Indigenous Communities and Adaptation to Climate Change

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lndlgenous CommunlLy AdapLaLlon Lo CllmaLe ChangeCorne||a 8ut|er I|ora and Ian L I|oraIowa State Un|vers|tyMax|m||||an Ashw||| Wor|d 8ankLd|th Iernandez8aca CCNDLSANMon|ca 8end|n| and Marta a|omares Un|vers|dad Nac|ona| de| ComahuePoIiticaI CapitaICuIturaI CapitaINaturaI CapitaIHuman CapitaIFinanciaI CapitaISociaI CapitaIBuiIt CapitaIEconomic SecuritySocial InclusionHealthy EcosystemVivir bienow are Lhe caplLals balanced ln dlfferenL placesW SlLes chosen fromaraguayArgenLlna8ollvlaeruuomlnlcan 8epubllcAdaptat|on Coa||t|ons and C||mate Change Lv|dence 8ased Case study of S Lat|n Amer|can Countr|esW Adaptat|on Coa||t|on IrameworkW Act|on kesearchua||tat|ve know|edge on the soc|a| d|mens|ons of CC |n LACDeve|op framework]too|k|t for bu||d|ng soc|a| res|||ence to CCW art|c|pat|ng countr|es Argent|na 8o||v|a Dom|n|can kepub||c araguay and er W artnersIowa State Un|vers|ty (Ian I|ora and Corne||a I|ora)Un|vers|dad Nac|ona| De Comahue (Arg)CAkL 8o||v|aInst|tuto Dom|n|cano de Desarro||o Integra| (Dk)Inst|tuto Desarro||o (y)CCNDLSAN eruProjections of Future CIimate ChangeModeI projections of future cIimate change, based on three different scenarios of future emissionsSource: MeehI et aI, 2007EarIy 21stcenturyMid 21stcenturyLate 21stcentury2.0-5.2HFgIobaI average (IikeIy range):3.0-7.9HF3.6-9.7HFThese changes are in addition to the aIready-observed 1.4HF increaseLxtreme weather events become more commonW venLs now consldered rare wlll become commonplaceW eaL waves wlll llkely become longer and more severeW uroughLs are llkely Lo become more frequenL and severe W Llkely lncrease ln severe LhundersLorms (and Lornadoes)W WlnLer sLorm Lracks are shlfLlng norLhward and Lhe sLrongesL sLormsare llkely Lo become sLronger and more frequenLCIimate changeIncreased mean temp.MeIting and Iack renovation of gIaciersIncrease in survivaI of bacteria and pestsIncreased extreme weather events(drought, fIood, freezes, haiI)Other changesGIobaIizationEarthquakeChanges in Iand useChanges in distribution of weaIth and incomeChanges in poIiticaI regimeW @he global waLer cycle ls speedlng up" whlch Lends Lo make weL places weLLer and dry places drlerW A hlgher fracLlon of ralnfall ls also comlng ln Lhe form of heavy preclplLaLlon whlch leads Lo floodlngW Changes ln snow and lce cover also affecL waLer avallablllLy and quallLyImpacts of CIimate ChangeExampIe: Freshwater ResourcesPhoto credit: USGCRP, 2009,any vulnerable populaLlons are used Lo adapLlng Lo varlable weaLherW Save seed from dlverse sourcesW lanL dlfferenL Lhlngs accordlng Lo Lhe weaLherW Are accusLomed Lo movlng Lo where Lhere ls waLerW ave complex and dlverse agrlculLural sysLemsW Access a varleLy of wlld foodsW 8ased on knowledge galned over generaLlons ln a placeArgenLlna aLagonlaW uroughL led Lo llvesLock losses LlvesLock replaced by Lhe sLaLe Cycllcal mlgraLlon Lo care of llvesLock encouraged conLlnuaLlon of LranshumanL herdlngW vlewed as cycllcal adapLaLlon Lhrough pollLlcal caplLalArgenLlna @arLagalW I|ood|ng |ands||des comp||cated by env|ronmenta| and soc|a| d|sorgan|zat|on caused by change |n |and use Deforestat|on and convers|on of |and to soybeans D|sp|acement of |nd|genous househo|ds and cropsCllmaLe change ln 8ollvlaW Increase |n extreme weather events w|th resu|tant |ncreased evapotransp|rat|on droughts f|oods |and s||des freezes and |ack of g|ac|er renovat|on W Some commun|t|es seek to m|t|gate c||mate change through co||ect|ve act|on and some are supported by state po||c|esSoclal ConfllcL ln Lhe 8ollvlan AlLlplanoWater WaterWaLershedsChoquecota Choquecota LSAS LSASMururata Mururata1un|Condor|r|1un|Condor|r|a|ca a|caAmachumaGrandeAmachumaGrandeCondor|r| Condor|r|Chunav| Chunav|nuancapampa nuancapampaLa az La az,anagemenLChoquecotaDpsLream perspecLlveLocal auLhorlLles@radlLlonal arrangemenLLSASuownsLream perspecLlvelncreased local knowledgearLner wlLh local lnsLlLuLlonsro[ecLs LhaL beneflL communlLleseruAlLlplanoW Dnseason freezes and hlgh LemperaLures make pasLures unsLable causlng sponLaneous aborLlon of alpaca feLusesW lormaLlon of farmers assoclaLlonsW 8ondlng soclal caplLal wlLh Lechnlcal asslsLance provlders around CrganlzaLlon Soll quallLyerd lmprovemenLeruSelvaW @wo lndlgenous vlllages on polluLed badly by an oll companyW ressures Lo become dependenL on Lhe markeL and carbonW ShlfLed from hunLlng and flshlng Lo ralslng small anlmals on a cuL and carry sysLemW ShlfLlng from gaLhered planLs Lo small gardensuomlnlcan 8epubllcW Cne urban one rural slLeW Drban slLe organlzlng Lo confronL LheconLlnual floodlng of homes (alLhough noL encouraged Lo move) and Lo confronL Lhe lncrease vlolence Lhey see relaLed Lo cllmaLe changeW 8ural slLeAs Lhe lake rlses communlLles move and shlfL llvellhood sysLems wlLh some asslsLance from nCCsConcluslonsW lndlgenous communlLles ln LaLln Amerlca are very vulnerable Lo cllmaLe changeW CulLural caplLal comblned wlLh brldglng and bondlng soclal caplLal resulLlng ln adapLaLlon ln areas where Lhere has noL been a sLrong presence of global resource exLracLlonlL ls more dlfflculL when Lhere ls peLroleum exLracLlon and lndusLrlalagrlculLureConcluslonsW erverse lncenLlves of Lwo LypesW Aslsteoclollsto soclal welfare keep Lhe poor ln Lhelr placeW 8elnforce lndusLrlal agrlculLure (oslsteoclollsmo for Lhe rlch)W erverse lncenLlves can be replaced by adapLaLlon Analyze naLural caplLal uraw on culLural caplLal lncrease soclal caplLal boLh brldglng and bondlng lncrease human caplLalConcluslons (conLlnued)WWhlle lL ls easy Lo faulL vulnerable communlLles for noL adapLlng Lo cllmaLe change governmenL and donor programs comblned wlLh markeL lncenLlves LhaL encourage a reLurn Lo Lhe rlsky llvellhood sLraLegles provlde perverse lncenLlves Lo vulnerable communlLles noL Lo adapLPoIiticaI CapitaICuIturaI CapitaINaturaI CapitaIHuman CapitaIFinanciaI CapitaISociaI CapitaIBuiIt CapitaIEconomic SecuritySocial InclusionHealthy EcosystemVivir bien


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