisory committee members. See Systems of Records, NSF-50, "Principal Investigator/ProposalFile and Associated Records", 63 Federal Register 267 (January 5, 1998), and NSF-51, "Reviewer/Proposal File and Associated Records",63 Federal Register 268 (January 5, 1998).

    NSF Form 1225(10/99)

    Bernard W Wehring

  • COVER SHEET FOR PROPOSAL TO THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONFOR NSF USE ONLY

    NSF PROPOSAL NUMBER

    DATE RECEIVED NUMBER OF COPIES DIVISION ASSIGNED FUND CODE DUNS# (Data Universal Numbering System) FILE LOCATION

    FOR CONSIDERATION BY NSF ORGANIZATION UNIT(S) (Indicate the most specific unit known, i.e. program, division, etc.)

    PROGRAM ANNOUNCEMENT/SOLICITATION NO./CLOSING DATE/if not in response to a program announcement/solicitation enter NSF 01-2

    EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (EIN) ORTAXPAYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (TIN)

    SHOW PREVIOUS AWARD NO. IF THIS ISA RENEWALAN ACCOMPLISHMENT-BASED RENEWAL

    IS THIS PROPOSAL BEING SUBMITTED TO ANOTHER FEDERALAGENCY? YES NO IF YES, LIST ACRONYMS(S)

    NAME OF ORGANIZATION TO WHICH AWARD SHOULD BE MADE ADDRESS OF AWARDEE ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING 9 DIGIT ZIP CODE

    AWARDEE ORGANIZATION CODE (IF KNOWN)

    IS AWARDEE ORGANIZATION (Check All That Apply)(See GPG II.C For Definitions) FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATION SMALL BUSINESS MINORITY BUSINESS WOMAN-OWNED BUSINESS

    NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION, IF DIFFERENT FROM ABOVE ADDRESS OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION, IF DIFFERENT, INCLUDING 9 DIGIT ZIP CODE

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE (IF KNOWN)

    TITLE OF PROPOSED PROJECT

    REQUESTED AMOUNT

    $

    PROPOSED DURATION (1-60 MONTHS)

    months

    REQUESTED STARTING DATE SHOW RELATED PREPROPOSAL NO.,IF APPLICABLE

    CHECK APPROPRIATE BOX(ES) IF THIS PROPOSAL INCLUDES ANY OF THE ITEMS LISTED BELOWBEGINNING INVESTIGATOR (GPG I.A)

    DISCLOSURE OF LOBBYING ACTIVITIES (GPG II.C)

    PROPRIETARY & PRIVILEGED INFORMATION (GPG I.B, II.C.6)

    NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (GPG II.C.9)

    HISTORIC PLACES (GPG II.C.9)

    SMALL GRANT FOR EXPLOR. RESEARCH (SGER) (GPG II.C.11)

    VERTEBRATE ANIMALS (GPG II.C.11) IACUC App. Date

    HUMAN SUBJECTS (GPG II.C.11)Exemption Subsection or IRB App. Date

    INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES: COUNTRY/COUNTRIES INVOLVED

    HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS/OTHER GRAPHICS WHERE EXACT COLORREPRESENTATION IS REQUIRED FOR PROPER INTERPRETATION (GPG I.E.1)

    PI/PD DEPARTMENT PI/PD POSTAL ADDRESS

    PI/PD FAX NUMBER

    NAMES (TYPED) High Degree Yr of Degree Telephone Number Electronic Mail Address

    PI/PD NAME

    CO-PI/PD

    CO-PI/PD

    CO-PI/PD

    CO-PI/PD

    NSF Form 1207 (10/00) Page 1 of 2

    PHY - LOW ENERGY NUCLEAR SCIENCE

    NSF 00-105 09/27/00

    9807133566000756

    North Carolina State University

    0029728000

    Sponsored Programs ServicesLower Level Leazar Hall - C.B. 7514Raleigh, NC. 276957514

    A Measurement of the Neutron Beta-Asymmetry Using Ultra-Cold Neutrons Produced in a Superthermal Solid Deuterium Source

    608,841 36 01/01/01

    Physics Department

    919-515-6538

    104 Cox HallNC State UniversityRaleigh, NC 27695United States

    Albert R Young Ph.D 1990 919-515-3124 [email protected]

    Charles W Mayo PhD 1974 919-515-4600 [email protected]

    Bernard W Wehring PhD 1966 919-515-4599 [email protected]

    042092122

  • CERTIFICATION PAGE

    Certification for Principal Investigators and Co-Principal Investigators:I certify to the best of my knowledge that: (1) the statements herein (excluding scientific hypotheses and scientific opinions) are true and complete, and(2) the text and graphics herein as well as any accompanying publications or other documents, unless otherwise indicated, are the original work of thesignatories or individuals working under their supervision. I agree to accept responsibility for the scientific conduct of the project and to provide therequired progress reports if an award is made as a result of this proposal. I understand that the willful provision of false information or concealing a material fact in this proposal or any other communication submitted to NSF is acriminal offense (U.S.Code, Title 18, Section 1001).

    Name (Typed) Signature Social Security No.* Date

    PI/PD

    Co-PI/PD

    Co-PI/PD

    Co-PI/PD

    Co-PI/PD

    Certification for Authorized Organizational Representative or Individual Applicant:By signing and submitting this proposal, the individual applicant or the authorized official of the applicant institution is: (1) certifying thatstatements made herein are true and complete to the best of his/her knowledge; and (2) agreeing to accept the obligation to comply with NSFaward terms and conditions if an award is made as a result of this application. Further, the applicant is hereby providing certificationsregarding debarment and suspension, drug-free workplace, and lobbying activities (see below), as set forth in GrantProposal Guide (GPG), NSF 01-2. Willful provision of false information in this application and its supporting documents or in reports requiredunder an ensuring award is a criminal offense (U. S. Code, Title 18, Section 1001). In addition, if the applicant institution employs more than fifty persons, the authorized official of the applicant institution is certifying that the institution has implemented a written and enforced conflict of interest policy that is consistent with the provisions of Grant Policy Manual Section 510; that to the bestof his/her knowledge, all financial disclosures required by that conflict of interest policy have been made; and that all identified conflicts of interest will havebeen satisfactorily managed, reduced or eliminated prior to the institutions expenditure of any funds under the award, in accordance with theinstitutions conflict of interest policy. Conflict which cannot be satisfactorily managed, reduced or eliminated must be disclosed to NSF.

    Debarment Certification (If answer "yes", please provide explanation.)Is the organization or its principals presently debarred, suspended, proposed for debarment, declared ineligible, or voluntarily excluded from covered transactions by any Federal department or agency? Yes No

    Certification Regarding LobbyingThis certification is required for an award of a Federal contract, grant, or cooperative agreement exceeding $100,000 and for an award of a Federal loan ora commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan exceeding $150,000.

    Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans and Cooperative AgreementsThe undersigned certifies, to the best of his or her knowledge and belief, that:

    (1) No federal appropriated funds have been paid or will be paid, by or on behalf of the undersigned, to any person for influencing or attempting to influencean officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connectionwith the awarding of any federal contract, the making of any Federal grant, the making of any Federal loan, the entering into of any cooperative agreement,and the extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of any Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.

    (2) If any funds other than Federal appropriated funds have been paid or will be paid to any person for influencing or attempting to influence an officer oremployee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with thisFederal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement, the undersigned shall complete and submit Standard Form-LLL, Disclosure Form to ReportLobbying, in accordance with its instructions.

    (3) The undersigned shall require that the language of this certification be included in the award documents for all subawards at all tiers includingsubcontracts, subgrants, and contracts under grants, loans, and cooperative agreements and that all subrecipients shall certify and disclose accordingly.

    This certification is a material representation of fact upon which reliance was placed when this transaction was made or entered into. Submission of thiscertification is a prerequisite for making or entering into this transaction imposed by section 1352, title 31, U.S. Code. Any person who fails to file therequired certification shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such failure.

