Indian Paintings, Folk Dances & Carnatic Music

  • Published on
    10-Dec-2015

  • View
    24

  • Download
    17

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

jfdj jfdkfhd fhdkfdsfh lfjdslfh dfhdfh dfhjdfh dfjkdfh dfkjdhf d

Transcript

  • RAJESH NAYAK

    CONTENTS

    1. PAINTINGS OF INDIA

    2. FOLK DANCES OF WHOLE INDIA

    3. CARNATIC MUSIC

  • RAJESH NAYAK

    Cave Paintings in India

    Cave paintings of India date back to the prehistoric times. The finest examples of these paintings comprise of

    the murals of Ajanta, Ellora, Bagh, Sittanavasal, etc, which reflect an emphasis on naturalism. Ancient cave

    paintings of India serve as a window to our ancestors, who used to inhabit these caves. In the following lines,

    we have provided more information on the ancient Indian rock paintings:

    Ajanta Paintings

    Ajanta caves are located at a distance of approximately 100 km from the city of Aurangabad. Most of the

    paintings seen in the Ajanta Caves, date back to the period of the Mahayana sect of Buddhism. The themes of

    most of these paintings revolve around the life and teachings of Lord Buddha. This includes the Jataka stories

    related to the various lives and incarnations of Buddha. Calligraphic lines characterize these paintings, which

    can be classified into portraits, narrative illustrations and ornamental decoration.

    Ellora Paintings

    Ellora caves are nestled amidst the Chamadari Hills, lying approximately 18 miles to the northeast of

    Aurangabad city. Paintings can be found in five caves. However, all of them are today preserved only in the

    Kailasa temple. The rock paintings of Ellora were painted in two different series. The first series, which were

    done when the caves were carved, revolve around Lord Vishnu and Goddess Lakshmi. The second series,

    painted centuries later, illustrate procession of Shaiva holy men, Apsaras, etc.

    Bagh Paintings

    Bagh caves, situated on the banks of the Bagh River, have been excavated on the rock face of a lofty hill. The

    wall paintings of these caves date back to period between 5th and 7th century. These paintings represent the

    mast exquisite traditions of Indian art form.

    Sittanavasal Paintings

    Sittanavasal is the site of an ancient Jain Monastery, located at a distance of around 58 km from Trichy. The

    monastery is known for housing some of the most exquisite frescoes in a rock cave. Most of these cave

    paintings are based on the Pandyan period of the 9th century. The themes of these paintings include animals,

    fish, ducks, people collecting lotuses from a pond, two dancing figures, etc. Apart from that, one can also find

    inscriptions dating back to the 9th and 10th century. The ceiling of the Ardhamandapam is adorned with

    murals from the 7th century.

    Madhubani Painting

    Madhubani painting originated in a small village, known as Maithili, of the Bihar state of India. Initially, the

    womenfolk of the village drew the paintings on the walls of their home, as an illustration of their thoughts,

    hopes and dreams. With time, the paintings started becoming a part of festivities and special events, like

    marriage. Slowly and gradually, the Madhubani painting of India crossed the traditional boundaries and started

    reaching connoisseurs of art, both at the national as well as the international level.

    The traditional base of freshly plastered mud wall of huts has now been replaced by cloth, handmade paper and

    canvas. Since the paintings have been confined to a limited geographical range, the themes as well as the style

    are, more or less, the same. Indian Maithili paintings make use of three-dimensional images and the colors that

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

  • RAJESH NAYAK

    are used are derived mainly from plants. The themes on which these paintings are based include nature and

    mythological events. The first reference to the Maithili painting of Bihar dates back to the time of Ramayana,

    when King Janaka ordered the paintings to be created for his daughter, Sita's, wedding.

    Themes of Maithili Paintings

    Themes of the Maithili painting of Bihar revolve around Hindu deities like Krishna, Rama, Lakshmi, Shiva,

    Durga and Saraswati. The natural themes that are used include the Sun, the Moon and the religious plants like

    tulsi. One can also find paintings based on scenes from the royal courts and social events, like weddings. If any

    empty space is left after painting the main theme, it is filled up with the motifs of flowers, animals and birds or

    geometric designs.

