Indoor Air Pollution - Mercer Island School District Indoor Air Pollution . Indoor air pollution can

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  • Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution can be an even greater health threat than outdoor air pollution. Common pollutants often ____________ _____________ ____________.

  • 4 Most Hazardous Indoor Pollutants

    • Smoke • Formaldehyde:

     Outgassed from building materials  Causes headaches, sore throat and eye irritation

    • Asbestos:  ____________________________________________________


     Can cause breathing difficulties, lung cancer  Removal can release fibers

    • Radon -222  ___________________________________________

  • Sick Building Syndrome

    If ______ or more of a building’s occupants suffer health effects that improve when they leave the building, a building is considered to have “sick building syndrome”.

  • Indoor Air Pollution

  • Discuss with your table partner:

    What are methods that can be used to reduce the amount of indoor air pollutant?.

    One strategy that could lessen certain indoor air pollutants is phytoremediation (a type of bioremediation). Discuss what this term means.

    • _______________________________________ _______________________________________

    • _________________________________________ _________________________________________

    Phyto = ______ Remediation = ____________ Phytoremediation: ____________________________ __________________________________________.

  • _______________________________________________.

  • Radon-222

    Radon–222 gas is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring gas that is a breakdown product of uranium–238.

    Found in small amounts in most soil.

    Radon gas causes lung cancer & other health problems.

    ______________________ ________________ can prevent accumulation of this dangerous gas.

  • Respiratory System Body defenses against particulate matter: • Nose hairs • Mucus that traps particulate matter • ________________________________________________ Not very effective against fine particulate matter.

  • Video on Indoor Air Pollutants 834

  • Common Health Effects of Air Pollutants

    • Lung Cancer • Asthma: typically an allergic reaction causing

    muscle spasms in bronchial walls and leading to shortness of breath

    • Chronic Bronchitis: persistent swelling of bronchi and bronchioles, causing mucus build-up, coughing and shortness of breath

    • ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________

    • Recent studies show that air pollution exposure linked to greater risk of heart attacks, stroke and cognitive deterioration including dementia.

  • Normal Human Lungs and the Lungs of a Person Who Died of


  • Health Effects of Air Pollutants

    • carbon monoxide (CO): ______________________ ___________________________________________ _________________________________________ particulates: long–term exposure contributes to lung disease & cancer, aggravates bronchitis & asthma; • sulfur dioxide (SO2): causes constriction of airways & can cause bronchitis;

    • nitrogen oxides (especially NO2): irritate lungs, cause conditions similar to bronchitis & emphysema;

    • volatile organics (& toxic particulates):___________ ___________________________________________ • ozone: causes coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, & eye, nose, & throat irritation.

  • Preventing & Reducing Air Pollution

    A combination of laws, technologies, & responsible practices can be used to prevent & clean up air pollution.

  • Air Pollution Legislation The Clean Air Acts of 1970, 1977, & 1990 require the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). •NAAQS apply to: suspended particulate matter sulfur oxides carbon monoxide nitrogen oxides (NOx) ozone lead •Prevention of significant deterioration is a policy of the

    Clean Air Act, regions with air quality cleaner than that required by NAAQS are not allowed to deteriorate;

  • Sulfur Dioxide Cap and Trade In 1990, the Clean Air Act created a cap and trade program for sulfur dioxide. This mainly affects coal power plants. • A cap is set on emissions of sulfur dioxide. • ________________________________________

    __________________________________________ ____________________

  • Effectiveness of Clean Air Laws •Between 1970 & 1997 levels of six major

    air pollutants decreased by 31%; •A 1996 study by the EPA shows that

    benefits of the Clean Air Act greatly exceed costs: 1970–90 $436 billion spent, health benefits of $2.7 to $14.6 trillion; •However, EPA estimates that 107 million

    Americans live in areas that exceed at least one outdoor air pollution standard. •Nitrogen dioxide levels have increased

    slightly, primarily from automobiles;

  • Premature Deaths from Air Pollution in the U.S.

  • Video: Air Pollution in US cities Down but Not Out --10502526

  • Four commonly used methods for removing particulates from the exhaust gases of power & industrial plants. All produce hazardous waste that must be disposed.

    Technologies for Preventing & Reducing Air Pollution

  • Reducing Air Pollution from Vehicles • Catalytic Converters

    reduce CO and hydrocarbon emissions: O2 from air is passed over a catalyst, which converts ___________ ___________________ ___________________

    •Mandatory testing for older vehicles which may be more polluting.

  • Preventing & Reducing Air Pollution

    How can we protect the atmosphere? •Put more emphasis on pollution prevention •Improve energy efficiency •Reduce use of fossil fuels (especially coal & oil) •Increase use of renewable energy •Slow population growth •Integrate air pollution prevention with other policies •Regulate air quality for entire regions •Tax the production of air pollution •Transfer appropriate technologies to developing


  • •SOLUTIONS •Indoor Air Pollution •Prevention •Cleanup or Dilution

    •Clean ceiling tiles and line AC ducts to prevent release of mineral fibers

    •Use adjustable fresh air vents for work spaces

    •Ban smoking or limit it to well-ventilated areas •Increase intake of outside


    •Change air more frequently

    •Set stricter formaldehyde emissions standards for carpet, furniture, and building materials •Circulate a building’s air

    through rooftop greenhouses •Prevent radon


    •Use efficient venting systems for wood- burning stoves

    •Use office machines in well-ventilated areas

    •Use less polluting substitutes for harmful cleaning agents, paints, and other products

    •Use exhaust hoods for stoves and appliances burning natural gas

    Slide Number 1 Slide Number 2 4 Most Hazardous Indoor Pollutants Sick Building Syndrome Slide Number 5 Discuss with your table partner: Slide Number 7 � Slide Number 9 Slide Number 10 Video on Indoor Air Pollutants Common Health Effects of Air Pollutants Slide Number 13 Slide Number 14 Slide Number 15 Slide Number 16 Slide Number 17 Sulfur Dioxide Cap and Trade Slide Number 19 Slide Number 20 Video: Air Pollution in US cities Down but Not Out Slide Number 22 Slide Number 23 Slide Number 24 Slide Number 25