    AUTHORIZED ORGANIZATIONAL REPRESENTATIVE SIGNATURE DATE

    NAME/TITLE (TYPED)

    TELEPHONE NUMBER ELECTRONIC MAIL ADDRESS FAX NUMBER

    *SUBMISSION OF SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS IS VOLUNTARY AND WILL NOT AFFECT THE ORGANIZATIONS ELIGIBILITY FOR AN AWARD. HOWEVER, THEY ARE ANINTEGRAL PART OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM AND ASSIST IN PROCESSING THE PROPOSAL. SSN SOLICITED UNDER NSF ACT OF 1950, AS AMENDED.

    Page 2 of 2

    Albert R YoungS

    SN

    s are confid

    ential

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    are not d

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    *ON

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    Charles W Mayo

    Bernard W Wehring

    10/04/00

  • SECTION A PROJECT SUMMARY

    The researchers have submitted a renewal proposal for a program in low energy nuclear physics fo-cusing on a measurement of the -asymmetry in neutron decay, utilizing ultra-cold neutrons (UCNs). The-asymmetry is the angular correlation between the spin of the neutron and the emission direction of theelectron following -decay . Measurements of this kind provide fundamental data on the charged weakcurrent form factors of the nucleon. The goal of the proposed experiment is to make use of ultracold neu-trons (UCNs) to ultimately provide at least an order of magnitude improvement in the precision to whichthe -asymmetry is known. Such a measurement, when coupled with the ongoing Harvard-lead effort toimprove measurements of the neutron lifetime (through the use of UCNs produced in a superfluid He su-perthermal source), will provide improved values for the weak axial form factor of the nucleon, gA, and theCKM matrix element, Vud , as well as providing a sensitive tests for various extensions to the electroweakstandard model.

    During the past funding period, the researchers contributed to the development of the first superthermalsolid deuterium source of UCNs coupled to a spallation target. Our prototype device was implemented us-ing the 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). In June of 2000, weproduced the highest density of UCNs ever reported (98

    5 UCN/cm3 in a 3.6 liter stainless steel bottle).

    During the next funding period, one of the primary goals of this effort is to construct a production sourceof UCNs on a dedicated beamline at LANSCE. The proposed source will be a world-class facility, wherea series measurements of neutron -decay and the fundamental properties of the neutron (such as limits onthe neutron static electric dipole moment) can be conducted. The existence of superthermal sources withone or two orders of magnitude greater flux makes possible the development of new applications for UCNsin condensed matter physics as well. Possible directions to explore are quasi-elastic scattering of UCNs asdiagnostics to monitor the dynamics of biological molecules or reflectrometry with UCNs to characterizenano-scale fabrication on small samples.

    The contribution of the NCState group to the completion of the -asymmetry measurement will involvethe construction, characterization, and installation of a polarizer/spin-flipper for the UCNs, measurementsof the efficiency for polarizing and flipping the spins of UCNs, measurements of the depolarization whichoccur in the guide tubes which direct the UCN to the decay volume, and the development and charac-terization of detectors necessary to measure the flux of emitted electrons following -decay . As the-asymmetry measurement matures, we also hope to explore new methods for proton detection that mightbe suitable for measurements of neutron -decay which are complimentary to the -asymmetry .

    In addition to their impact on fundamental physics issues, our proposed experiments should provideexcellent training for NCState students. Our experimental program contains an exceptionally diverse col-lection of nuclear and atomic experimental techniques, all at a scale where a PhD student can make ahuge difference to the course of the research. Furthermore, the addition of nuclear engineering facultyand students to this effort provides an opportunity for cross-disciplinary cooperation, strengthening thequality of our experimental effort and exposing our students to new opportunities for research and futureemployment.

    1

  • TABLE OF CONTENTSFor font size and page formatting specifications, see GPG section II.C.

    Section Total No. of Page No.*Pages in Section (Optional)*

    Cover Sheet (NSF Form 1207) (Submit Page 2 with original proposal only)

    A Project Summary (not to exceed 1 page)

    B Table of Contents (NSF Form 1359)

    C Project Description (plus Results from PriorNSF Support) (not to exceed 15 pages) (Exceed only if allowed by aspecific program announcement/solicitation or if approved inadvance by the appropriate NSF Assistant Director or designee)

    D References Cited

    E Biographical Sketches (Not to exceed 2 pages each)

    F Budget (NSF Form 1030, plus up to 3 pages of budget justification)

    G Current and Pending Support (NSF Form 1239)

    H Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources (NSF Form 1363)

    I Special Information/Supplementary Documentation

    J Appendix (List below. )(Include only if allowed by a specific program announcement/solicitation or if approved in advance by the appropriate NSFAssistant Director or designee)

    Appendix Items:

    *Proposers may select any numbering mechanism for the proposal. The entire proposal however, must be paginated.Complete both columns only if the proposal is numbered consecutively.

    NSF Form 1359 (10/99)

    1

    1

    15

    5

    6

    10

    3

    1

    0

  • SECTION C PROJECT DESCRIPTION

    Contents

    1 Introduction 1

    2 Overview of the UCN Beta-asymmetry Measurement 3

    3 Rate and Sensitivity Estimates 53.1 The Physics of a Solid Deuterium Superthermal Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.2 A Production Source of UCN at LANSCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    4 Systematic Uncertainties 74.1 Neutron Polarization and the RF Spin-Flippers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84.2 Depolarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94.3 Neutron Polarimetry and Depolarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    5 Detector Development 11

    6 Schedule 13

    7 Previously Supported Research 13

    1 Introduction

    The primary thrust of our proposal is the completion of an experiment, began in 1998, to measure the-asymmetry in the decay of polarized ultra-cold neutrons (UCNs). During the past proposal period, ourcollaboration as a whole has developed the worlds highest density UCN source, performed measurementsto test and calibrate our Monte Carlo simulations of UCN transport, initiated a quantitative investigation ofUCN depolarization, built a calibration facility to characterize our detector systems and engineered a UCNpolarizer/AFP unit in collaboration with American Magnetics Corporation. Our group has also completedan independent investigation of optically-pumped alkali metal vapors in high density, low temperatureHe-filled cells. In this proposal, we first focus on the critical projects which must be completed to beginactually taking data in our proposed measurement of the -asymmetry in neutron decay using UCNs. Inthe detector development section we also indicate one or two possible new directions we hope to move asthe -asymmetry experiment becomes operational. We first review our motivation for a measurement ofthe -asymmetry using UCNs.

    The angular distribution for emission following neutron -decay is proportional to 1 P vc Acos,where P is the polarization of the decaying parent nucleus, v is the speed of the particle, is the anglethe emitted particle makes with respect to the parent nucleis spin, and A is the -asymmetry . Takentogether with measurements of the muon lifetime, the neutron lifetime, and the masses of the muon, elec-tron, neutron and proton, the -asymmetry can be used to independently extract fundamental parametersin the charged weak current interaction of the nucleon at low Q2: the axial vector form factor of the nu-cleon, gA, and the CKM matrix element Vud . At present, the most precise value for Vud is derived fromsuper-allowed 0 0 decays, however, these studies are now limited by difficulties in the theoreticaltreatment of multi-nucleon systems[1], suggesting the use of a theoretically more tractable case such asthe neutron.

    In fact, impressive progress has already been made towards improved measurements of the neutron life-time using UCNs produced in a superthermal superfluid He source[2]. Our first goal for the -asymmetry

    1

  • is to improve the uncertainty in the -asymmetry of the neutron by a factor of 2 to 4 (to below 0.3%),an important step in establishing neutron decay as the definitive process from which to experimentallyderive the value of Vud . Ultimately, we hope to improve the precision of the -asymmetry by at least anorder of magnitude, and to make significant improvements to the neutron lifetime, neutrino asymmetry,electron-neutrino angular correlation, and time-reversal (T) invariance measurements in neutron -decay .