    Making Madhubani Paintings

    The brush used for Madhubani paintings of Bihar was made of cotton, wrapped around a bamboo stick. The

    artists prepare the colors that are used for the paintings. Black color is made by adding soot to cow dung;

    yellow from combining turmeric (or pollen or lime) with the milk of banyan leaves; blue from indigo; red from

    the kusam flower juice or red sandalwood; green from the leaves of the wood apple tree; white from rice

    powder and orange from palasha flowers. There is no shading in the application of colors. A double line is

    drawn for outlines and the gap is filled with either cross or straight tiny lines. The linear Maithili paintings do

    not even require application of colors; only the outlines are drawn.

    Miniature Painting

    Miniatures paintings are beautiful handmade paintings, which are quite colorful but small in size. The highlight

    of these paintings is the intricate and delicate brushwork, which lends them a unique identity. The colors are

    handmade, from minerals, vegetables, precious stones, indigo, conch shells, pure gold and silver. The most

    common theme of the Miniature painting of India comprises of the Ragas i.e., the musical codes of Indian

    classical music. There were a number of miniature schools in the country, including those of Mughals, Rajputs

    and the Deccan. History of Miniature Painting in India

    The evolution of Indian Miniatures paintings started in the Western Himalayas, around the 17th century. These

    paintings were highly influenced by the mural paintings that originated during the later half of the 18th

    century. During the time of the Mughals, Muslim kings of the Deccan and Malwa as well as the Hindu Rajas of

    Rajasthan, this art flourished to quite an extent. Infact, the Mughals were responsible for introducing Persian

    tradition in the Miniature paintings of India. The credit for western influence can be ascribed to the Muslim

    kings.

    Schools of Miniature Painting

    The different schools of the Miniature paintings of India include:

    Pala School

    Orissa School

    Jain School

    Mughal School

    Rajasthani School

    Nepali School

    These schools were the products of hothouse cultivation that was practiced over generations. The earliest

    instances of the Indian Miniature painting are those related to the Pala School and date back to the 11th

    century. This school emphasized on the symbolic use of color in the paintings, which was taken from tantric

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

  • RAJESH NAYAK

    ritual. The other characteristics of the Pala School include the use of a skillful and graceful line, modeling

    forms by delicate and expressive variation of pressure, use of natural color for painting human skin, etc

    The Jain School of Miniature paintings laid great emphasis on style. The unique features of this school include

    strong pure colors, stylish figures of ladies, heavy gold outlines, diminution of dress to angular segments,

    enlarged eyes and square-shaped hands. One can see the influence of Jain miniature paintings on Rajasthani

    and Mughal paintings also.

    Mughal Painting

    Mughal painting reflects an exclusive combination of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles. As the name suggests,

    these paintings evolved as well as developed during the rule of Mughal Emperors in India, between 16th to

    19th century. The Mughal paintings of India revolved around themes, like battles, court scenes, receptions,

    legendary stories, hunting scenes, wildlife, portraits, etc. The Victoria and Albert Museums of London house a

    large and impressive collection of Mughal paintings.

    History of Mughal Painting

    Indian Mughal paintings originated during the rule of Mughal Emperor, Humayun (1530-1540). When he came

    back to India from the exile, he also brought along two excellent Persian artists, Mir-Sayyid Ali and Abd-us-

    samad. With time, their art got influenced by the local styles and gradually; it gave rise to the Mughal painting

    of India. The earliest example of the Mughal style is the Tutinama ('Tales of a Parrot') Painting, now in the

    Cleveland Museum of Art. Then, there is the 'Princess of the House of Timur', a painting redone numerous

    times.

    Growth of Mughal Painting

    Mughal paintings of India developed as well as prospered under the rule of Mughal Emperors, Akbar, Jahangir

    and Shah Jahan.

    Under Akbar

    Mughal painting experienced large-scale growth under the reign of Emperor Akbar. During that time, hundreds

    of artists used to paint under the direction of the two Persian artists. Since the Emperor was fond of tales, one

    can see the paintings mainly being based on the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Persian epics. Mughal paintings

    also started illustrating an enhanced naturalism, with animal tales, landscape, portraits, etc.

    Under Jahangir

    Emperor Jahangir reigned from 1605 to 1627 and extended great support to various art forms, especially

    paintings. This period saw more and more refinement in brushwork, along with the use of much lighter and

    subdued colors. The main themes of the Mughal paintings revolved around the events from Jahangir's own life,

    along with portraits, birds, flowers, animals, etc. One of the most popular examples of Mughal paintings of this

    time include the pictorial illustrations of the Jehangir-nama, the biography of Emperor Jahangir.

