9
Index Note: Page numbers of article titles are in bold face type. A Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. See Human immunodeficiency virus infection Acremonium infections, 700–701 Aeromonas infections, 620–621 African trypanosomiasis, 754–757 AIDS. See Human immunodeficiency virus infection Air travel, infection transmission in, 564 Alveolar echinococcosis, 828–829 American trypanosomiasis (ChagasÕ disease), 760–763, 813–814 Amphotericin B, resistance to, 723 Anaplasma infections, 639–642, 811 Animals, infections due to. See Zoonoses Anthrax, as bioterrorism agent, 578 Antibiotics, resistance to. See Resistance, antibiotic Antifungal agents, resistance to. See Resistance, antifungal Antigen detection methods, for Toxoplasma gondii, 742 Antiretroviral drugs, HIV resistance to, 773 Arbovirus infections, geographical expansion of, 570–571 Aspergillus infections, 695–696, 698–699 resistance in, 724–725, 728–729 Asthma Chlamydophila pneumoniae in, 635–636 Mycoplasma pneumoniae in, 635–636 Atherosclerosis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae in, 637–638 ATP-binding cassette transporter genes, in antifungal resistance, 724 Avian influenza, human disease from, 574–575 Azoles, resistance to, 724–725 B Babesia infections, 757–760, 812–813 Bacillus infections, transfusion-transmitted, 809 Bacterial contamination, of blood components, 808–810 Baylisascaris procyonis infections, 746–748 Beef tapeworm infections, 766–768 Behavioral factors, in emerging infections, 563, 565–569 Bioprosthetic infections, coagulase-negative streptococcal, 592–593 Bioterrorism, emerging infections due to, 563, 578 Bipolaris infections, 704 Blastoschizomyces capitatus infections, 707 Blood smear examination for Babesia, 758–759 for malaria, 752–753 for Trypanosoma brucei, 756 for Trypanosoma cruzi, 762 Blood supply, infections transmitted in. See Transfusion-transmitted infections Borreliosis (Lyme disease), 810–811 Bronchiolitis and bronchiolitis obliterans Chlamydophila pneumoniae in, 637 Mycoplasma pneumoniae in, 637 Burn patients, fungal infections in, 693 C Campylobacter infections, 615–618 clinical features of, 616 diagnosis of, 616–617 Clin Lab Med 24 (2004) 839–847 0272-2712/04/$ - see front matter Ó 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0272-2712(04)00087-3

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Clin Lab Med 24 (2004) 839–847

Index

Note: Page numbers of article titles are in bold face type.

A

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. SeeHuman immunodeficiency virusinfection

Acremonium infections, 700–701

Aeromonas infections, 620–621

African trypanosomiasis, 754–757

AIDS. See Human immunodeficiency virusinfection

Air travel, infection transmission in, 564

Alveolar echinococcosis, 828–829

American trypanosomiasis (Chagas�disease), 760–763, 813–814

Amphotericin B, resistance to, 723

Anaplasma infections, 639–642, 811

Animals, infections due to. See Zoonoses

Anthrax, as bioterrorism agent, 578

Antibiotics, resistance to. See Resistance,antibiotic

Antifungal agents, resistance to. SeeResistance, antifungal

Antigen detection methods, for Toxoplasmagondii, 742

Antiretroviral drugs, HIV resistance to, 773

Arbovirus infections, geographicalexpansion of, 570–571

Aspergillus infections, 695–696, 698–699resistance in, 724–725, 728–729

AsthmaChlamydophila pneumoniae in, 635–636Mycoplasma pneumoniae in, 635–636

Atherosclerosis, Chlamydophila pneumoniaein, 637–638

ATP-binding cassette transporter genes, inantifungal resistance, 724

0272-2712/04/$ - see front matter � 2004 Elsev

doi:10.1016/S0272-2712(04)00087-3

Avian influenza, human disease from,574–575

Azoles, resistance to, 724–725

B

Babesia infections, 757–760, 812–813

Bacillus infections, transfusion-transmitted,809

Bacterial contamination, of bloodcomponents, 808–810

Baylisascaris procyonis infections, 746–748

Beef tapeworm infections, 766–768

Behavioral factors, in emerging infections,563, 565–569

Bioprosthetic infections, coagulase-negativestreptococcal, 592–593

Bioterrorism, emerging infections due to,563, 578

Bipolaris infections, 704

Blastoschizomyces capitatus infections, 707

Blood smear examinationfor Babesia, 758–759for malaria, 752–753for Trypanosoma brucei, 756for Trypanosoma cruzi, 762