    Figure 1: Recent values of Vud derived from mea-surements of the neutron and from 0 0 decays

    From an experimental perspective there hasbeen some work towards clarifying the uncertain-ties in the analysis of the 0

    0 decays. Forexample, there has been improvement in the mea-sured decay rate of 10C to the 0 level in 10B at 1.74MeV[3], with the most recent value for the Berkeleyexperiment in agreement with previous measure-ments performed at Chalk River[4]. There are alsomeasurements, for the first time, of superallowed0 0 decays in 74Rb[5]. The overall picture hasnot changed significantly, however, with the uncer-tainty in the extracted value of Vud limited by the-oretical uncertainties in the treatment of these de-cays. It is worth noting that the most recent, andprecise, measurement of the neutron -asymmetryfrom the PERKEO II experiment yields a value ofVud 0 9713 0 0014, with uncertainties compara-ble to the value of obtained from the superallowed0 0 decays, of Vud 0 9740 0 0010. Thevalue of Vud taken from either measurement yields a unitarity sum, V 2ud V 2us V 2ub, which is smaller thanone, with the latest neutron result over two standard deviations low (see Fig. 1)[6].

    In fact, deviations of the CKM unitarity sum from one is a sensitive test for physics beyond the standardmodel. For example, Langacker and Sanker pointed out that this sum places rigorous constraints (primar-ily on the mixing angle) in minimal left-right symmetric models[13]. Ramsey-Musolf has noted that theunitarity sum also places constraints on certain classes of R-parity violating supersymmetric models, andfor these models, it is also the case that atomic parity violation measurements provide complimentaryconstraints on the same physics[14]. In addition to the unitarity sum, neutron -asymmetry measurementscan provide direct constraints on left-right symmetric models which are comparable to the current limitsextracted from high energy probes[15], and the energy dependence of the -asymmetry can be used to pro-vide limits on second-class currents (as was done with 19Ne)[16]. Finally, measurements of T invariancein neutron -decay provide very useful and, for some extensions of the electroweak standard model, themost stringent limits for T and CP violation in hadronic systems[17].

    Since the seminal PERKEO experiment, the -asymmetry , together with the lifetime, has providedthe most precise value for gA and Vud from neutron -decay [7]. There have been three measurementsof the -asymmetry since the PERKEO experiment has been performed (see table I), and the situation isfar from satisfactory. Each of these experiments is roughly at the 1% level, but the agreement betweenthese experiments is poor. The resulting combined limit, taken from the Particle Data Group, is alsoonly at the 1% level, reflecting a possible underestimate of the relevant systematic uncertainties in thesemeasurements[18]. Because all of the previous neutron -asymmetry measurements were performed usingcold neutron beams at reactor facilities (with relatively high backgrounds), we believe there is an excitingopportunity to pursue a measurement of the -asymmetry using UCNs produced at a spallation source.

    UCNs are neutrons whose speeds are smaller than about 8 m/s, making it possible to store them inmaterial bottles. There are at least two advantages associated with the use of UCNs produced at a spallationsource to measure the -asymmetry : UCNs can be produced with essentially 100 percent polarization,

    2

  • and the detection backgrounds are very small.Because the energy associated with the neutron spin (Emag B) can be made much greater than the

    UCN kinetic energy, UCNs can be polarized by passing the neutrons through a strong solenoidal magenticfield. One of the spin states is repelled from the strong field region, and lacks sufficient kinetic energyto overcome the magnetic potential barrier, whereas the other passes through the magnetic field regionunhindered. Although the UCN may subsequently depolarize through some interaction with the walls, wehave performed measurements that already place an upper limit on the average depolarization experiencedby the UCN of about 0.15%. The fraction of UCN which are have depolarized will be measured inany case (see subsections 4.1 through 4.3 for more details). Perhaps equally important, the experimentalenvironment of our spallation source of UCNs is quite different from a reactor guide hall. We plan tobriefly direct the proton beam onto our spallation source once every 10 seconds. Data can be taken withthe proton beam off, reducing the backgrounds by at least an order of magnitude from those encounteredin the reactor experiments.

    Date Measurement -asymmetry1988 PERKEO I (ILL)[7] 0 1146 0 00191991 Gatchina[8] 0 1116 0 00141995 ILL-TPC[9] 0 1160 0 00151997 PERKEO II (ILL)[10] ! 0 " 1189 # 0 " 00121997 Gatchina[11] $ 0 % 1149 & 0 % 00142000 PERKEO II (ILL)[12] ' 0 ( 1189 ) 0 ( 0008

    Table 1: Recent Measurements of the neutron -asymmetry

    One of the accomplishments of our col-laboration in the past few years was theconstruction of a prototype source of UCNswhich utilizes the superthermal productiontechnique in solid deuterium. The results ofthis project are exciting: we have recentlyproduced the highest density of trappedUCNs to date: 98 * 5 UCN/cm3 in a 3.[20].This should be compared with the previousrecord of 41 UCN/cm3 measured at the In-stitut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble[21].The densities produced in our prototype source were essentially still limited only by beam current (wewere limited by administrative caps placed on the beam current we could direct at our target), with onlya suggestion of heating of the solid deuterium even at the higher beam currents than those we plan to usein our production source. Ultimately, a high flux, superthermal source of UCNs opens, in addition to ourproposed program of research on neutron beta-decay, possible applications in nanoscale fabrication andbio-physics.

    We have assembled a collaboration of over 30 researchers from 11 institutions (A. Young and T.Bowles, co-spokesmen). The collaboration includes NSF-funded university teams at NCState University,Caltech and Virginia Tech, as well as a substantial DOE-funded team at Los Alamos and groups at ILL, thePetersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute (PNPI), and several groups in Japan (see the Section DReferencesCited for a tabulation of the collaboration members). The experiment as a whole recieved the highestrecommendations directed towards any new research project in medium-energy physics, by a review panelof the National Science Advisory Council convened in 1998. We have also passed, in late April of 2000,a technical review necessary for the release of funds to begin construction of our production source at theLos Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), and have identified an appropriate proton beam line andexperimental hall to perform our measurement.

    2 Overview of the UCN Beta-asymmetry Measurement

    The proposed measurement should be performed at a spallation target on a dedicated proton beam lineat LANSCE. The experimental strategy will be similar, in many respects, to the 19Ne -asymmetry ex-periment recently conducted at Princeton[22] (see Fig. 2): essentially 100 percent polarized UCNs areintroduced to a UCN bottle arranged along the axis of a 1.0 T, solenoidal magnetic field. The inner wallsof this UCN bottle are roughened near their ends, which causes the UCNs to diffuse slowly out of the de-

    3

  • Polarizer /+

    Instrument

    Li-doped Epoxy6

    To UCN Flux and/orPolarization Monitor

    Diamond Film

    Decay VolumePlastic Scintillator

    Light Guides(to PMTs)

    MWPC

    To UCN Sourcep,

    J-

    Emitted Betas SpiralAlong Magnetic Field Lines

    Roughened Surface

    AFP

    e. -

    Solenoid Magnet (1.0 T)

    Figure 2: Schematic diagram of an apparatus to measure the -asymmetry of the neutron using UCNs

    cay volume with an average residence time of roughly 5 seconds[19]. UCNs which undergo -decay emitelectrons which spiral parallel or antiparallel to the solenoid field, and are ultimately counted in detectorarrays situated beyond the ends of the UCN bottle. After leaving the decay volume, the UCNs are eitherdetected in polarimeters arranged at the ends of the solenoid, or are captured on 6Li-doped epoxy walls.

    As mentioned in the Introduction, UCNs are polarized simply by passing them through a 7T solenoidalmagnetic field. This population of polarized spins can be flipped using an adiabatic fast passage (AFP)geometry permitting the experiment to measure the decays of UCNs polarized parallel or anti-parallel tothe holding field in the decay volume. The measurement itself is accomplished by measuring decay rateswith the neutron spin oriented first parallel and then anti-parallel to the magnetic field axis and then byforming ratios of the detector responses to extract the -asymmetry .

