Influence and Persuasion The Psychology of Social and Individual Behaviour Change

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  • Slide 1
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  • Influence and Persuasion The Psychology of Social and Individual Behaviour Change
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  • Social Change: Psychology Psychologists focus on changing an individuals thinking broad social change can flow out of this 3 methods of social change: behaviour modification modelling theory social persuasion
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  • Behaviour Modification Process by which behaviour is changed due to experiences and changes in ones environment Ivan Pavlov, 1849-1936 Classical conditioning B. F. Skinner, 1904-1990 Operant conditioning
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  • Albert Bandura Bandura concluded that learning is largely a modeling experience When humans observe behaviour either acceptable or unacceptable they are more likely to practice it Children learn through the experiences of others Question - What does this mean to us?
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  • Conditioning in Advertising Commercials tap into natural emotional responses in the brain connect product to those reactions Different techniques: music, jingles sexual images heart strings celebrity
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  • A hamburger advertisement! What factors are being linked or associated? Another example: http://www.clubstellaartois.ca/en/legere?x=75&y=26
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  • Ad campaigns attempt to give the product an image or identity animate an inanimate object Promise to match the products identity with the purchasers.
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  • See all types everyday in society All shape our behaviour, effect broader social change ADVERTISERS!Above and other tactics used especially by ADVERTISERS! Try to shape: buying patterns thinking patterns social trends
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  • Largely based on the social psychology work of Robert Cialdini Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion Influence: Science and Practice Cialdini outlines 6 weapons of influence used by marketers to elicit automatic responses.
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  • Cialdini argues we use mental shortcuts automatic responses, assumptions in given situations usually help us; also make us vulnerable A few simple examples: value more expensive = better quality e.g. price increase vs. discount contrast if the 2 nd item in a list is different from the first, see it as more different than it is e.g. clothing sales
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  • Weapon 1: Reciprocation Rooted in the social belief that we should repay in kind what others do for us e.g. The kind favour study experimenter, subject, confederate confederate gets subject a Coke later asks subject to buy raffle tickets subjects done a favour buy more and spend more
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  • Common uses Come across this in marketing free sample of products charities that mail out a gift Hard to counter: obligation to the cycle Redefine: concession or compliance trick? Also used in negotiations and requests: e.g. Happy Days and TV censors e.g. counselling juvenile delinquents?
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  • Weapon 2: Commitment and Consistency Created by 2 general characteristics: Inner desire to meet commitments Dislike appearing inconsistent Both drive us to become attached to something once weve made a commitment to it e.g. placing bets e.g. beach theft study e.g. driver safety sign request Be a safe driver DRIVE CAREFULLY
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  • Salesperson gets customers to commit E.g. energy sales and cooling off periods sales drop as customers change mind have customers fill out own forms Initiation rites hard to get in = high commitment once in e.g. fraternities and sororities, hazing Common uses
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  • Weapon 3: Liking Basic behavioural characteristics: more likely to buy from those we like like those who are similar to us Common uses company has people sell product to family, friends; sell in homes
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  • Supporting studies lost wallet study Subjects find a lost wallet (planted) has money, cheque, ID, note Finder is similar to note writer = 70 % return it Finder is dissimilar to note writer = 33 % return it Other Common uses Sales people finding connections
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  • Weapon 4: Social Proof Human behaviour: we view a behaviour as more correct in a given situation to the degree that we see others performing it Again, usually a helpful strategy, but makes us vulnerable e.g. canned laughter effect
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  • Common uses: salting tip jars religious events: have plants in audience come forward largest selling!; rated #1; fastest growing; 4 out of 5 dentists Use of average people in ads relate to them (and product) effect of similarity
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  • Remember Albert Bandura? Children learn through uses principle to cure children of dog phobia: child watches other children playing with dogs works if watching on TV works better if more children play with dog social proof effect!
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  • Weapon 5: Authority In general, we obey those in authority. e.g. Stanley Milgram study Also more likely to obey those we trust. Common uses: advertisers portray trustworthy experts (often actors) e.g. Sanka ad
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  • Need to ask if person is really an authority e.g. street orders study Advertisers also try to fake truthfulness to boost authority, credibility Joslin Insurance is the place youre going to hate less Avis: were number 2, but we try harder Buckleys! Tastes awful, but it works!
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  • Weapon 6: Scarcity Human thought: Opportunities seem more valuable when their availability is limited e.g. rare coins, sports cards Supporting study 2 year old and toys Common uses: warnings in ads supply is limited! call in the next 20 minutes! after, November, theyre gone!
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  • Dade County, Florida phosphate detergent ban, 1971 public smuggling changed attitude towards detergent with phosphates poured better, gentler, better in cold water Real estate: goosing them off the fence tell customers of another potential buyer Used car salesperson double-booking technique
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  • Your (optional) assignment: Find one ad: print, TV, radio, Internet bring it in if possible Analyze how the ad is working, its techniques try to incorporate concepts weve studied can include others as well Work on your own or with a partner DUE DATE: