INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAK HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT purpose of the Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management guideline is to aid hospital managers in the recognition, investigation and containment of potential

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Policy No: 0/C/13:7049-01:00 Policy: Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management - SCH This document reflects what is currently regarded as safe practice. However, as in any clinical situation, there may be factors which cannot be covered by a single set of guidelines. This document does not replace the need for the application of clinical judgement to each individual presentation. Approved by: SCHN Policy, Procedure and Guideline Committee Date Effective: 1st September 2013 Review Period: 3 years Team Leader: Staff Specialist Area/Dept: SCH Infection Control Date of Publishing: 14 August 2013 4:34 PM Date of Printing: Page 1 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Aug 13\Infect_Diseases_Outbreak_Hospital Management - SCH.docx This Policy/Procedure may be varied, withdrawn or replaced at any time. Compliance with this Policy/Procedure is mandatory. INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAK: HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT - SCH POLICY DOCUMENT SUMMARY/KEY POINTS The purpose of the Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management guideline is to aid hospital managers in the recognition, investigation and containment of potential outbreaks within Sydney Childrens Hospital that may impact on patients, staff and others including extended family and the wider community. o Hospital Managers and After-Hours Nurse Managers will investigate possible acute infectious disease outbreaks in the Hospital promptly and institute an outbreak management plan as soon as possible. o Employees should co-operate with the outbreak management plan and take reasonable care in the workplace to minimise the risk of patients, health care workers and others from infectious illnesses. o Health care workers with presumed infectious illness may be requested to provide certain specimens to aid in the identification of the infectious agent. Policy No: 0/C/13:7049-01:00 Policy: Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management - SCH Date of Publishing: 14 August 2013 4:34 PM Date of Printing: Page 2 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Aug 13\Infect_Diseases_Outbreak_Hospital Management - SCH.docx This Policy/Procedure may be varied, withdrawn or replaced at any time. Compliance with this Policy/Procedure is mandatory. CHANGE SUMMARY Due for mandatory review. No changes to practice. Replaces SCH Document of same title Outbreak Management. READ ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All staff must read and notify their local manager that they understand the content of the document . Local managers will maintain records of read receipts for subsequent compliance and other audits. TABLE OF CONTENTS Preamble ................................................................................................................................. 3 Aim ........................................................................................................................................... 4 Definitions ............................................................................................................................... 4 Work Health and Safety ......................................................................................................... 5 References .............................................................................................................................. 5 Flowchart 1: Process during an Outbreak Situation ........................................................... 6 Flowchart 2: Defining context of the Outbreak ................................................................... 7 Protocol for the microbiologic investigation of hospital outbreaks.................................. 8 1 Who To Notify ................................................................................................................ 8 Scientists to co-ordinate laboratory investigations ............................................................... 8 Staff specialist for discussion of microbiologic tests ............................................................ 8 2 Completion of Request Forms ....................................................................................... 8 3 Specimens Required & Microbiological Tests to be undertaken ................................... 8 Stools ................................................................................................................................... 8 Throat swabs ....................................................................................................................... 9 Serum .................................................................................................................................. 9 Appendix 1: Outbreak Management Data Collection Sheet ............................................. 10 Appendix 2: Sample request form when investigating suspected cases during an outbreak ................................................................................................................................ 