of 26 /26
Industrial Information System

Industrial Information System Lecture 2

Embed Size (px)


by Prof. Lawrence Siquinia

Text of Industrial Information System Lecture 2

PowerPoint Presentation

Industrial Information System1Data and InformationData are raw fact that can take the form of a number or statement such as date or a measurement

Information is a generated through the transformation of data. This can be achieved using a different number of transformation or data process. Examples

Ie. Newly acquired business2Data and InformationData are raw fact that can take the form of a number or statement such as date or a measurement

Information is a generated through the transformation of data. This can be achieved using a different number of transformation or data process. Examples

Ie. Newly acquired business3Data and InformationInformation Attributes

The difference between good and bad information can be identified by considering whether or not it has some or all of the attributes of information namely:TimingContentForm of information

Ie. Newly acquired business4Information AttributesTimeliness

Refer to that information should be available when needed. If information is provided too early, it may no longer be current when used. If supplied too late, it will be of no use. It should cover also correct time period

Sample: Sales forecast need past performance. Current performance and predicted performance

Ie. Newly acquired business5Information AttributesContent

Refers to factors such accuracy of the information and relevance of the information to a particular situation and userIe. Newly acquired business6Information AttributesForm of the information

Refers to aspects such as clarity of information which should be appropriateTo the intended recipient. The recipient should also be able to locate specific items quickly and should be able to understand the information easily.

Example: some cases needed detailed information while others only summaryIe. Newly acquired business7SystemsCan be defined as a collection of components that work together towards a common goal. The objective of a system is to receive inputs and transform these into outputs

Ie. Newly acquired business8Information SystemsThe role of IS is to provide inforamtion to management which will enable them to make decision which ensure that the organization is controlled. The organization will be controlled if it is meeting the needs of the environments.

Control Systems can be classified as open-loop and closed-loop.

Ie. Newly acquired business9Open-loop Control systemIs the one that has no way of ensuring objectives are met for a process. It means unsuitable in an organisational context because of the complexity of the environment in which the organization exists.

Ie. Newly acquired business10Closed-loop Control systemHave two types of control mechanism referred to as feedback control and feedforward control.

Feedback control systems generally provide a way of ensuring a system is under control. Negative feeedbacks is when actions are taken to reverse any differences between desired and actual outputs (weakness delay in discrepancy and action to reduce it)

Feedforward control attempt to overcome the time-delay associated with feedback systems by incorporating a prediction element in the control feedback loop. It is not common systems in business settings. Examples are project management, where plans are made to meet time, quality and cost objectives over time.

Ie. Newly acquired business11Business Information SystemBIS make extensive use of information tchnology such as personal computers. The reasons for the widespread of BIS is evident due to speed, accuraacy and dependability. It has a high degree of flexibility due to ablity to be programmed to carry out a wide variety of task. Disadvantage is it limits the creativity of humans in decision making such as innovation and intuitionIe. Newly acquired business12Types Business Information SystemInformation system may be divided into two categories of systems that support an organisations day-to day business activities and systems that support managerial decision making. Operations IS are generally concerned with control, transaction processing and communications.Management Information systems are concerned with providing support to managerial decision making,Ie. Newly acquired business13HardwareA hardware describes the physical components of a computer systems which can be categorised as input devices, central processing unit, internal and external memory and output devices.Input devices are used to enter data or instructions from outside of the computer into the computer.

Example mouse and keyboard Ie. Newly acquired business14HardwareCentral Processing Unit (CPU)

The cpu or processor accepts instructions and data and executes them storing the results in memory. The increased speed of computers is primarily a results of CPU speedNote: Clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can excuteBus width describes how many pieces of data can be transmitted at one time.Ie. Newly acquired business15HardwareInternal and External Memory

Is categorised as internal memory (also called memory or primary or primary memory) which is data held on the computer and external memory (also called external) which is data stored on a separate device where the information will be retained even if the machine is switched off.

Output DevicesOutput devices display the results of computer processing. A computer-based information system will make use of a number of output devices as a monitor, printer, sound devicesIe. Newly acquired business16Major Categories of Computers MainframeLarge, powerful machines designed for large scale data processing activitiesGovt agenccies, banks, corp

Mobile computersLaptops, netbook, tablets

Micro-computersReferred to as client machine that recieves data from the server. Dektop, video gameIe. Newly acquired business17SoftwareCan be defined as a series of detailed instructions that control the operation of computer system and exists as programs which are developed by computer programmers

Categories:System software-controls and manages the operation of the computer system as it performs tasks on behalf of the user

Ie. Newly acquired business18Sub-classification of system softwareOperating systemsOS interacts with the hardware of the computer bu monitoring and sending instructions to manage and direct computer resources

Software Development programsAllows user to develop their own software using programming languages(COBOL, BASIC, C)

Utility programsProvide range of tools that support the operations and management of computer systemsIe. Newly acquired business19Application SoftwareDefined as a set programs that enables users to perform a specific information-processing activities.

General Purpose Programs that can be used to carry out a wide range of common tasks. Word , spreadsheet, database, multimedia software

Application-specificPrograms intended for a specific purpose or carry a defined taskPayroll processing, logistics, supply chainIe. Newly acquired business20Database SystemThe purpose of a database is to track things. Database can exist on paper, for example a telephone directory, but are inefficient and costly to maintain. A computer-based offers the advantage of powerful search facilities which can be used to locate and retrieve information many times faster than manual method.Ie. Newly acquired business21Retrieving data from a Database A database software data is retrieved from a database using what is called a query. A query enables user to locate, sort, update or extract records from a data base.

The majority of database programs make use of a special structured query language (SQL) in order to create queries. SQL provides a standardised method of retrieving information from database.

Ie. Newly acquired business22Structured Query Language (SQL)

Ie. Newly acquired business23Structured Query Language (SQL)

Ie. Newly acquired business24

Ie. Newly acquired business25

Ie. Newly acquired business26