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  • Industrial Wireless Networking With Resource Constraint Devices

    Kallol Das

  • Graduation Committee:

    Chairman and Secretary: Prof. dr. P.M.G. Apers Supervisor: Prof. dr. ing. P.J.M. Havinga Members: Prof. dr. ing. S. Mullender University of Twente Dr. ir. N. Meratnia University of Twente Prof. dr. ir. S.M. Heemstra Eindhoven University of Technology Prof. dr. M. Gidlund Mid Sweden University

    Wireless, Self-Powered Vibration Monitoring &

    Control for Complex Industrial Systems

    This research is supported, in part, by the EU FP7-ICT project WiBRATE (, under the Grant No. 289041.

    CTIT Ph.D.-thesis Series No. 15-367 ISSN 1381-3617 Centre for Telematics and Information Technology University of Twente P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands

    Abstract translation: Chantal van Kleunen - Post Cover design: De Weijer Design Printed by CPI – Koninklijke Wöhrmann

    Copyright © 2015 Kallol Das, Enschede, The Netherlands

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by

    any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording,

    or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the


    ISBN 978-90-365-3994-4 DOI 10.3990/1.9789036539944



    to obtain the degree of doctor at the University of Twente,

    on the authority of the rector magnificus, Prof. dr. H. Brinksma,

    on account of the decision of the graduation committee, to be publicly defended

    on Friday, November 06, 2015 at 14:45


    Kallol Das

    born on May 28, 1985 in Chittagong, Bangladesh

  • This dissertation is approved by: Prof. dr. ing. P.J.M. Havinga (supervisor)

  • Dedicated to my son, Kushal

    who has grown into a wonderful two-and-half year old in spite of his father spending so much time away from him working on this dissertation

  • Acknowledgments

    Looking back, I am surprised and at the same time very grateful for all I have re- ceived throughout my PhD life although achieving the PhD degree will probably be the most challenging activity of the first 30 years of my life. Whenever someone ask me to share the experience of my PhD life, I always mention that it is like a sine wave that contains countless cycles of exploration, inquiry, meditation, enlighten- ment, doubt, confusion, uncertainty, frustration and perseverance. Over the years, I have learned to be patient and never give up. It was a great experience, full of learning, nice memories from trips to conferences, and wonderful people in an inter- national environment. My PhD research and this thesis have had mentorship from numerous outstanding individuals both from within the university and outside of it.

    How could I thank them? I am afraid that I do not have enough words to express my gratitude to them.

    First and foremost, I would like to thank my supervisor, Prof. Paul Havinga, for his prompt and useful guidance during my research and for giving me the priceless freedom to choose my own subject, the one that I loved to work. Although he is one of the busiest men in the world, he never said ‘no’ to me when I knocked his door for a discussion. He has always been extremely supportive and approachable. The greatest thing about Paul I want to mention is his ability to motivate any young researcher by vanishing his/her frustration phases very quickly.

    Next, I would like to thank my colleagues of WiBRATE project team, Pouria Zand and Emi Mathews, for the fruitful discussions we had during my PhD.

    To all Pervasive Systems group members, I would like to leave here my gratitude for providing such a friendly working environment. I have learned uncountable new things from our weekly PS seminars, events, and lunch discussions.

    I would like to mention my best office-mate, Viet Duc Le; we started our PhD journey on the same day at the Pervasive Systems group, shared the same office during the first two years of my PhD, spent a lot of quality time together discussing

  • viii Acknowledgments

    work and life issues. Many thanks Viet Duc for the very warm friendship and for accepting to be my paranymph during my defense.

    A special thanks goes to Wouter and his wife, Chantal, for translating the abstract of this thesis into Dutch.

    I would also like to thank our dear secretaries, Nicole, Thelma and Marlous for putting a great effort to make things easier with their excellent administrative sup- port.

    Having contributed directly to my thesis, all the co-authors of my published pa- pers, which are used as basis for this thesis, deserve a special acknowledgment: Pouria Zand, Emi Mathews, Andrea Sanchez Ramirez, Supriyo Chatterjea, Arta Dilo, Rechard Loenderslolot, and Tiedo Tinga.

    I would like to thank Prof. Sape Mullender, Dr. Nirvana Meratnia, Prof. Sonia Heemstra, and Prof. Mikael Gidlund for being part of my graduation committee. I feel honored to have such experts in my graduation committee.

    Although I am 7700 km away from my home country, I always felt at home in Twente with the support of my Bangladeshi friends. Thank you guys for making my stay in the Netherlands an enjoyable and a memorable one.

    I gratefully acknowledge EU FP7 WiBRATE and EIT Digital RICH projects for partially supporting my PhD. I am also thankful to all the researchers involved in these two European projects for their valuable comments during the projects meet- ings.

    As always it is impossible to mention everybody who had an impact to this work however there are those whose spiritual support is even more important. I feel a deep sense of gratitude for my parents and parents-in-law for their unconditional support during these four years and motivating me to pursue my PhD.

    A special thanks to my brother-in-law Mithun for fulfilling the needs of family far away from home through his several visits in the Netherlands during the last few years.

    I am thankful to my son Kushal for giving me endless happiness during the last two and half years of my PhD.

    Finally, my most heartfelt thanks to my wife, Mahua, who has always supported me in every imaginable way. Despite residing in a foreign land, she never let me worry about any household issues just to allow me to concentrate on my research. She is not just my wife but my best friend and I can’t thank her enough for simply being the perfect companion one could ever wish for.

    Kallol Das Enschede, October 2015

  • Abstract

    During the last decade, wireless technologies have revolutionized the industrial au- tomation sector by enabling wireless sensing and actuation for industrial applica- tions. Most of these recently developed industrial standards are built on top of IEEE802.15.4 interface, which uses 2.4GHz frequency band for communication. Be- cause of the wide use, reliable communication with low latency cannot always be guaranteed on this frequency band. While satisfying the requirements of monitor- ing applications quite well, current industrial standards have several limitations to address the requirements of time-critical control applications. For instance, owing to the use of a centralized network management scheme, widely used industrial stan- dards such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a cannot handle network disturbances in a real-time manner. Moreover, the I/O devices (sensors and actuators) in these systems have to go through a complex network joining process, which takes a lot of time and energy.

    The network devices in industrial applications are typically expected to run for a long time without maintenance. Replacing batteries and main powering of these nodes are often not practical in industrial environments. To address this issue, en- ergy harvesting technologies are becoming popular as an alternative power source for the industrial I/O devices. However, present energy harvesters can only produce a little amount of energy that forces the harvester powered I/O devices to shut down frequently. Consequently, these I/O devices need to re-join the network to resume their task, which consumes additional energy. Clearly, this is a huge overhead for resource constraint I/O devices.

    To deal with the above mentioned limitations of existing industrial systems, we propose two hierarchical network management schemes where blocks of communi- cation resources are delegated to the routers to locally manage the I/O devices. The proposed schemes are able to cope with the network disturbances quickly with low overhead. Next, we propose a fast network joining scheme for I/O devices that is

  • x Abstract

    able to reduce the network joining overhead and make the network more suitable for harvester powered I/O devices. In addition, we propose a data publication scheme for the harvester powered I/O devices by utilizing spatial diversity that can improve the communication reliability. Last but not least, with the advances in energy har- vesting technologies, a new industrial application class called fit-and-forget system, in which I/O devices are only powered by energy harvesters, is attracting much at- tention. To address the requirements of such I/O devices with strict energy budget, we propose an asynchronous communication scheme that allows harvester powered I/O devices to transmit their data whenever they harvest enough energy.

  • Samenvatting

    Gedurende het laatste decennium hebben draadloze