11 Policy No: 0/C/13:7049-01:00 Policy: Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management - SCH Date of Publishing: 14 August 2013 4:34 PM Date of Printing: Page 3 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Aug 13\Infect_Diseases_Outbreak_Hospital Management - SCH.docx This Policy/Procedure may be varied, withdrawn or replaced at any time. Compliance with this Policy/Procedure is mandatory. Preamble Acute infectious disease outbreaks are common. The early identification of possible outbreaks within the hospital is essential for minimising the transmission of infection to others. Sydney Childrens Hospital acknowledges and promotes the principles of disease prevention with: Identification and flagging of any potential infection risk sought at every patient admission and ward transfer (see Isolation Guideline policy) Opportunistic vaccination and vaccination clinics for staff and patients Staff orientation and ongoing infection control education Specific infection control policies for SCH and SCHN are located on the SCHN Policies Site (http://chw.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/o/documents/policies/policies/2013-9031.pdf ) from the bar labelled Infection Control: Including: o Isolation De-isolation - SCH o Notification of Infectious Diseases under the Public Health Act 2010, o Hand Hygiene o Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare,4 Possible outbreaks of disease may be recognised by various means. Monitoring for an increase above normal in these communicable diseases is overseen by the Infection Prevention and Control Clinical Nurse Consultant, Chief Resident Medical Officer, SCH Infection Control Committee and Infectious Diseases Staff Specialist. The categories of illness recognised to cause exposure and possible outbreaks in the hospital environment include communicable diseases that may have been acquired in the community or Health Care Associated infections include: Infectious gastroenteritis (Gastroenteritis Transmission Prevention - SCH) Respiratory illnesses (Acute Respiratory Infections - SCH) o RSV o Influenza o Tuberculosis o Whooping cough (Bordetella pertussis) Viral illness o Measles virus o Varicella zoster virus (Chicken Pox (Varicella) - SCH) o Blood borne viruses HIV, HBV, HCV http://chw.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/o/documents/policies/policies/2013-9031.pdfhttp://chw.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/o/documents/policies/policies/2012-9064.pdfhttp://chw.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/o/documents/policies/policies/2013-9031.pdfhttp://chw.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/o/documents/policies/guidelines/2013-7038.pdfhttp://chw.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/o/documents/policies/guidelines/2013-7040.pdfPolicy No: 0/C/13:7049-01:00 Policy: Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management - SCH Date of Publishing: 14 August 2013 4:34 PM Date of Printing: Page 4 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Aug 13\Infect_Diseases_Outbreak_Hospital Management - SCH.docx This Policy/Procedure may be varied, withdrawn or replaced at any time. Compliance with this Policy/Procedure is mandatory. Multi-resistant organisms: o Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA) o Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) (Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) - SCH) o Extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBL) o Gentamicin resistant acinetobacter (GRAB) o Metallo beta-lactimases (MBL) Anthropods o Head lice o Scabies Aim The purpose of the Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management guideline is to aid in the recognition, investigation and containment of potential outbreaks within Sydney Childrens Hospital that may impact on patients, staff and others including extended family and the wider community. The Management Flowchart will describe the process. Definitions Case Definition formulated by examination of patients, laboratory data and review of clinical records to give a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Enables classification of disease status in the outbreak setting. Communicable period - the time during which an infectious agent may be transferred directly or indirectly from an infected person to another person from an infected animal to humans or from an infected person to animals including arthropods. Contact - is a person or animal that has been in such association with an infected person or animal or a contaminated environment as to have an opportunity to acquire the infection. Incubation period - the time interval between initial contact with an infectious agent and the first appearance of symptoms associated with the infection until the last possibility of symptoms associated with the infection. Infectious agent - an organism that is capable of producing infection or infectious disease. Nosocomial infection/Healthcare associated infection an infection occurring in a person in whom it was neither present nor incubating at the time of admission/arrival in the hospital nor is it the result of an infection acquired during a previous admission Outbreak is defined as an epidemic or an increase above the normal or expected level of healthcare associated infection within a clinical setting http://chw.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/o/documents/policies/procedures/2013-7042.pdfhttp://chw.