Blood supply, infections transmitted in. SeeTransfusion-transmitted infections

Borreliosis (Lyme disease), 810–811

Bronchiolitis and bronchiolitis obliteransChlamydophila pneumoniae in, 637Mycoplasma pneumoniae in, 637

Burn patients, fungal infections in, 693

C

Campylobacter infections, 615–618clinical features of, 616diagnosis of, 616–617

ier Inc. All rights reserved.

840 Index / Clin Lab Med 24 (2004) 839–847

Campylobacter (continued)epidemiology of, 615–616microbiology of, 615treatment of, 617–618

Campylobacter jejuni infections,water-borne, 568

Cancer, fungal infections in, 695

Candida infections, 694–696, 704–705resistance in, 576, 722–727

Candins, resistance to, 725

Caspofungin, resistance to, 725

Catheter-related infectionscoagulase-negative streptococcal,

592–593fungal, 693–694

Ceftriaxone, resistance to, Salmonella, 612

Cell culturefor filoviruses, 774for henipaviruses, 777for monkeypox, 779

Cell wall, antifungal resistance involving,725–726

Cellulitis, Streptococcus iniae, 600

Chagas� disease (Americantrypanosomiasis), 760–763, 813–814

Child care arrangements, emerginginfections and, 566–567

Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections,633–635asthma and, 635–636atherosclerosis and, 637–638bronchiolitis and bronchiolitis

obliterans and, 637chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

and, 636–637cystic fibrosis and, 637diagnosis of, 634–635multiple sclerosis and, 638

Cholera, 606–608clinical features of, 607diagnosis of, 608epidemiology of, 606global warming and, 569microbiology of, 606non-01 type, 608–609transmission of, 564travel-associated, 568–569treatment of, 608water-borne, 568–569

Chromatography, thin-layer, formycobacteria, 652

Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseChlamydophila pneumoniae in, 636–637Mycoplasma pneumoniae in, 636–637

Cladophialophora bantiana infections, 704

Climatic change, emerging infections and,563, 569–571

Colitis, hemorrhagic, in Escherichia coliO157:H7 infections, 613–614

Computed tomography, for tapeworminfections, 768

Coronavirus infections (SARS), 576–577,780–781, 803–804, 834–835

Corticosteroids, fungal infections due to,696

Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease,transfusion-transmitted, 814–817

Critical illness, fungal infections in, 693

Cryptococcus neoformans infections, 694,705–706resistance in, 723–727

Cryptosporidiosis, 568, 744–746

Culture. See also Cell cultureof bacteria, in blood components, 810of Ehrlichia, 642of fungi. See specific fungi

Curvularia infections, 704

Cystic fibrosisChlamydophila pneumoniae in, 637Mycoplasma pneumoniae in, 637

Cysticercosis, 766–768

Cytomegalovirus infections,transfusion-transmitted, 801–802

Cytoplasmic membrane, antifungalresistance involving, 723–725

D

Dactylaria gallopavum infections, 704

Daycare, emerging infections in, 566–567

Death, from infections, causes of, 560

Dematiaceous mold infections, emerging,704

Demographic factors, in emerginginfections, 562

Dengue fever, 570, 808

DNA analysisfor monkeypox, 779

841Index / Clin Lab Med 24 (2004) 839–847

for Rickettsiae, 64316S rDNA, for mycobacteria, 651

E

Ebola virus infections, 773–774, 832–833

Echinocandins, resistance to, 725

Echinococcosis, alveolar, 828–829

Ehrlichia infections, 639–642, 811

Electron microscopy, for microsporidia, 743

Emerging infections. See also specificinfectionschronology of, 559–562factors affecting, 559–586

behavioral, 563, 565–569bioterrorism, 563, 578child care practices, 566–567chronic manifestations of disease,