    The North Carolina State University group is composed of A. R. Young (PI), C. Mayo, B. Wehring,postdoctoral fellow D. Smith, Chen-Yu Liu and Seth Hoedl (Princeton graduate students, one of whomhas elected to continue and obtain her PhD working on this project) and S. Wang (an NCSU nuclear en-gineering graduate student). In fact, D. Smith has just taken a post at SLAC, making necessary a newhire to fill his position. This group will be assist in the development of the production source of UCN atLANSCE, primarily by providing engineering expertise in the design of the spallation target and associ-ated moderation of the fast neutron flux, as well as investigation of the physics of the UCN converter. Ourresponsibilities also include the development of the polarizer/AFP spin-flipper, measurements of depolar-ization of UCN on material surfaces, detector development work (quantitative studies of backscatter fromdetector surfaces and the investigation of proton detector geometries) and simulation/analysis of the ex-perimental results. Our expertise is particularly well-suited to the evaluation and control of the systematicuncertainties characteristic of -asymmetry measurements and nuclear engineering design questions. Oneof the explicit suggestions by the technical review panel was, More essentially full time staff are neededin leadership positions and at the postdoctoral level. At present we plan, for the next two to three yearsonly, to expand our UCN effort to include two postdoctoral fellows and one more student.

    Our collaboration has been very active as a whole. In addition to our source development activities

    4

  • (lead by the team at Los Alamos), the Caltech group has developed a calibration facility for our beta de-tectors and has redesigned the decay spectrometer from our original design to utilize a superconductingsolenoid. The details associated with the design of the spectrometer solenoid are essentially established,and the overall cost is within our original guidelines. The Virginia Tech group has developed a hydro-gen free diamond-like film that is very promising for limiting depolarization and the UCN losses due toupscatter, absorption and transmission through the coating.

    3 Rate and Sensitivity Estimates

    For our experiment coupled closely to a solid deuterium source, the projected decay rate in our bottle isabout 118 Hz. This estimate is the result of detailed modeling of our source, the guides passing throughour polarizer/AFP spin-flipper unit, and the decay spectrometer. [19] Incorporating the sensitivity factorsdiscussed in section 4 (and using the experience of the previous 19Ne and neutron -asymmetry experi-ments) we expect to require about 2 / 2 0 108 decays to reach a statistical uncertainty of 1 / 8 0 10 1 3 in theasymmetry. We can reach this with 30 good days of running, after accounting for our expected detectionefficiency and a fiducial volume cut. Using our collaborations previous experience with the LANSCEfacility as a guide, this will require roughly 40 days of beam time. Because we plan to have a dedicatedbeamline operating continuously for roughly nine months out of the year, this goal seems consistent withavailable beam time. Indeed, our current plan is consistent with a continually improving limit over thecourse of 1 - 2 years, ultimately producing statistical uncertainties below the 1 0 10 1 3 level. We expectthat systematic uncertainties, in part stemming from uncertainties in detector response, will ultimatelylimit the precision of the proposed measurement.

    These projected decay rates are derived from a very conservative strategy. Our Monte Carlo projec-tions for the production source are based entirely on the performance we have already achieved with ourprototype source, with no major modifications to the design of the spallation target or fast/thermal neutronmoderation strategy. In fact, we believe there are several avenues that one might pursue to improve on ourcurrent design.

    3.1 The Physics of a Solid Deuterium Superthermal Source

    We have made significant progress in the past funding period in understanding the physics of a superther-mal SD2 source. A schematic of our prototype source is depicted in Fig. 3A. This work is detailed in thesection on the Results from Prior NSF Support, so only a brief outline will be presented here, to introduceavenues of investigation during the next funding period. One Princeton student in our group, C.-Y. Liu, iswriting her Ph.D. thesis on the the physics of our superthermal source. She should finish this work at theend of the second year of our renewal period.

    The physics of UCN production in a SD2 source were first discussed by Golub and Boning[23] in 1983.The basic production mechanism is dominated by downscattering cold neutrons through the creation ofa phonon which carries off almost all of the energy of the scattered neutron. For SD2 at 5 K, Golubswork provides quite accurate predictions for the production. Once the UCNs are produced, however, theymust escape from the solid deuterium in order to be useful. Our work in the past two years has providedinsight into the various mechanisms which eliminate UCNs after they are produced in the SD2 converter.In addition to the previously recognized mechanisms of nuclear absorption in the deuterium (or hydrogencontamination) and upscatter, UCNs can upscatter through collisions with para-deuterium in the SD2 ma-trix (SD2 is a molecular solid). This results in an essentially temperature independent loss mechanism forthe UCN which is roughly two orders of magnitude more rapid than nuclear absorption.[24] We developedan experimental approach which allowed us to control and precisely measure the para-deuterium concen-tration, permitting us to quantitatively explore its effect on UCN lifetimes (see the section on PreviouslySupported Research for more details).

    5

  • SD2

    Pump

    35 literstorage volume

    Input valve Exit valve

    Top

    3.3 m

    1 m 9.5 m (not to scale)

    UCNout

    protons in

    100

    200

    300

    400

    20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160elapsed time (s)

    Storage Volume Filling

    UCN/cm

    3

    L2

    iquid N2

    B3

    e reflector

    S4

    olid D2

    75

    7 K poly

    T6

    ungsten

    V7

    acuum chamber

    58N8

    i coated stainless guide

    S9

    hielding

    U:

    CND;

    etector

    C vc ? P @ Acos. Thus our task is to determine vc , A P B and cos to sufficient precision foreach observed decay. From this information, the -asymmetry , A, can be extracted.

    Our strategy adopts various elements from the many previous measurements of the -asymmetry of theneutron and 19Ne. We observe the neutron decays in a strong magnetic field, which serves to provide 4collection efficiency for the emitted electrons (because they are forced to spiral along the field lines until

    7

  • they strike a detector face, see Fig. 2). Another advantage is that this geometry yields a precisely definedaverage value, C cos D =0.5 for the measured decays (this geometry factor requires a small correctionfrom Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental response, see subsection 4.2).

    The -asymmetry is then determined by the ratio of the signals measured in each detector, with theneutron spin first parallel and then anti-parallel to the magnetic field axis:

    R E N1 F N2 GN1 H N2 IKJ (1)

    where N1 I is the number of events recorded which first strike the left-hand detector (detector 1) with theneutron spin pointing parallel to the magnetic field ( L ), etc... Ignoring, at present, the contributions to thecount rate due to backgrounds, the asymmetry is given by:

    A M 1NP O N cos OQP vc R

    SR T 1UR V 1 W (2)

    The advantage of this formulation is that this ratio eliminates the detector efficiency differences betweenthe two detectors and fluctuations in the neutron density to first order (to levels well below 0.1% ).

    The remaining systematic uncertainties can be broadly divided into three categories: those concerningknowledge of the A) neutron polarization and neutron spin dependent effects, B) electron detection, andC) backgrounds. The backgrounds have been measured using a coincidence scheme, and should be a fewpercent of the full count rate. These backgrounds, producing signal-to-background ratios similar to thoseencountered in our measurement of the 19Ne -asymmetry and an order of magnitude smaller than thoseencountered in reactor experiments, are at acceptable levels for the proposed measurement. Thus in whatfollows, we discuss aspects of categories A) and B).

    4.1 Neutron Polarization and the RF Spin-Flippers

    As mentioned previously, the method utilized to polarize UCNs is straightforward and should be extremelyeffective. The efficiency of polarization depends only on the maximum velocity of the UCN incident onthe high field region and the maximum field strength in the polarizer region. We have simulated our sourcegeometry to ensure that effectively all UCN leaving our source storage volume have velocities at or belowthe cutoff velocity for 58Ni, ensuring 100 percent polarization after traversing the 7 T field.[19]

    In order to determine the spin-dependence of the decay rate, we must be able to flip the direction of theneutron spins. We can accomplish this in two separate ways (1) reverse the direction of the holding field,(2) flip the UCN spins externally using an AFP spin flipper. There are significant advantages to having twoseparate spin-flip techniques, since this permits us to separately investigate systematics associated with thealignment of the magnetic field and systematics associated with the operation of the rf resonators. TheAFP geometry, moreover, gives us the capability of more rapidly reversing the spins, improving our abilityto isolate effects associated with the time-variability of backgrounds.