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/o/documents/policies/procedures/2013-7042.pdfPolicy No: 0/C/13:7049-01:00 Policy: Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management - SCH Date of Publishing: 14 August 2013 4:34 PM Date of Printing: Page 5 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Aug 13\Infect_Diseases_Outbreak_Hospital Management - SCH.docx This Policy/Procedure may be varied, withdrawn or replaced at any time. Compliance with this Policy/Procedure is mandatory. Work Health and Safety Employees should co-operate with the outbreak management plan and take reasonable care in the workplace to minimise the risk of patients, health care workers and others from infectious illnesses. Health care workers with presumed infectious illness may be requested to provide certain specimens to aid in the identification of the infectious agent. Specimens required will be determined at the initial outbreak management meeting. All specimens will be coded for confidentiality. Staff specimens are voluntary and all staff have the right to choose to attend their own medical practitioner for testing and follow up of any illness. References 1. NSW Ministry of Health PD2007_036 Infection Control Policy http://chw.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/o/documents/policies/policies/2013-9042.pdf 2. Reingold A. Outbreak Investigations A Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases 1998 4:1 21-27 3. Chadwick PR et al. Management of hospital outbreaks of gastro-enteritis due to small round structured viruses. Journal of Hospital Infection 2000 45 1-10 4. National Health and Medical Research Council Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare (2010) http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines/publications/cd33 Copyright notice and disclaimer: The use of this document outside Sydney Children's Hospitals Network (SCHN), or its reproduction in whole or in part, is subject to acknowledgement that it is the property of SCHN. SCHN has done everything practicable to make this document accurate, up-to-date and in accordance with accepted legislation and standards at the date of publication. SCHN is not responsible for consequences arising from the use of this document outside SCHN. A current version of this document is only available electronically from the Hospitals. If this document is printed, it is only valid to the date of printing. http://chw.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/o/documents/policies/policies/2013-9042.pdfhttp://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines/publications/cd33Policy No: 0/C/13:7049-01:00 Policy: Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management - SCH Date of Publishing: 14 August 2013 4:34 PM Date of Printing: Page 6 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Aug 13\Infect_Diseases_Outbreak_Hospital Management - SCH.docx This Policy/Procedure may be varied, withdrawn or replaced at any time. Compliance with this Policy/Procedure is mandatory. Flowchart 1: Process during an Outbreak Situation Outbreak identified Interim SCH Infection Control Committee meeting of salient members Representatives from Executive Unit Representatives from Public Health Unit Laboratory diagnosis and documentation (Appendix 2) Formulation of hypothesis (See Flowchart 2) Implementation of Infection Control measures* Containment and communication Report, feedback, review and implementation of future recommendations to SCH ICC and SCH Management SESAHS reportable incident notification Flow Chart 1: for use in outbreak situations Collection of data (Appendix 1) KEY Liaison and consultation with * As outlined in SCH/SCHN Infection Control Documents. Refer to specific policies outlined previously Public Health notification and intervention (with collection of appropriate environmental specimens as required) Hospital Bed Management Unit Is it a notifiable disease? Relevant member of Management notified for example: Co-ordinator of Clinical Services or Director of Nursing Policy No: (Please type epolicy number here) Policy: Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management - SCH Date of Publishing: 14 August 2013 4:34 PM Date of Printing: Page 7 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Aug 13\Infect_Diseases_Outbreak_Hospital Management - SCH.docx This Policy/Procedure may be varied, withdrawn or replaced at any time. Compliance with this Policy/Procedure is mandatory. Flowchart 2: Defining context of the Outbreak Defining context of outbreak FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS Likely infectious agent* CASE DEFINITION IN: Infected case Known to be infected via laboratory diagnosis and clinical symptoms. May be nosocomial or community acquired PR: Probable case Clinical symptoms and likely exposure PO: Possible case Exposed case without clinical symptoms requiring isolation or other action Source and route of transmission Establish symptoms and description of illness Incubation period* Communicable period* Likely mean duration of symptoms Collection of data, containment and communication (back to flowchart 1) KEY * see definitions on page 2 Policy No: (Please type epolicy number here) Policy: Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management - SCH Date of Publishing: 14 August 2013 4:34 PM Date of Printing: Page 8 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Aug 13\Infect_Diseases_Outbreak_Hospital Management - SCH.docx This Policy/Procedure may be varied, withdrawn or replaced at any time. Compliance with this Policy/Procedure is mandatory. Protocol for the microbiologic investigation of hospital outbreaks 1 Who To Notify When a microbiologic investigation is required to determine the aetiology of an outbreak within the Sydney Children's Hospital (SCH), the designated outbreak