563, 571–572demographic, 562–563environmental change, 563,

569–571food processing changes, 567–569microbial evolution, 563,

574–576pathogen detection methods, 563,

572–573population distribution, 563–565public health system breakdown,

563, 576–578sexual behavior, 565–566water supply contamination,

567–569fungal, 691–719, 721–735gram-negative enteric, 605–626gram-positive, 587–603intracellular bacterial, 627–649mycobacterial, 651–690parasitic, 737–772resistant. See Resistancetransfusion-related, 757–763, 797–823viral. See Viral infections, emergingzoonoses. See Zoonoses, emerging

Enteric infections, gram-negative. SeeGram-negative enteric infections

Enterococcus faecium,vancomycin-resistant, 575

Enterovirus infections,transfusion-transmitted, 804–805

Entomophthorales infections, 701–702

Environmental change, emerging infectionsand, 563, 569–571

Enzyme immunoassay

for Cryptosporidium parvum, 745for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 632–633for Rickettsiae, 645for Toxoplasma gondii, 742for West Nile virus, 783

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assayfor hantavirus, 776for henipaviruses, 777for tapeworm infections, 768

Epstein-Barr virus infections,transfusion-transmitted, 801–802

ERG11 gene, in antifungal resistance,724–725

Escherichia coli infectionsO157:H7, 612–614

clinical features of, 613–614diagnosis of, 614epidemiology of, 613food-borne and water-borne, 568microbiology of, 612–613treatment of, 614

transfusion-transmitted, 809

Evolution, microbial, emerging infectionsfrom, 574–576

Exophiala infections, 704

F

Filovirus infections, 773–774

Fish, Streptococcus iniae infections from,599–600

Flavivirus infections, 781–783

Flucytosine, resistance to, 726

Food-borne infections, 567–569gram-negative. See Gram-negative

enteric infections

Fungal infections, emerging, 691–719Acremonium, 700–701Aspergillus, 695–696, 698–699Bipolaris, 704Blastoschizomyces capitatus, 707Candida, 694–696, 704–705, 722–727Cladophialophora bantiana, 704Cryptococcus neoformans, 694,

705–706, 723–727Curvularia, 704Dactylaria gallopavum, 704dematiaceous molds, 704Entomophthorales, 701–702Exophiala, 704Fusarium, 699, 729Histoplasma capsulatum, 695, 702–703host factors in, 692–696

842 Index / Clin Lab Med 24 (2004) 839–847

Fungal infections (continued )cancer, 695–696corticosteroids, 696critical illness, 693HIV infection, 694–695immunodeficiency, 694–696indwelling catheters, 693–694transplantation, 695–696

hyalohyphomycoses, 697–698in HIV infection, 694–695Malassezia, 707Mucorales, 701–702Paecilomyces, 701Penicillium marneffei, 695, 703Pneumocystic jiroveci, 694, 696–697Pseudallescheria boydii, 700Ramichloridium, 704Rhodotorula, 707Scedosporium apiospermum, 700Scopulariopsis, 701, 704Trichosporon, 706–707yeasts, 704–707Zygomycetes, 693, 701–702

Fusarium infections, 699, 729

G

Gastroenteritisfood-borne, 567–569gram-negative. See Gram-negative

enteric infectionswater-borne, 567–569

GBV-C infections, transfusion-transmitted,800

Giardiasis, 568

Global warming, emerging infections and,563, 569–571

Graft-versus-host disease, fungal infectionsin, 695

Gram-negative enteric infections, emerging,605–626Aeromonas, 620–621Campylobacter, 615–618Escherichia coli, Shiga

toxin-producing, 612–614Plesiomonas shigelloides, 621–622Salmonella, nontyphoidal, 609–612Vibrio, 606–609. See also CholeraYersinia enterocolitica, 618–620