    The AFP procedure involves passing the UCN through a magnetic field region where the longitudinalfield, Ho, is very gradually decreasing, with a field of 1 T at the center of the AFP volume. An r.f. field,H1, is generated within this volume which rotates in the plane orthogonal to Ho at the spin precessionfrequency of the neutron ( X 1 W 9 Y 108 rad/sec) in a 1 T field. Abragam[26] provides an upper limit forthe depolarization during an AFP procedure, which we can use to place a criterion on the fields in ourgeometry. If we wish to ensure that less than 0.1 percent depolarization occurs then:

    PP Z

    v [ HoH21

    \ 10 ] 3 ^ (3)where we have assumed that we begin with 100 percent polarized neutrons, and _ 1 ` 9 a 108 rad/sec b T.Given speeds of our UCNs no greater than 7 m/s and a maximum gradient of about .0067 T/m, this places

    8

  • a lower limit on the magnitude of H1 of 5 G. We note that this criterion is in practice quite stringent. Inanother AFP geometry that the Princeton nuclear/atomic group helped assemble and test to flip the spinsof 3He atoms, this criterion yields an upper limit on the depolarization about 1 order of magnitude larger(P c P d 10 e 2), but the depolarization has been measured for this case to be smaller than 0.1 percent[27].The excellent performance of this much less exacting geometry gives us a measure of confidence that ourcarefully tailored field geometry will provide us with our target polarization and spin flip efficiencies.

    We plan to use a high-pass, bird-cage resonator, similar to those employed on medical MRI imaginginstruments to produce our r.f. fields[28]. These resonant devices produce very homogeneous fields, andcan be coupled to the r.f. to produce rotating fields to make more efficient use of the available r.f. power.A 16 conductor birdcage gives excellent r.f. field uniformity over about 70 percent of its inner volume,which is more than adequate for our application[29]. We constructed an 8 conductor resonator whichcould accomodate a 6 cm beam pipe, similar to the proposed geometry, and inserted this resonator intoa cylindrical conducting shield. It was determined that the required field strengths can be achieved withreasonable r.f. power and that the r.f. fields decay very rapidly outside of the resonator, falling roughly anorder of magnitude every 8 cm one moves away from the resonators edge.

    The engineering for the static magnetic fields is now complete for the Polarizer/AFP spin-flipper, andconstruction has started with our industrial partner in this project, American Magnetics, Inc. We antici-pate delivery of the completed magnet unit in February or March of 2001 to NCState, where we will mapthe static magnetic fields within the UCN guide-tube volume using an NMR, FID magnetometer (thesemeasurements are similar to those required to establish field homogeniety in the 19Ne -asymmetry mea-surement). We will also construct, tune and map the fields of a resonator, and then ship the magnet on toLos Alamos for polarization/depolarization tests during the summer of 2001. This device and polarizationand spin-flipping efficiency studies will be the primary responsbility of a postdoctoral fellow and graduatestudent team during the next year of development work.

    4.2 Depolarization

    Although we have considered a large variety of depolarization processes, we have not yet found such aprocess which will result in significant depolarization for our planned geometry. In particular, depolariza-tion due to magnetic field inhomogenieties[26] and depolarization due to wall collisions in the presence ofmagnetic field gradients[30] should both produce depolarization smaller than 1 f 10 e 4 for our geometry(we have actually tailored the fields along the path of the UCN through our experiment to ensure this isthe case). These processes are discussed in great detail in our technical review document[19].

    Another possibility is for the UCN to depolarize due to some spin-dependent interaction with thewall materials. A large effort in our collaboration is dedicated to assessing the magnitude of materialdepolarization and to producing spin-preserving coatings. To this end we are developing a hydrogen-free diamond film coating utilizing laser ablation deposition (the primary responsibility of the VirginiaTech group). These coatings have been shown to have characteristic cutoff velocities of about 7 m/s,corresponding to a material potential of about 260 neV, are chemically inert, electrical insulators (noconduction electrons) and have essentially no nuclear or electronic spins in the consituent nuclei to coupleto the neutron spin and cause depolarization.[31]

    We expect the relaxation time for UCNs in our diamond film-coated neutron bottle to be much longerthan roughly 104 seconds, our worst-case estimate of the relaxation time for a wall covered with a thickcoating of some paramagnetic species[32]. Since the residency time in our decay bottle is only 5 seconds,this results in depolarized UCN fractions less than 0.05%. At present, our experimental studies of depo-larization at ILL provide limits for amorphous carbon and copper which are consistent with an averagedepolarization less than about 0.15% (see the section on Previously Supported Research), which shouldbe adequate for our first proposed measurement. Since we view these measurements as only establishingupper limits for depolarization, and we expect our diamond films to be superior to these materials, and we

    9

  • plan to monitor the fraction of UCN which are depolarized, we feel this experimental challenge is underreasonable control.

    4.3 Neutron Polarimetry and Depolarization

    Although we expect the absolute polarization for UCN in our decay volume to be above 99.9%, one of themost notable features of this experiment is our ability to measure deviations from 100% neutron polariza-tion better than 1 part in 103. We can accomplish this in several different ways. The most straightforwardmethod is to close the ends of our bottle and directly measure the depolarized fraction which accumulatesas a function of time. A depolarization probability per bounce of only 2 g 10 h 6 (resulting in depolarizationfractions of less than .04% in our -asymmetry measurement) yields about 80 depolarized UCNs after 15seconds of storage (using a UCN holding time of 30 seconds in the closed bottle). Measuring these 80UCNs over a characteristic time of about 20 seconds yields a signal-to-background ratio of at least 20to 1 in our UCN detectors, and provides adequate sensitivity in a single, roughly 1 minute measurement.We plan to install pneumatic valves at the ends of our holding bottle and in the entrance guide which willpermit us to perform these measurements (see Fig. 4) at regular intervals during our runs. Because we planto measure the depolarized fraction of UCN, even a crude upper limit should be sufficient. We estimatethat systematic uncertainties, stemming primarily from our ability to reliably model this geometry, shouldlimit the overall precision of a measurements of the depolarized flux to about 20%, which is more thanadequate for our first experimental determination of the -asymmetry .

    Polarizer

    AFP

    TTo UCN Source

    3

    UCN detectorSwitcher

    To UCN source

    1

    Si

    2

    Valve

    Valve

    Vj alveValve

    Figure 4: A possible method for measurement of thefraction of depolarized UCNs: Step 1, close valves 1and 2; Step 2, introduce UCNs and then close valve3; Step 3, wait for 15 seconds and then open valve3, directing right spin UCNs to the detector; Step4, turn on AFP and count depolarized UCNs

    To perform a direct test of the polarizer and AFPspin-flipper working together, one can attempt tomeasure the transmitted fraction of UCNs through acrossed detector-analyzer configuration. For ex-ample, one might pass the UCNs through the po-larizer and AFP/spin-flipper unit, and then directthem, with a switcher valve, either to a He3 UCNdetector before a second analyzer magnet or to adetector located after a second analyzer magnet.The ratio of the signal obtained with UCNs flow-ing through the analyzer magnet (when no UCNs atall should be observed if there is no depolarization)to the primary flux measured before the analyzeryields a measure of the polarization efficiency forthe polarizer/AFP spin-flipper unit. Experiments ofthis kind can be performed either with our sourceor at ILL, and will be quite sensitive to unpolar-ized/depolarized UCNs. For example, in either ge-ometry we should be able to pass more than 20,000UCN/sec through our standard 8 cm diameter guidetubes into such an experiment, so after a few seconds adequate limits should be obtained.

    One of the highest priorities of our experimental effort is to quickly develop a simple test geometry,using our prototype source, to evaulate the depolarization rates in diamond film-coated guides and measurethe efficiency of our polarizer/spin-flipper. We can perform these studies using a geometry similar to thatin Fig. 4, with a guide tube placed beyond valve 3 instead of the decay volume. To this end, the necessaryUCN switcher valves are now being fabricated at Los Alamos, a second large bore 7 T analyzer magnetis already available, the diamond-coated guides should be produced this winter at Virginia Tech, and thepolarizer unit should be operational when proton beam is available at LANSCE in June of 2001.

    Finally, when we actually measure the -asymmetry , it should be possible to essentially pulse the

    10

  • UCNs entering the experiment by admitting them for roughly 10 seconds to achieve the limiting density,and then shutting off the flow (at the source) and monitoring the time-variation of the -asymmetry signal.Any decrease of the absolute value of the -asymmetry over time would indicate depolarization is occuring.Although studies of this kind may lengthen the duration of the experiment by roughly a factor of two, theymake it possible to monitor depolarization in situ.