    Under Shah Jahan

    The grace and refinement of the Jahangir period was seen at the time of Emperor Shah Jahan (1628-1658).

    However, the sensitivity of the paintings was replaced by coldness and rigidity. The themes of that time

    revolved around musical parties, lovers on terraces and gardens, ascetics gathered around a fire, etc.

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

  • RAJESH NAYAK

    Decline of Mughal Painting

    The trend that was seen during the time of Shah Jahan was also found under the rule of Aurangzeb (1658-

    1707). However, the emperor did not pay too much attention on the growth of the Mughal paintings. Still, the

    art form continued to survive with the support received from its other patrons. However, gradually, because of

    diminishing support, a declining trend set in. The time of Muhammad Shah, (1719-1748), did experience a

    brief revival of the Mughal paintings. Nonetheless, with the arrival of Shah Alam II (1759-1806), the art

    almost became extinct and another school of painting, known as Rajput paintings, started evolving.

    Mysore Paintings

    Mysore Painting is a form of classical South Indian painting, which evolved in the Mysore city of Karnataka.

    During that time, Mysore was under the reign of the Wodeyars and it was under their patronage that this school

    of painting reached its zenith. Quite similar to the Tanjore Paintings, Mysore Paintings of India make use of

    thinner gold leaves and require much more hard work. The most popular themes of these paintings include

    Hindu Gods and Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology. The grace, beauty and intricacy of Indian

    Mysore Paintings leave the onlookers mesmerized.

    History of Mysore Paintings

    It was under the rule of Raja Krishna Raja Wodeyar that the popularity of the Mysore School of painting

    reached its highest point. However, after the Raja expired in 1868, the artists started scattering and the school

    reached the point of total extinction. The year 1875 saw the establishment of Jagan Mohan Palace and

    Chitrakala School and along with it, the revival of the Mysore Painting of India. Late Sri Siddalingeswara

    Swamiji and late Sri Y. Subramanya Raju also contributed to this exquisite art form.

    Centers of Mysore Paintings

    Indian Mysore School of paintings exists in Mysore, Bangalore, Narasipura, Tumkur, Sravanabelagola and

    Nanjangud.

    Making Mysore Paintings

    A number of steps are involved in the process of producing a Mysore painting. The first step requires the artist

    to make a preliminary sketch of the image on the base, which comprises of a cartridge paper pasted on a

    wooden base. Thereafter, he makes a paste of zinc oxide and Arabic gum, known as 'gesso paste'. This paste is

    used to give a slightly raised effect of carving to those parts of the painting that require embellishments and is

    allowed to dry. Then, gold foil is pasted onto the surface. The rest of the painting is prepared with the help of

    watercolors. After the painting is fully dried, it is covered with a thin paper and rubbed lightly with a smooth

    soft stone.

    In the traditional Mysore paintings, all the inputs were made by the artists, including brushes, paints, board,

    gold foil, etc. Instead of the poster colors and watercolors of today, vegetable and mineral colors were used.

    Even the base was formed of paper, wood, wall and cloth, rather than the sole cartridge paper base used now.

    The sketches were made with the help of charcoal, which was prepared by burning tamarind twigs in an iron

    tube. The brushes were made of different materials, like squirrel hair, camel hair, goat hair, etc.

    Pahari Paintings

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

    MonuHighlight

  • RAJESH NAYAK

    Pahari painting is the name given to Rajput paintings, made in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir states

    of India. These paintings developed and flourished during the period of 17th to 19th century. Indian Pahari

    paintings have been done mostly in miniature forms.

    Styles of Pahari Paintings Pahari paintings of India can be divided into two distinct categories, on the basis of their geographical range,

    namely:

    Basohli and Kulu Style (Influenced by Chaurpanchasika style)

    Guler and Kangra Style (Based on cooler colors and refinement)

    History of Pahari Painting Pahari paintings have been widely influenced by the Rajput paintings, because of the family relations of the

    Pahari Rajas with royal court at Rajasthan. One can also see strong influence of the Gujarat and Deccan

    paintings. With the emergence of Bhakti movement, new th...

Recommended

View more >