Gram-positive infections, emerging,587–603coagulase-negative staphylococci,

591–593Staphylococcus aureus, 588–591

streptococcalgroup A, 593–596group B, 596–598groups C and G, 598–599

Streptococcus iniae, 599–600

H

Hantavirus infections, 570, 774–776

Hemolytic uremic syndrome, in Escherichiacoli O157:H7 infections, 612–614

Hemorrhagic colitis, in Escherichia coliO157:H7 infections, 613–614

Hemorrhagic feverviral, 773–774with renal syndrome, in hantavirus

infections, 570, 774–776

Henipavirus infections, 776–777

Hepatitis A, transfusion-transmitted,799–800

Hepatitis B, transfusion-transmitted,799–800

Hepatitis Cchronic manifestations of, 571discovery of, 573transfusion-transmitted, 800

Hepatitis D, transfusion-transmitted, 799

Hepatitis E, transfusion-transmitted,799–800

Histoplasma capsulatum infections, 695,702–703

HIV infection. See Humanimmunodeficiency virus infection

hsp65 gene sequencing, for mycobacterialidentification, 652

Human herpes virus infections,transfusion-transmitted, 801–802

Human immunodeficiency virus infectiondrug-resistant, 773emergence of, 560, 565–566fungal infections in, 694–695leishmaniasis in, 764microsporidiosis in, 743parasitic infections in, 740–744sexual behavior and, 565–566toxoplasmosis in, 740–742transfusion-transmitted, 800–801

Human T-lymphotropic virus infections,transfusion-transmitted, 801

Hyalohyphomycoses infections, 697–698

Hydatid disease, alveolar, 828–829

843Index / Clin Lab Med 24 (2004) 839–847

I

Immune response, to Mycoplasmapneumoniae, 631–632

Immunodeficiency. See also Humanimmunodeficiency virus infectionfungal infections in, 694–696

Immunofluorescent antibody assay, forWest Nile virus, 783

Immunoglobulin G, measurement of, forTrypanosoma cruzi, 762

Indirect fluorescent antibody testfor Babesia, 759for Ehrlichia, 642

Infliximab, fungal infections due to, 696

Influenza, 778outbreaks of, 561viral evolution in, 574–575

Intensive care unit, fungal infections in, 693

Intracellular bacterial infections, emerging,627–649Anaplasma, 639–642, 811Chlamydia pneumoniae, 633–638Ehrlichia, 639–642, 811list of, 629–630Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 630–637Rickettsiae, 642–645, 810–811

K

Klebsiella infections,transfusion-transmitted, 809

L

Laboratory methodsfor Aeromonas, 620–621for Anaplasma, 641–642for antifungal resistance, 722for Babesia, 758–759for bacterial blood component

contaminants, 810for Campylobacter, 615–617for Chlamydophila pneumoniae,

634–635for Cryptosporidium parvum, 745for Ehrlichia, 641–642for Escherichia coli O157:H7, 612–614for filoviruses, 774for fungi. See also specific fungifor hantavirus, 776for henipaviruses, 777for HIV, 801for Leishmania, 764–765for malaria, 752–754for metapneumovirus, 778

for monkeypox, 779for mycobacteria. See also specific

mycobacteriabiochemical reactions for

rapidly growing, 656–658slowly growing, 654–655

for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 632–633for Paragonimus, 749for parvovirus B19, 803for Plesiomonas shigelloides, 621–622for Rickettsiae, 643–645for Salmonella, 609–610for staphylococci, coagulase-negative,

591–593for Staphylococcus aureus, 588–590for streptococci

group A, 594–595group B, 597group C and G, 598

for Streptococcus iniae, 600for tapeworm infections, 768for Toxoplasma gondii, 741–742for Trichomonas vaginalis, 739for Trypanosoma brucei, 756for Trypanosoma cruzi, 762–763for Vibrio cholerae, 607–608for Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 608for Vibrio vulnificus, 609for West Nile virus, 783, 807–808for Yersinia enterocolitica, 618–620

Larva migrans, in Baylisascaris procyonisinfections, 746–748

Latex antigen test, for Cryptococcusneoformans, 706

Leishmaniasis, 764–766

Lyme disease, 810–811

M

Mad cow disease, 814–817

Magnetic resonance imaging, for tapeworminfections, 768

Malaria, 750–754clinical features of, 751–752current relevance of, 754diagnosis of, 752–754drug-resistant, 576geographical expansion of, global

warming and, 569–570parasite life cycle in, 750–751re-emergence of, 564–565transfusion-transmitted, 812

