Volume 7 Issue 1 January - June 2015
The association between customer satisfaction andcustomer loyalty has so far attracted ample dscussions,deliberations and discourses in theory and practice ofmarketing: Most of these discussion recognized asignificant relationship between customer satisfactionand customer loyalty. From delineating both the conceptsas plainly as possible to differentiating them from eachother, researchers left no stone unturned and presentedsubstantial literature pertaining to meaning andmeasurement of customer satisfaction and customerloyalty. The purpose of this study is to develop a holisticresearch framework for investigating the dynamicrelationship between two metrics of business success- customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The studyargued for a positive relationship between customersatisfaction and customer loyalty. Moreover, variousfactors such as life situation of the customer or hiscognitive processes have been identified as influencersof customer satisfaction - customer loyalty relationship.
Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty,Switching Costs, Perceived Risks
Global competition and consumption has broughtcustomer centricity to the fore and any businessorganization inept to feel, capture and adapt to thenerves of contemporary trends is bound to find itselfin a hapless position. As put by Hansemark andAlbinsson (2004), customer satisfaction has been believedto have an impact on the market share and customerretention and thus, has been treated as the primaryobjective of businesses. Zineldin (2000) pointed thatconventionally satisfied customers have been deemedas less price sensitive and prone to switching and aremore likely to purchase extra and stay loyal. However,
Influencers of Customer Satisfaction -Customer Loyalty Relationship:A Conceptual Research ModelMedha Srivastava
McCarthy (1997) noted that satisfied customers of XeroxCorporation do not conform to these expectations sincethey did not necessarily repurchase from Xerox.
Various studies investigated the linear as well as non-linear relationship between customer satisfaction andcustomer loyalty (Anderson and Mittal, 2000; Agustinand Singh, 2005; Streukens and Ruyter, 2004; Verhoef,2003). A large section of literatures have establishedcustomer satisfaction as a precursor of customer loyalty.However contradictory evidences have been offeredabout the form and significance of their relationship.Further, researchers probed into the factors that canaffect the aforementioned relationship in the capacityof a moderator and presented mixed findings(Chandrashekaran et al., 2007; Chiou et al., 2002;Evanschitzky and Wunderlich, 2006). With thisbackdrop, it becomes imperative to build a clearconceptual understanding of customer satisfaction -customer loyalty relationship. Exploring the possibleexternal influences which hold the potential to alter thisrelationship by affecting its form or strength or both.
2. Theoretical Background
Customer satisfaction has often been quoted as the mostobvious antecedent of customer loyalty (Alegre andCladera, 2009; Eshghi et al., 2007; Kandampully andSuhartanto, 2000; Streukens and Ruyter, 2004). However,contradictory evidences have also been presented in theliterature as some studies did not find any, direct orindirect, relationship between these constructs (Jonesand Sasser, 1995; Verhoef, 2003). Moreover Oliver (1999)acknowledged the effects of various mediators andmoderators such as exchange-relevant constructs oncustomer satisfaction - customer loyalty relationship.The subsequent sections explain and explore the conceptsand relationship of customer satisfaction and customer
Volume 7 Issue 1 January - June 2015
loyalty before presenting a case for potential moderatingvariables which may influence the form or direction ofthe aforesaid relationship.
2.1 Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfaction has been proposed as a constructextensively studies in the literature of customerbehaviour (Fornell, 1992; Johnson and Fornell, 1991;McDougall and Levesque, 2000). It has been perceivedas total evaluation of a product or service over a periodas a result of purchase and consumption experience(Anderson et al., 1994; Oliver, 1999). Oliver (1997) calledcustomer satisfaction a consumer's response to fulfilmentwhich is a judgment on a product or service or any ofits feature's ability to provide an enjoyable level offulfilment resulting from consumption.
Kotler and Keller (2006) suggested that customersatisfaction stands for emotional states of pleasure ordisappointment which a person may feel due tocomparison between his perception and expectations ofa product's performance. Tarus and Rabach (2013)postulated that a dis-satisfied customer is one whoseexpectations exceeded the actual outcome of serviceinteraction whereas a satisfied or delighted customeris a case of interaction matching or surpassingexpectations.