    5 Detector Development

    Beta detection: We have made quite significant progress in our detector development effort over thepast two and a half years. The Caltech group joined our collaboration and took responsibility for thedevelopment of a calibration facility which provides a collimated electron beam in two energy ranges:from 150 keV to 1 MeV and from 10 keV to 80 keV. A Helmholtz coil spectrometer provides a roughly0.2% energy resolution. Caltech will also produce the final detector geometry which will be used for betadetection in our -asymmetry experiment, which is at present a gas proportional counter mounted in frontof a plastic scintillator detector (this detector geometry is discussed at some length in the document forour technical review[19]). The role of the NCSU group is to develop a prototype of the plastic scintillatorgeometry (essentially already built, see the section on Previously Supported Research), characterize thelinearity and response function of this detector, and to attempt to understand the electron scattering fromthe face of this detector (backscatter). The scattering studies on our plastic scintillator should lead tosystematic backscatter studies of beryllium, aluminum and silicon as well. This detector developmentprogram and the quantitative backscatter studies are part of the thesis of Princeton student Seth Hoedl,who will pass the torch onto an NCState student during the next half year.

    Our focus on the backscatter arises from our need to reduce, as much as possible, a systematic errorassociated with missed backscatter events. In an event of this kind, the electron scatters from the face of onedetector without depositing energy above the detector threshold, and then traverses the spectrometer and isultimately counted in the detector at the opposite end of the spectrometer. The multiwire gas proportionalcounters (in addition to defining our fiducial decay volume and providing a coincidence signal for betas tominimize background) permit us to identify events which backscatter from the plastic scintillators but donot deposit energy above the plastic scintillator threshold.

    To minimize this effect, we hope to implement a graded magnetic field geometry in which the mag-netic field is uniform within the decay region, and then smoothly decreases to about half its central valuenear the detector face. This effect (utilized with success in the 19Ne -asymmetry experiment and in mea-surements of spectra of 35S and 14C by a Berkeley/Argonne collaboration[33]) reduces the pitch angleof the spiraling electron trajectories as they enter the detector face, suppressing backscatter. Also, someelectrons which do backscatter are mirrored by the field geometry and directed back onto the face theappropriate detector. Simulations of our detector geometry using a graded magnetic field indicate that,with the multi-wire proportional counters to help identify backscatters, the missed backscatter fractionshould be below 0.075%.

    We note that this mirroring effect can lead to another systematic error, associated with UCN decayswhich occur in the field expansion region, where the emitted electron is mirrored back onto the detectorface, washing out the -asymmetry . In our experiment, the walls of the field expansion region are coatedwith UCN absorbing, Li-loaded epoxy. This results in a very low effective UCN density in the fieldexpansion region, and a net washout of the -asymmetry less than 0.1 percent.

    Ultimately, however, one must correct ones measurement for the backscatters which are missed evenby the multiwire gas proportional counters. This requires a detailed Monte Carlo treatment of electrontransport within low Z materials, where multiple scatter effects should be extremely important. To evaluatethe current reliability of the available Monte Carlo codes (GEANT 4.0[34], EGS4[35], EGSnrc[36], ITS3.0[37], and PENELOPE[38]) we first undertook a thorough search of the literature for low Z electron

    11

  • backscatter data and tested the Monte Carlo codes EGS4, EGSnrc, ITS 3.0 and PENELOPE against thisdata. The result of this study are the observations that: (1) Except for Be, the general agreement withexisiting data is roughly at the 20 percent level (for Be the discrepancies between measurement and modelcan be as great as 40 percent), and (2) there are very few cases in which there is adequate scattering datain the energy range from 20 keV to 1 MeV. In particular, we found doubly differential (in energy andangle of the backscatter electrons) studies only for Al and Si at incident electron energies between 30 and40 keV.[39] We propose to systematically measure backscatter spectra and angular distributions over arange of incident electron energies from 20 keV to 1 MeV. To this end, we have already constructed anapparatus to perform these measurements, and will present preliminary measurements at the DNP meetingthis October.[40]

    We note that these measurements may serve to improve the approach to modeling electron transport, asthe backscatter process is a stringent test of the performance of these codes (especially for low Z materials).Essentially all of these codes treat solids as a collection of free atoms, and ignore, for the most part, theeffect of embedding the atom in a solid state. At least one study, however, indicates that these densityvariations can have a modest influence on the scattering process, especially on the low energy elasticscattering cross-sections[41]. With the ability to extensively characterize the backscatter from variousmaterials, we may be able to more thoroughly investigate these issues.

    Proton detection: An interesting direction for the future is to develop low energy proton detectioncapability. With this in hand we could immediately measure the neutrino asymmetry and the electron-neutrino angular correlation using our spectrometer. Several measurements of the neutrino asymmetry andelectron-neutrino angular correlation are being planned for cold neutron beams[42], since these measure-ments are also sensitive to the axial vector form factor and various extensions to the standard model[6, 43].Because the product of (decay rate) k (beam time) we can achieve should be comparable to the reactorexperiments, and because we expect extremely small backgrounds, superior detector calibration facilities,and very small uncertainties in the neutron polarization, studies using UCNs in our spectrometer shouldbe quite competitive with planned measurements using cold neutron beams.

    Perhaps the most promising technique for proton detection is being investigated by the group ofDubbers[44], for a geometry very similar to ours, in which they plan to measure the neutrino asymme-try (the correlation between the neutron spin and the direction of emission of the neutrino, which is relatedby momentum conservation to the direction of emission of the proton). They have tested large area (110cm2), stand alone, carbon foils with a layer of MgO on the back (post acceleration) side, with a total thick-ness of 40 g/cm2. The foils are used by placing an accerating grid in front of the foils to pre-accelerate theprotons (with maximum energies prior to acceleration of about 751 eV) to about 20 keV. Protons strikingthe foil emit, on average, 6 to 8 secondary electrons from the opposite face of the foil, which can thenbe post-accelerated to 40 keV and detected in our wire counters. Protons detected in delayed coincidencewith the prompt beta particles can then be used to determine the neutrino asymmetry (in polarized UCNs)and the electron-neutrino angular correlation (where the UCN do not have to be polarized). Note thattransport simulations of the beta-particle (emitted during neutron -decay ) through these extremely thinfoils in our graded magnetic field geometry indicate that the corresponding backscatter fraction is below0.1%, and should not be a limiting factor in the first angular correlation studies we perform using protons.

    We plan to investigate this detection technique as well as the possibility of multi-step avalanche coun-ters to detect the recoil protons. The carbon foils have the advantage that they can also be used to confineUCNs, and may ultimately lead to a new methods, analogous to the T invariance measurements in the-decay of 19Ne, for UCNs[45].

    12

  • 6 Schedule

    We should note that our present, very agressive schedule depends on the construction of essentially threelarge, mostly independent pieces of equipment: the UCN source, the polarizer/AFP spin-flipper, and thespectrometer. The first two of these are fully funded and polarizer construction is actually underway.Caltech has taken responsibility for the spectrometer, and an engineered design is now complete. The timescales for completion of these projects is that the polarizer should be complete and installed by June of2001, the spectrometer should be fabricated and detectors complete in January to February of 2002, withthe source planned to come on line in mid- to late 2002. A detailed schedule is presented in our technicalreview document[19].

    7 Previously Supported Research

    Introduction: A. Young and T. Bowles are co-spokesmen for a collaboration assembled in late 1997 tomeasure the neutron -asymmetry using UCNs at LANSCE. This proposal is a renewal of work begununder grant 9807133, Low Energy Nuclear Physics Using the Princeton Cyclotron, Lasers, and Ultra-Cold Neutrons for $667,000. We also obtained, while at Princeton, Major Research Instrumentation grant9977557, Development of a Polarizer/Adiabatic Spin-Flipper for Ultra-Cold Neutrons, for $155,000 toprovide an essential instrument for our measurement of the -asymmetry . Because our group has movedand the support for our effort has changed, we felt it might be helpful to outline who was supported on thisgrant during the last period and how the group has changed. Our group was based at Princeton for the pasttwo and a half years, and was composed of A. R. Young, D. Smith (post-doctoral fellow), and C.-Y. Liuand S. Hoedl (graduate students). We have recently moved to North Carolina State University (NCState).One Princeton student is remaining with the project and the other is finishing a detector devlopment taskbefore finishing his thesis on another project. D. Smith has taken a staff position at SLAC, and we seeka new hire to replace him, as well as an additional post-doctoral fellow, for which there is some supportfrom the NCState physics department as well. We plan to have four graduate students associated withthe project during the next period, C.-Y. Liu, S. Hoedl, S. Wang, and one other NCState physics graduatestudent. In addition to this, NCState nuclear engineering faculty C. Mayo and B. Wehring have joined ourgroup, with interests in superthermal source development and possible solid state applications for UCNs.