Malassezia infections, 707

Marburg virus infections, 773–774

Metapneumovirus infections, 777–778

844 Index / Clin Lab Med 24 (2004) 839–847

Microscopyfor Cryptosporidium parvum, 745for fungal identification. See specific

fungifor Leishmania, 764–765for malaria, 752–753for Paragonimus, 749for Toxoplasma gondii, 741–742for Trichomonas vaginalis, 739for Trypanosoma brucei, 756for Trypanosoma cruzi, 762

Microsporidiosis, 742–744

Migration, emerging infections and,563–565

Monkeypox infections, 778–779, 830–831

Mosquito-borne infectionsdengue fever, 808geographical expansion of, global

warming and, 569–571malaria. See MalariaRift Valley Fever, 826–828viral encephalitis, 808West Nile virus, 781–783, 805–808

Mucorales infections, 701–702

Multiple sclerosis, Chlamydophilapneumoniae in, 638

Mycobacterial infections, emerging,651–690Mycobacterium abscessus, 652, 654,

656–658Mycobacterium alvei, 652–653,

656–658Mycobacterium bohemicum, 653, 659Mycobacterium branderi, 654, 659Mycobacterium brumae, 656–660Mycobacterium celatum, 654, 660–661Mycobacterium chesapeaki, 654, 661Mycobacterium confluentis, 656–658,

661Mycobacterium conspicuum, 654, 662Mycobacterium doricum, 654, 662–663Mycobacterium elephantis, 663Mycobacterium genavense, 654,

663–664Mycobacterium goodii, 656–658,

664–665Mycobacterium haemophilum, 654,

665–666Mycobacterium hassiacum, 656–658,

666Mycobacterium heckeshornense, 654,

666–667Mycobacterium heidelbergense, 667Mycobacterium holsaticum, 656–658,

667–668

Mycobacterium immunogenicum,656–658, 668

Mycobacterium interjectum, 654,668–669

Mycobacterium intermedium, 654, 669Mycobacterium kubicae, 654, 670Mycobacterium lacus, 655, 670Mycobacterium lentiflavum, 655, 671Mycobacterium mageritense, 656–658,

671–672Mycobacterium microti, 655, 672–673Mycobacterium montefiorense, 655, 673Mycobacterium mucogenicum, 673–674Mycobacterium murale, 656–658, 674Mycobacterium neoaurum, 656–658,

674–675Mycobacterium novacastrense,

656–658, 675Mycobacterium palustre, 655, 675–676Mycobacterium peregrinum, 656–658,

676Mycobacterium pinnipedii, 655,

676–677Mycobacterium septicum, 656–658, 677Mycobacterium sherrisii, 655, 678Mycobacterium shimoidei, 655,

678–679Mycobacterium shottsii, 655, 679Mycobacterium simiae-like organisms,

655, 679–680Mycobacterium triplex, 655, 680–681Mycobacterium tuberculosis subspecies

canetti, 656–658, 681Mycobacterium tuberculosis subspecies

caprae, 655, 681–682Mycobacterium tusciae, 655, 682–683Mycobacterium vaccae, 656–658, 683Mycobacterium wolinskyi, 656–658,

683–684

Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections,630–637asthma and, 635–636bronchiolitis and bronchiolitis

obliterans and, 638chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

and, 636–637cystic fibrosis and, 638diagnosis of, 632–633epidemiology of, 632pathophysiology of, 630–632