Johnson et al. (2001) reviewed the literature on customersatisfaction and posited two rudimentaryconceptualizations of satisfaction i.e., transaction-specific and cumulative satisfaction. Fornell (1992)referred to cumulative satisfaction as a customer'sconsumption experience over a period of time withregard to a particular product or service. Olsen andJohnson's (2003) definition of satisfaction fall undertransaction specific approach where they consideredsatisfaction as customers' evaluation of experience ofthemselves and their reactions to a service transaction,and episode or encounter.
2.2 Customer Loyalty
Customer loyalty is a multidimensional concept whichconsists of behavioural and attitudinal rudiments(Oliver, 1999; Zeithaml, 2000; Rauyruen and Miller,2007). Researchers studied the patterns of buying and
took proportion of total purchases into consideration(Cunningham, 1956; Blattberg and Sen, 1974) whileothers gave importance to sequence of purchasing(McConell, 1968; Kahn et al., 1986). Bandopadhyay andMartell (2007) explored the behavioural perspectiveand underlined the main assumption of repeat buyinghas the capacity of incarcerating a consumer's loyaltytowards the brand that holds interest. Baldinger andRubinson (1996) suggested that in order to understandbrand loyalty more clearly, the behavioural definitionof loyalty needs to be stretched to include attitudes. Theattitudinal perspective of customer loyalty has beenexplained as a willingness to retain a relationship witha service provider (Kim et al., 2004; Oliver, 1999).
Tarus and Rabach (2013) pointed that literature hasbestowed substantial space to customer loyalty research.Yang and Peterson (2004) found the task of definingcustomer loyalty particularly difficult. The most wellaccepted and widely quoted definition of customerloyalty has been given by Oliver (1999) who posited that"a deeply held commitment to re-buy or re-patronizea preferred product/service consistently in the future,thereby causing repetitive same-brand or same brand-set purchasing, despite situational influences andmarketing efforts have the potential to cause switchingbehaviour". More recently, Rai and Srivastava (2013)defined customer loyalty as "a psychological characterformed by sustained satisfaction of the customer coupledwith emotional attachment formed with the serviceprovider that leads to a state of willingly and consistentlybeing in the relationship with preference, patronageand premium".
Firms give highest priority to customer loyalty as repeatbuying of their products and services is critical inachieving success and profitability in the business(Hallowell, 1996; Oliver, 1997; Silvestro and Cross, 2000).Onyeaso and Johnson (2006) defined customer loyaltyas an incorporeal strategic strength that will augmentperformance of an organization whereas Cooil et al.(2007) considered it as a tactical objective for managers.
2.3 Customer Satisfaction - Customer Loyalty
Fornell (1992) pointed that literature of marketing hasbeen consistent in recognizing customer satisfaction as
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a vital forebear to loyalty. In the context of serviceindustry also, customer satisfaction has repeatedly andconsistently been identified as a significant factor indetermination of customer loyalty (Boshoff and Gray,2004; Lam et al., 2004; Mittal and Lassar, 1998). Studiesalso pointed that customer satisfaction is the mostresearched antecedent of customer loyalty (Eshghi etal., 2007; Seiders et al., 2005; Cooil et al., 2007); Garcaand Caro, 2009).
Studies found a positive relationship between customersatisfaction and customer loyalty (Anderson and Mittal,2000; Streukens and Ruyter, 2004) and revealed thatcustomer satisfaction also impacts the main pointers ofcustomer loyalty (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2003;Lin and Wang, 2006; Mittal and Kamakura, 2001). Lamet al. (2004) opined that satisfaction can affect acustomer's attitude to a degree where he/she not onlyfeels motivated to re-buy but also offer recommendationsto the service provider. Kandampully and Suhartanto(2000) carried out their study in hotel industry andestablished significant positive impact of customersatisfaction on customer loyalty. Zins (2001) alsosupported these findings and confirmed customersatisfaction as a significant antecedent of customerloyalty in commercial airline industry. Yang andPeterson (2004) surveyed online customers andconcluded that improving customer satisfaction canactually lead to customer loyalty. Studies in the contextof B2B services, who investigated big organizationsoffering B2B services in USA and Canada, advocatedfor the strong positive relationship between customersatisfaction and customer loyalty (Lam et al., 2004;Murali et al., 2007). Alegre and Cladera (2009)