    We have also worked with a number of undergraduates, with Princeton students R. Krumholz, U.Pesavento, and M. Kesden doing junior research projects and Umberto Pesavento doing a senior thesisproject on UCNs.

    The Solid Deuterium Superthermal Source: the primary activity of our group in the past two and ahalf years has been the development of the solid deuterium (SD2) superthermal source of UCNs at LAN-SCE. The development of this source was coordinated by C. Morris at LANL, with strong participation byour group and contributions from a number of other members of the -asymmetry collaboration, includinggroups at Caltech, ILL, PNPI and the Kyoto University Reactor Research Insitute (KURRI). Our groupprovided the initial funds to construct the cryostat and was responsible for the subcontracting fabricationof most of the cryostat parts prior to assembly at Los Alamos. We also provided the only full-time ex-perimental personnel associated with the SD2 UCN source project at Los Alamos (D. Smith) for its firsttwo years, and participated vigorously in the exploration of the physics of the solid deuterium source (seebelow).

    The prototype source is depicted in Fig. 3A, and consists of a tungsten target, placed within a fastneutron flux trap of Be held at 77 K. A sheet of polyethylene, resting on the tungsten target at 77 K,and a cylinder of polyethylene wrapped around the SD2 cryostat at 5K serve as our primary cold neutronmoderators. Within the 5K cryostat, a piece of SD2 rests in a 58Ni guide with a cross-sectional area 50cm2. An 800 MeV proton beam is directed, for up to a few seconds, onto the target, producing roughly

    13

  • 18 high energy neutrons per proton. These are moderated and pass through the SD2 converter, producingUCNs which are guided upwards to our stainless steel bottle or to a UCN detector.

    Our investigation of the physics of SD2 superthermal sources led to new insight into the influenceof the presence of para-deuterium in the SD2 matrix. Because D2 is a homonuclear molecule, there arestrict selection rules on the molecular rotational spectrum, with para-deuterium (molecular spin, I l 1)only exhibiting rotational states with quantum numbers J l 1 m 3 m 5 monpnpn and ortho-deuterium (I l 0 or I l 2)exhibiting J l 0 m 2 m 4 monpnpn Conversion between the para- and ortho-species is essentially negligible if thedeuterium vapor is introduced directly to the cryostat and cooled. Thus a large population of molecules isleft, under these circumstances, in the J l 1 state about 70 K higher in rotational energy than the J l 0ground state. The UCN scattering cross-section is about a factor of 30 higher from the para-deuteriumthan from ortho-deuterium, and UCN are almost always destroyed after a nuclear spin-flip scatter becauseof the enormous increase in energy available to the neutron in the final state.[24]

    To mitigate this problem, our group built a prototype ortho-para converter based on the work ofBuyanov[46] which became the basis for the present design (after several iterations at Los Alamos) anddeveloped a rotational Raman spectrometry technique based on the work of Compaan and Wagoner[47]for determining the absolute para-/ortho-deuterium ratio to 0.1 percent. This Raman technique is also use-ful for identifying extremely small (0.1 percent) HD contaminations in our D2 as well. These technicaldevelopments, implemented in close collaboration with S. Lamoreaux at Los Alamos, have provided uswith the ability to control and measure the para- fraction precisely enough to reliably probe the physicsof UCN production. For example, with the para fraction reduced to below 2.0% we were able to observethe UCN lifetime in our SD2 decrease as we warmed our crystal, in extremely good agreement with ourpredictions based on loses due to upscatter from phonons present in the SD2, see Fig. 5.

    Temperature (K)2qsolid D 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

    (m

    s)2

    UC

    N li

    fetim

    e in

    D

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    Figure 5: UCN lifetime dependence on the temper-ature with a 2% paradeuterium in the SD2 crystal

    These studies led, in June of this year, to highproton current runs in which we directed 100 Cof protons onto the target over about a second andproduced densities of 98 r 5 UCN/cm3 in a 3.6 literstainless steel bottle, with little evidence of heat-ing in our SD2[20]. The progress on our sourcehas been reported in over 13 talks and conferenceproceedings, as well as in two articles in refer-eed journals[48, 24]. An excellent reference forour progress to date can be found in the CAARI2000 conference proceedings[20]. At present, weare preparing three articles on different aspects ofour source development effort for publication. Wehave also initiated a collaborative study of VCN(neutrons with energies slightly greater than UCN)transmission through SD2 with our colleagues atPNPI which has already provided complimentaryinsight into the influence of crystal growth on UCNtransport, and should result in publications in thenext period.

    Depolarization Studies: Over the past two years we have performed two sets of measurements of thedepolarization of UCN on material surfaces at ILL. This effort has been lead by Serebrovs group fromPNPI, and has resulted in published upper limits for the depolarization/bounce of UCNs of (at the 95%confidence level) of 3 s 9 t 10 u 6 and 1 s 2 t 10 u 6 for Cu. Both of these lead to depolarization fractions below0.1% for our experimental geometry.[49] Recent, unpublished measurements suggest a more conservativeupper limit of about 0.15% for the depolarization should be adopted for now[50], however, we feel it islikely that future measurements of our diamond-coated substrates should permit us to push this upper limit

    14

  • well below 0.1%.Our theoretical and experimental studies of depolarization were the subject of a senior thesis project

    by U. Pesavento at Princeton. The theoretical estimates developed in this work should be submitted forpublication during the next academic year.

    Detector development: We have designed, built, and tested a plastic scintillator beta detector as aprototype detector for the -asymmetry measurement. The scintillator and light guides were designedin close cooperation with Bicron Corporation, which ultimately took the form of a 15.2cm square, 3mmthick piece of BC-404 plastic scintillator, edge-coupled to four acrylic light guides each of which consistsof four 3.8cm wide 0.6cm thick pieces. The scintillator and light guides were provided by Bicron. Eachlight guide extends 58cm away from the scintillator. Over this distance they are adiabatically bent so asto couple to a 51mm diameter Burle 8850 photo-multiplier tube. The edge-coupled configuration waschosen to maximize light yield and thus reduce the energy-threshold. We estimated a photon-yield of3040 photons per MeV deposited energy. The long light guides serve to transport the light out of thespectrometer magnet.

    Using the Dynamitron at JPL we have performed a linearity test at the 3% level between 182keV and862keV. We find a linear offset of 20 v 5 w 3 v 0 keV, consistent with a similar detector used in PERKEOII[10]. We note that our linearity study is already comparable to the linearity studies performed in thePERKEO II experiment, and improvements of over an order of magnitude in the energy calibration arestraightforward and will be implemented in the next few months.

    Other projects: During the last funded period, one of us completed work concerning the possi-ble existence of anomoulous electron-positron pairs in heavy ion collisions near the Coulomb Barrier(A. Young)[51]. We also successfully demonstrated that electronic spin relaxation times for Rb atomsin He vapor-filled cells below 2K exhibit extremely long relaxation times. Our data was consistentwith relaxation times which are longer than 35s, one of the longest electronic spin relaxation timesever observed.[52]. This work was a continuation of experiments begun at Princeton in collaborationwith W. Happers atomic physics group [53, 54, 55, 56]. Finally, one of us completed work concern-ing P non-invariance in heavy nuclei, utilizing neutron capture and epithermal neutron scattering (D.Smith).[57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62]

    15

  • SECTION D REFERENCES CITED

    Below is a selection of publications produced by members of our group during the last research period,organized by subject (we have omitted the references for over 12 talks and conference proceedings not inrefereed journals).