N

Necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal, 595

Neisseria meningitidis infections, 561

Neonates, toxic shock syndrome-likeexanthematous disease in, 591

Neurocysticercosis, 766–768

845Index / Clin Lab Med 24 (2004) 839–847

Neutropenia, fungal infections in, 695

Nipah virus infections, 776–777, 833–834

Nucleic acid test (NAT), for West Nilevirus, 807–808

P

Paecilomyces infections, 701

Paragonimus infections, 748–749

Parasitic infections, emerging, 737–772Babesia, 757–760, 812–813Baylisascaris procyonis, 746–748common, 738–744Cryptosporidium parvum, 744–746epidemic, 744–746in blood supply, 757–763, 811–814in HIV infection, 740–742in travelers, 764–768Leishmania, 764–766malaria. See Malariamicrosporidiosis, 742–744Paragonimus, 748–749rare, 746–749Taenia, 766–768Third World, 750–757. See also

MalariaToxoplasma gondii, 740–742Trichomonas vaginalis, 738–740Trypanosoma brucei, 754–757Trypanosoma cruzi, 760–763, 813–814

Parvovirus B19 infections,transfusion-transmitted, 802–803

Penicillium marneffei infections, 695, 703

Pig tapeworm infections, 766–768

Plasmodium infections. See Malaria

Plesiomonas shigelloides infections, 621–622

Pneumocandins, resistance to, 725

Pneumocystis jiroveci infections, 694,696–697, 725

Pneumovirus infections, 777–778

Polyenes, resistance to, 723

Polymerase chain reactionfor Babesia, 760for Chlamydophila pneumoniae, 635for Ehrlichia, 642for emerging pathogen detection,

572–573for filoviruses, 774for hantavirus, 776for henipaviruses, 777for Leishmania, 765for malaria, 753

for metapneumovirus, 778for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 633for Pneumocystis jiroveci, 697for Rickettsiae, 643–645for SARS-coronavirus, 781

Population demographics and distribution,in emerging infections, 562–565

Poxvirus infections, 778–780

Prion diseases, transfusion-transmitted,814–817

Pseudallescheria boydii infections, 700

Pseudomonas infections,transfusion-transmitted, 809

Public health systems, breakdown of,emerging infections due to, 576–578

R

Raccoons, Baylisascaris procyonis in,746–748

Ramichloridium infections, 704

Reduviidae, in American trypanosomiasistransmission, 760–763, 813–814

Re-emerging infections, examples of,560–561

Resistanceantibiotic

emerging infections and, 575–576HIV, 773Salmonella infections,

nontyphoidal, 611–612antifungal, 721–735

Aspergillus, 724–725, 728–729at cell wall, 725–726at cytoplasmic membrane,

723–725Candida, 722–727Cryptococcus neoformans,

723–727definition of, 721–722epidemiology of, 726–730Fusarium, 729Pneumocystis jiroveci, 725Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 725Scedosporium, 729–730susceptibility testing methods for,

722Trichosporon, 723, 727Zygomycetes, 723

Restriction fragment length polymorphismtesting, for mycobacteria, 651–652

Retroviral infections,transfusion-transmitted, 800–801

846 Index / Clin Lab Med 24 (2004) 839–847

Rhodotorula infections, 707

Rickettsial infections, 642–645, 810–811

Rift Valley Fever, 826–828

RNA analysis, 16s rRNA, formycobacteria, 651

Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 642–645,811

S

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resistance in, 725

Salmonella infectionsfood-borne, 567nontyphoidal, 609–612

clinical features of, 610–611diagnosis of, 611epidemiology of, 610microbiology of, 609–610resistance in, 611–612treatment of, 611–612

Salmonella serotype Typhimuriuminfections, travel-associated, 568

Sandfly, in Leishmania transmission,764–765

SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)-coronavirus infections, 576–577,780–781, 803–804, 834–835

Scedosporium infections, 700, 729–730

Scopulariopsis infections, 701, 704

SEN virus infections,transfusion-transmitted, 800

Sepsis, from contaminated transfusioncomponents, 808–810

Serratia infections, transfusion-transmitted,809

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS),576–577, 780–781, 803–804, 834–835

Sexual behavior, emerging infections and,565–566

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. SeeEscherichia coli infections, O157:H7.

