Indian Cons and Polity

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<ul><li><p>7/28/2019 Indian Cons and Polity</p><p> 1/88</p><p>History of Indian Administrative SystemHistory of Indian Administrative system reveals that an organised system of governance was inplace right from ancient times when monarchy was the main form of Government. Throughout</p><p>the long course of its development, there have been two factors that were a constant in</p><p>administration- the basic units of the villages and the co-ordination between centralisation and</p><p>de-centralisation.</p><p>More on History of Indian Administrative System</p><p>Indian Administrative</p><p>System in Ancient PeriodIndian Administrative</p><p>System in Muslim PeriodJudicial Administration in</p><p>Ancient India</p><p>Taxation in Ancient South</p><p>India </p><p>Revenue System in Ancient</p><p>India </p><p>Mandala Theory of Indian</p><p>Foreign Policy</p><p>Secretariat in Ancient India Ministerial Departments in</p><p>Ancient India</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Indian Cons and Polity</p><p> 2/88</p><p>History of Indian administration traces its earliest known</p><p>form to the monarchical system. Since the earliest times, the</p><p>monarchical system was used in public administration in theexecution of governmental functions. In the long history of</p><p>Indian administration, a number of administrative</p><p>organisations rose and fell. However, there are two basicfeatures of the Indian administrative system which continued</p><p>right down the ages- the importance of the villages as a</p><p>primary unit and co-ordination between the two oppositetrends of centralisation and decentralisation. To put it in a</p><p>nutshell the present administration is a developed form of the</p><p>old administrative system.</p><p>Abundant sources are available to get a clear picture of the</p><p>history of Indian administrative system. A lot of information</p><p>regarding the organisation and functions of Indian</p><p>administration is obtained from Vedic literature, Buddhisttreatises, Jain literatures, Dharmasastras, Indian Puranas,</p><p>Ramayana, Mahabharata,Manu Smriti, Sukra Niti andArthashastra.</p><p>The powers of administering the states were centralisedin the hands of the king during the ancient period in</p><p>India. During the Vedic period the king was assisted in</p><p>his work by many officers. He was surrounded by a circle</p><p>of his friends and principal officers. There is a referenceregarding this in the two epics of Ramayana and</p><p>Mahabharata. A similar reference is also to be found in</p><p>Manu Smriti and Sukra Niti. In Kautilya`s Arthashastra isobtained a detailed account about the offices of the state</p><p>for the first time in the history of India. By this time</p><p>administrative system was fully developed. Thus thedevelopment of the ancient Indian administration had</p><p>reached its peak during the reigns ofChandragupta</p><p>Mauryaand Ashoka. Mauryan administrative institutions</p><p>were further developed during the period of the Guptas.Their period witnessed multifarious activities in the field</p><p>of excellent administration.</p><p>The decentralisation process had started in ancient India. As a result of this, empires were</p><p>divided into provinces, provinces into districts and districts into urban and rural centres fromadministrative angle. During the ancient period state administration was divided into numerous</p><p>departments. In Vedic times the number of such departments was limited. Gradually, the number</p><p>of such departments increased and their jurisdiction extended. For this we get many referencescan be obtained from Vedic literatures and subsequent sources. In ancient Indian administration</p><p>there is also found a description of the principles of public administration. Thus, the principle of</p><p>hierarchy had been given a practical shape and seeds of co-ordination were present between</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Indian Cons and Polity</p><p> 3/88</p><p>different departments. Such a full-fledged administrative system existed in the reigns of</p><p>Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka. Great emphasis was placed on observation and inspection</p><p>along with the principle of hierarchy.</p><p>Like the present day personnel system mention is made in ancient administration system of the</p><p>recruitment, qualifications, salaries, leave, pension etc., of government employees. At that timemerit, efficiency and being a member of the elite group were given special emphasis. During the</p><p>time there existed the organisation of a central office where all the government records were</p><p>kept. This was like the secretariat of the government, in which various government functionaries,including officers worked. Mention of such an office is found in Mauryan times and Chola</p><p>kingdom. The king appointed personal secretary as well. In brief, the main function of the central</p><p>office was the control and inspection of provincial, regional and local government.</p><p>In brief, it can be said that the present Indian administration is the result of a rich legacy and</p><p>continuity. It is true to say that the steps of its evolution are someway or the other connected with</p><p>the past. However, the existing administrative system in India may be said to be the contribution</p><p>of the British government.</p><p>Government of IndiaGovernment of India is a parliamentary form of Government and follows the democratic</p><p>structure.</p><p>More on Government of India</p><p>Divisions in IndianAdministration</p><p>Union Council of Ministers Indian Flag</p><p>All India Services Indian General Elections Indian Union Executive</p><p>Central Secretariat Cabinet Secretariat Indian Ministries</p><p>Agricultural and Processed</p><p>Food Products Export</p><p>Development Authority</p><p>Atomic Energy Education</p><p>Society</p><p>Aryabhatta Research</p><p>Institute of Observational</p><p>Sciences</p><p>Board of Practical Training</p><p>(BOPT)Central Adoption Resource</p><p>Authority</p><p>Central Government</p><p>Employees Welfare HousingOrganisation</p><p>Central Hindi Directorate Centre for Cultural</p><p>Resources and TrainingCentre for Development</p><p>Studies</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Indian Cons and Polity</p><p> 4/88</p><p>Centre for Social Studies </p><p>Food Safety and Standards</p><p>Authority of India (FSSAI)Commission for Scientific</p><p>and Technical Terminology</p><p>Controller of DefenceAccounts</p><p>Customs Film and Television Instituteof India</p><p> Indian Government Mint Indian Academy of Sciences </p><p>Inland Waterways Authority</p><p>of India</p><p>Institute for Defence Studiesand Analyses</p><p>International Center forAlternate Dispute Resolution</p><p>International Institute forPopulation Sciences</p><p>National AIDS Control</p><p>OrganisationNational Anti-Doping</p><p>AgencyNational Assessment and</p><p>Accreditation Council</p><p>National Foundation for</p><p>Communal Harmony</p><p>National Institute for</p><p>Empowerment of Persons</p><p>with Multiple Disabilities</p><p>National Institute for Micro ,</p><p>Small and Medium</p><p>Enterprises</p><p>National Institute for theMentally Handicapped</p><p>National Institute ofAgricultural Marketing</p><p>National Institute ofRehabilitation Training and</p><p>Research</p><p>National Institute ofAyurveda</p><p>National Institute of Public</p><p>Cooperation and ChildDevelopment</p><p>National Institute of OpenSchooling</p><p>National Institute of Urban</p><p>AffairsNational Investigation</p><p>AgencyNational Stock Exchange of</p><p>India</p><p>National Water</p><p>Development AgencyPrasar Bharati Technology Information</p><p>Tariff Authority for Major</p><p>PortsTug of War Federation of</p><p>IndiaWildlife Institute of India</p><p>Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan </p><p>Society for Applied</p><p>Microwave Electronics</p><p>Engineering &amp; Research</p><p>Repatriates Co-operative</p><p>Finance and Development</p><p>Bank Limited</p><p>Elections in India</p><p>India has adopted parliamentary</p><p>system of government which is</p><p>based on universal adult franchise.The Government of India is of a</p><p>democratic form which means it is</p><p>a government `by the people, for</p><p>the people and of the people`. Inthis parliamentary system of</p><p>government, parliament is</p><p>supreme and there is fusion ofExecu...</p></li></ul>