    UCN Source Development

    x Ultra-Cold Neutron Upscattering in a Molecular Deuterium Crystal, C.-Y. Liu, A. R. Young andS. K. Lamoreaux, Rapid Communications: Phys. Rev. B 62, R3581 (2000).

    x Performance of the prototype LANL solid deuterium ultra-cold neutron source, R. E. Hill for theSD2 collaboration, with G. L. Greene, L. Marek, E. Pasyuk, A. Garcia, B. Fujikawa, S. Baessler,Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 440, 674 (2000).

    UCN Depolarization

    x Depolarization of UCN Stored in Material Traps, A. Serebrov, A. Vasiliev, M. Lasakov, Yu. Rud-nev, I. Krasnoshekova, P. Geltenbort, J. Butterworth, T. Bowles, C. Morris, S. Seestrom, D. Smith,A. R. Young, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 440, 717 (2000).

    Alkali Metal Vapor Optical Pumping in High Density He-filled Cells

    x Slow Spin Relaxation of Rb Atoms Confined in Glass Cells with Dense 4He Gas at 1.85 K, A.Hatakeyama, K. Oe, S. Hara, J. Arai, T. Yabuzaki, and A. R. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1407(2000).

    x Light Narrowing of Rubidium Magnetic Resonance Lines in High-Pressure Optical Pumping Cells,S. Appelt, A. Ben-Amar Baranga, A. R. Young, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2078 (1999).

    x Alkali Polarization Imaging in High Pressure Optical Pumping Cells, A. Ben-Amar Baranga, S.Appelt, C. J. Erickson, A. R. Young, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 58, 2282 (1998).

    x Theory of Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He and 129Xe, S. Appelt, A. Ben-Amar Baranga,C. J. Erickson, M. V. Romalis, A. R. Young, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A, 58, 1412 (1998).

    x Polarization of 3He by spin exchange with optically pumped Rb and K vapors, A. Ben-AmarBaranga, S. Appelt, M. V. Romalis, C. J. Erickson, A. R. Young, G. D. Cates and W. Happer, Phys.Rev. Lett. 80, 2801 (1998).

    APEX

    x Positron-Electron Pairs Produced in Heavy-Ion Collisions, I. Ahmad, Sam M. Austin, B. B. Black,R. R. Betts, F. P. Calaprice, K. C. Chan, A. Chishti, C. Conner,R. W. Dunford, J. D. Fox, S. J.Freedman, M. Freer, S. B. Gazes, A. L. Hallin, T. Happ, D. Henderson, N. I. Kaloskamis, E. Kashy,W. Kutschera, J. Last, C. J. Lister, M. Liu, M. R. Maier, D. J. Mercer, D. Mikolas, P. A. A. Perera,M. D. Rhein, D. E. Roa, J. P. Schiffer, T. A. Trainor, P. Wilt, J. S. Winfield, M. R. Wolanski, F. L. H.Wolfs, A. H. Wuosmaa, G. Xu, A. R. Young, and J. E. Yurkon (the APEX collaboration) Phys. Rev.C 60, 064601 (1999).

  • Symmetry Violations using Neutron Capture and Epithermal Neutron Beams

    y A High-Rate B-10-Loaded Liquid Scintillation Detector for Parity-Violation Studies in NeutronResonances,Y. F. Yen, J. D. Bowman, R. D. Bolton, B. E. Crawford, P. P. J. Delheij, G. W. Hart,T. Haseyama, C. W. Frankle, M. Iinuma, J. N. Knudson, A. Masaike, G. E. Mitchell, S. I. Penttila,N. R. Roberson, S. J. Seestrom, E. Sharapov, H. M. Shimizu, D. A. Smith, S. L. Stephenson, J. J.Szymanksi, S. H. Yoo, V. W. Yuan (the TRIPLE collaboration) Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 447, 476(2000).

    y Measurement of the Parity Violating Asymmetry A(gamma) in n+p - d+gamma, W. M. Snow,A. Bazhenov, C. S. Blessinger, J. D. Bowman, T. E. Chupp, K. P. Coulter, S. J. Freedman, B. K.Fujikawa, T. R. Gentile, G. L. Greene, G. Hansen, G. E. Hogan, S. Ishimoto, G. L. Jones, J. N.Knudson, E. Kolomenski, S. K. Lamoreaux, M. B. Leuschner, A. Masaike, Y. Masuda, Y. Matsuda,G. L. Morgan, K. Morimoto, C. L. Morris, H. Nann, S. I. Penttila, A. Pirozhkov, V. R. Pomeroy, D.R. Rich, A. Serebrov, E. I. Sharapov, D. A. Smith, T. B. Smith, R. C. Welsh, F. E. Wietfeld, W. S.Wilburn, V. W. Yuan, J. Zerger (the NPDGAMMA collaboration), Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 440, 729(2000).

    y Neutron resonance spectroscopy of Rh-103 from 30 eV to 2 keV,D. A. Smith, J.D. Bowman, B.E.Crawford, C.A. Grossmann, T. Haseyama, A. Masaike, Y. Matsuda, G.E. Mitchell, S.I. Penttila,N.R. Roberson, S.J. Seestrom, E.I. Sharapov, S.L. Stephenson, V. Yuan, Phys. Rev. C 60, 045502/1(1999).

    y Parity violation in neutron resonances of Rh-103 , D. A. Smith, J.D. Bowman, B.E. Crawford,C.A. Grossmann, T. Haseyama, A. Masaike, Y. Matsuda, G.E. Mitchell, S.I. Penttila, N.R. Roberson,S.J. Seestrom, E.I. Sharapov, S.L. Stephenson, V. Yuan, Phys. Rev. C 60, 045503/1 (1999).

    y Neutron resonance spectroscopy of Sn-117 from 1ev to 1.5keV, D. A. Smith, J.D. Bowman, B.E.Crawford, C.A. Grossmann, T. Haseyama, M.B. Johnson, A. Masaike, Y. Matsuda, G.E. Mitchell,V.A. Nazarenko, S.I. Penttila, N.R. Roberson, S.J. Seestrom, E.I. Sharapov, L.M. Smotritsky, S.L.Stephenson, V. Yuan, Phys. Rev. C 59, 2836 (1999).

    y Parity nonconservation in neutron capture on Cd-113, S.J. Seestrom, J.D. Bowman, B.E. Craw-ford, P.P.J Delheij, C.M. Frankle, C.R. Gould, D.G. Haase, M. Iinuma, J.N. Knudson, P.E. Koehler,L.Y. Lowie, A. Masaike, Y. Masuda, Y. Matsuda, G.E. Mitchell, S.I. Penttila, Y.P. Popov, H. Postma,N.R. Roberson, E.I. Sharapov, H.M. Shimizu, D.A. Smith, S.L. Stephenson, Y.F. Yen, V.W. Yuan,Phys. Rev. C 58, 2977 (1998).

    The UCN beta-asymmetry collaboration: A. Alduschenkov1 , J. M. Anaya2, K. Asahi3, T. J.Bowles2, T. Brun2, B. W. Filippone4, M. Fowler2, P. Geltenbort5, R. E. Hill2, A. Hime2, M. Hino6,S. Hoedl7, G. Hogan2, T. Ito4, C. Jones4, T. Kawai6, A. Kharitonov1, T. Kitagaki8, S. Lamoreaux2,M. Lassakov1, C.-Y. Liu7, M. Makela9, R. McKeown4, C. L. Morris2, R. Mortensen2 , Y. Rudnev1, A.Saunders2, S. J. Seestrom2, A. Serebrov1, D. A. Smith7, K. Soyama10, W. Teasdale2, M. Utsuro6, A.Vasilev1, R. B. Vogelaar9, A. R. Young11, J. Yuan4, P. Walstrom2

    1 St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute2 Los Alamos National Laboratory

    3 Tokyo Institute of Technology4 California Institute of Technology

    5 Institut Laue-langevin6 Kyoto University

    7 Princeton University

    2

  • 8 Tohoku University9 Virginia Polytechnical University

    10 JIRI11 North Carolina State University

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