Sleeping sickness (Africantrypanosomiasis), 754–757

Smallpox, 780

Staphylococcal infections, emergingcoagulase-negative, 591–593group A, 593–596group B, 596–598groups C and G, 598–599

Staphylococcus aureus infectionsantibiotic-resistant, 576emerging, 588–591transfusion-transmitted, 809

Staphylococcus epidermidis infections,transfusion-transmitted, 809

Stem cell transplantation, fungal infectionsin, 695

Streptococcus agalactiae infections, 596–598

Streptococcus dysgalactiae infections,598–599

Streptococcus epidermidis infections,592–593

Streptococcus equi infections, 598–599

Streptococcus infections,transfusion-transmitted, 809

Streptococcus iniae infections, 599–600

Streptococcus pyogenes infections, 593–596

Surgery, fungal infections in, 693

Susceptibility testing methods, forantifungal agents, 722

T

Taenia infections, 766–768

Tanapox infections, 779–780

Tapeworm infectionsEchinococcus multilocularis, 828–829Taenia, 766–768

Tick-borne infectionsAnaplasma, 639–642, 811Babesia, 757–760, 812–813bacterial, 810–811Borrelia, 810–811Ehrlichia, 639–642, 811rickettsial, 642–645, 810–811

Toxic shock syndromestaphylococcal, 589–591streptococcal, 595–596

Toxoplasmosis, 740–742

Transfusion-transmitted infections,emerging, 797–823bacterial, 808–810Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, 814–817enteroviruses, 804–805historical background of, 797–799human herpes viruses, 801–802human immunodeficiency virus,

800–801human T-lymphotropic virus, 801

847Index / Clin Lab Med 24 (2004) 839–847

Transfusion-transmitted (continued)mosquito-borne viruses, 805–808parasitic, 757–763, 811–814parvovirus B19, 802–803retrovirus, 800–801SARS, 803–804tick-borne, 810–811viral hepatitis, 799–800West Nile virus, 805–808

Transplantation, fungal infections in,695–696

Trauma, fungal infections in, 693

Travelers, emerging infections carried by,577cholera, 568–569in airplanes, 564parasitic, 764–768

Triazoles, resistance to, 724–725

Trichomoniasis, 738–740

Trichosporon infections, 706–707, 723, 727

Tropheryma whippelii, discovery of, 573

TrypanosomiasisAfrican, 754–757American (Chagas� disease), 760–763,

813–814

Tsetse fly, in African trypanosomiasistransmission, 754–757

TT virus infections,transfusion-transmitted, 800

V

Vaccination, refusal of, emerging infectionsand, 567

Vaccinia virus infections (smallpox), 780

Vancomycin, enterococci resistance to, 575

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease,transfusion-transmitted, 814–817

Vibrio cholerae infections. See Cholera

Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections, 608

Vibrio vulnificus infections, 608–609

Viral infections, emerging, 773–792drug-resistant HIV, 773filoviruses, 773–774hantavirus, 570, 774–776henipavirus, 776–777influenza, 561, 574–575, 778

metapneumovirus, 777–778poxviruses, 778–780severe acute respiratory syndrome

(SARS), 576–577, 780–781,803–804, 834–835

West Nile virus, 781–783, 805–808

Visceral leishmaniasis, 764–766

W

Water-borne infections, 567–569gram-negative. See Gram-negative

enteric infections

West Nile virus infections, 781–783,805–808

Wet preparations, for Trichomonasvaginalis, 739

X

Xenodiagnosis, for Trypanosoma cruzi, 762

Y

Yeast infections, emerging, 704–707

Yersinia enterocolitica infections, 618–620,809

Z

Zoonoses. See also Mosquito-borneinfections; Tick-borne infectionsemerging, 825–838

alveolar echinococcosis, 828–829Baylisascaris procyonis, 746–748brand new agents in, 833–835Ebola virus, 773–774, 832–833hantavirus, 570, 774–776henipavirus infections, 776–777in new areas, 826–829in new species, 829–833Leishmania, 764–765monkeypox infections, 778–779,

830–831Nipah virus, 776–777, 833–834Rift Valley Fever, 826–828severe acute respiratory

syndrome (SARS), 576–577,780–781, 803–804, 834–835

tanapox infections, 779–780tick-borne. See Tick-borne

infections

Zygomycetes infections, 693, 701–702, 723