co-ordinator(s) should notify the following staff members of the Microbiology Department (SEALS), Randwick*: Scientists to co-ordinate laboratory investigations Phone: 9382 9052 or Senior Hospital Scientist-in-Charge, Virology Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Microbiology (SEALS), Randwick. Phone: 9382 9102 or Laboratory Manager, Department of Microbiology (SEALS), Randwick. Phone: 9382 9100 Staff specialist for discussion of microbiologic tests Senior Microbiologist or Senior Medical Virologist, Microbiology Department (SEALS), Randwick. Phone: 9382 9050 2 Completion of Request Forms It is important that requests for investigations be distinguishable from routine samples so that the appropriate tests can be performed. This will also assist scientists in the scheduling of testing and timely provision of results minimising unnecessary tests. See: Appendix 2. A proforma of the microbiology request form based on the example attached to this document should be made available for specimens. 3 Specimens Required & Microbiological Tests to be undertaken Depending on the likely infectious agent responsible, different samples will be required by the laboratory for investigation. For example in a gastroenteritis outbreak: Stools Stool samples can be collected during the early stages of the illness to enhance detection of the aetiologic agent. Samples should be forwarded immediately to the Microbiology Department or stored at 4C until forwarded. Viruses: Norwalk-like virus, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus and Enterovirus Bacteria: Food-borne agents (Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter) and a nosocomial agent (Clostridium difficile). Parasites: Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium. Microscopy will also be performed to screen for faecal leukocytes and other parasites. The examination of subsequent samples will be focused towards the aetiologic agent(s) detected during this broad screen. Policy No: (Please type epolicy number here) Policy: Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management - SCH Date of Publishing: 14 August 2013 4:34 PM Date of Printing: Page 9 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Aug 13\Infect_Diseases_Outbreak_Hospital Management - SCH.docx This Policy/Procedure may be varied, withdrawn or replaced at any time. Compliance with this Policy/Procedure is mandatory. Throat swabs The aim of testing throat swabs is to detect enteric viruses, which may colonise this region, or be harboured subsequent to vomiting. Specimens can be taken using the regular serum coated swabs but must be immediately immersed in a single vial of viral maintenance medium (a red solution) provided by the Virology Diagnostic Laboratory (VDL). Please phone the SCH Emergency Department (9382 1033) or the VDL (9382 9103) to obtain vials. These vials should be transported to the Microbiology Department immediately or stored at 4C. Serum Where possible, serum should be taken (particularly early cases) to identify response to infection. Samples will be stored for later examination if the above tests failed to detect the aetiologic agent(s). N.B.: South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (SEALS) is a shared service provided to SCH Randwick by SESLHD. Policy No: (Please type epolicy number here) Policy: Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management - SCH Date of Publishing: 14 August 2013 4:34 PM Date of Printing: Page 10 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Aug 13\Infect_Diseases_Outbreak_Hospital Management - SCH.docx This Policy/Procedure may be varied, withdrawn or replaced at any time. Compliance with this Policy/Procedure is mandatory. Appendix 1: Outbreak Management Data Collection Sheet OUTBREAK MANAGEMENT DATA COLLECTION SHEET 2x2 letter code MRN (for patients only) Date of birth CATEGORY* Date of admission Date of ONSET of symptoms Date of exposure Ward or place of exposure Symptoms CASE DEFINITION** ACTION *** Pub Hlth informed Y/N Lab. Results and date KEY *CATEGORY: HCW = Health Care Worker/Staff, P = Patient, O = Other **CASE DEFINITION: IN = Infected case known to be infected with laboratory diagnosis and symptomatic, PR = Probable case clinical symptoms and likely exposure PO = Possible case exposed case without clinical symptoms ***ACTION : Isolation on same ward, Discharge from hospital , Transfer to Isolation ward Policy No: (Please type epolicy number here) Policy: Infectious Disease Outbreak: Hospital Management - SCH Date of Publishing: 14 August 2013 4:34 PM Date of Printing: Page 11 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Aug 13\Infect_Diseases_Outbreak_Hospital Management - SCH.docx This Policy/Procedure may be varied, withdrawn or replaced at any time. Compliance with this Policy/Procedure is mandatory. Appendix 2: Sample request form when investigating suspected cases during an outbreak PreambleAimDefinitionsWork Health and SafetyReferencesFlowchart 1: Process during an Outbreak SituationFlowchart 2: Defining context of the OutbreakProtocol for the microbiologic investigation of hospital outbreaks1 Who To NotifyScientists to co-ordinate laboratory investigations Staff specialist for discussion of microbiologic tests 2 Completion of Request Forms3 Specimens Required & Microbiological Tests to be undertakenStoolsThroat swabsSerumAppendix 1: Outbreak Management Data Collection SheetAppendix 2: Sample request form when investigating suspected cases during an outbreakmydate: 14 August 2013

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