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Index Abang Minko 491 Abéké rock shelter 491 Abu Hureyra 136, 222 Ache (Paraguay) 102 achira (Canna edulis) 518 acorn 319, 326, 367, 522 Adler, Daniel 224 aDNA see ancient DNA Adrar Bous (Ténéré desert) 474 adzuki bean 361, 367 Aegean 143 Afar 172 Africa agricultural origins in 201 cereals 477 crop cultivation 789, 479, 489 domestic livestock 4924 herding and farming 4778, 4926 Iron Age 490 Late Stone Age (LSA) 474, 479, 4823, 487, 489, 490, 491, 492, 494 linguistic history 55, 5979 nomadism 1734 Pastoral Neolithic phase 47980 population movement 4723 pottery 476, 479, 4879, 490, 4946, 5034, 51011 rain forest cultivation 48992 spread of agriculture 513, 4723 dispersal from 30 see also West Africa and Sahel African rice (Oryza glaberrima) 483, 484 see also rice age, importance placed on 1434 agriculture denition 12, 94 theories on the emergence of 21619 transitions 1045, 146, 2703, 4579, 539 Agta 102 Aguadulce 518 Ain Ghazal 15, 213, 228 architecture 229, 24852, 25660 burials and social status 2524 changing environment 2467 chronology 243 East Field 245 human statues 231, 232, 2546 size and setting 2435 social organization 24756 Aiterhofen (Bavaria) 596 Akkermans, Peter 12, 238 Akonéte 491 Akumbu 512 Albright, William Foxwell 187 alcohol 25, 83, 221 Ali Kosh 5, 298, 301 almond 83 alpaca 162 Alpine foreland 586 architecture 5701 gardens 580 mixed cattle farming 168 settlements 162, 561 Alps 141, 574 Alsónyék-Bátaszék 557, 568 Ama 367 Amaranthus spp. 350 Amazon basin 515 agricultural practices 535 Amblard-Pison, Sylvie 506, 510 Americas 22 agroforestry 532 animal domestication 162 climate change 5212 companion planting 532 crop rotation 532 domestication of landscapes 52835 fallowing 532 612 www.cambridge.org © in this web service Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19218-7 - The Cambridge World History: Volume I I: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 Bce–500 Ce Edited by Graeme Barker and Candice Goucher Index More information

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    Abang Minko 491Abéké rock shelter 491Abu Hureyra 136, 222Ache (Paraguay) 102achira (Canna edulis) 518acorn 319, 326, 367, 522Adler, Daniel 224aDNA see ancient DNAAdrar Bous (Ténéré desert) 474adzuki bean 361, 367Aegean 143Afar 172Africaagricultural origins in 20–1cereals 477crop cultivation 78–9, 479, 489domestic livestock 492–4herding and farming 477–8, 492–6Iron Age 490Late Stone Age (LSA) 474, 479, 482–3, 487,

    489, 490, 491, 492, 494linguistic history 55, 59–79nomadism 173–4Pastoral Neolithic phase 479–80population movement 472–3pottery 476, 479, 487–9, 490, 494–6, 503–4,

    510–11rain forest cultivation 489–92spread of agriculture 51–3, 472–3dispersal from 30 see also West Africa

    and SahelAfrican rice (Oryza glaberrima) 483, 484

    see also riceage, importance placed on 143–4agriculturedefinition 1–2, 94theories on the emergence of 216–19transitions 104–5, 146, 270–3, 457–9, 539

    Agta 102

    Aguadulce 518’Ain Ghazal 15, 213, 228architecture 229, 248–52, 256–60burials and social status 252–4changing environment 246–7chronology 243East Field 245human statues 231, 232, 254–6size and setting 243–5social organization 247–56

    Aiterhofen (Bavaria) 596Akkermans, Peter 12, 238Akonéte 491Akumbu 512Albright, William Foxwell 187alcohol 25, 83, 221Ali Kosh 5, 298, 301almond 83alpaca 162Alpine foreland 586architecture 570–1gardens 580mixed cattle farming 168settlements 162, 561

    Alps 141, 574Alsónyék-Bátaszék 557, 568Ama 367Amaranthus spp. 350Amazon basin 515agricultural practices 535

    Amblard-Pison, Sylvie 506, 510Americas 22agroforestry 532animal domestication 162climate change 521–2companion planting 532crop rotation 532domestication of landscapes 528–35fallowing 532

    612

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  • fire and forest clearance 528, 530geography of domestication 514–18history of domestication 518–23managed forests 529mixed cropping 532raised fields (chinampas) 534–5sequential planting 532terraces 533–4Valdivia period 524–6water management 528, 532–3zonation 532see alsoMesoamerica; North America; South

    AmericaAmmerman, Albert J. 26Amsa-dong 148An Son 421–2anaemia 111, 120–1, 605Anatolia 236dairy farming 169human origins 37, 42

    ancient DNA (aDNA) 9, 40–8, 99, 101, 122horse 13–14and lactase persistence gene 171pig 20

    Andarayan (Taiwan) 428Andean highlandsirrigation 533raised fields 534

    Andhra Pradesh 282Andronovo culture 181–2, 183animal(s)animal traction 582changing relations 378–9China 330disease transmission 114domestication 2, 7–8, 161, 162, 164–5,

    263, 270hunting of wild 206, 578husbandry 111, 220, 378, 581iconic significance 132Japan 382ownership and prestige 141patterns of slaughter 167, 182pottery 441–2remains and environmental change 246–7representations 230–1sacrifice of 181–2, 584spread of 16, 432–9vocabularies for 62–4, 67–71, 76, 80–1, 89wild:Brześśćć Kujawski 605Mehrgarh period i 293, 299–301northwestern South Asia 269–70

    remains of wild 573–4zooarchaeological methods 167–9 see also

    livestock; and under names of indivi-dual species

    Anyang 313oracle bones 18, 332

    Aota (Niigata prefecture) 362apricot 330, 367Arbon Bleiche 3, 141, 571, 576houses 573–4

    archaeobotany 67, 78flotation system 314–15, 332, 336, 338, 349–50,

    361archaeogenetics 9–10, 26–7ancient Europeans 40–8contemporary Europeans 31–40phylogeographic approach 26–31see also ancient DNA; mitrochondrial DNA

    architectureAlpine Foreland 570–1Japan:middle Yayoi 368–9late Yayoi 372

    Near East:Natufian 131, 222Pre-Neolithic 228–9Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) 131–4,

    222–4, 234Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) 224–8,

    248–52, 256–60Pre-Pottery Neolithic C (PPNC) 228,

    250–2public buildings 152–3South Asia:Mesolithic 276Neolithic 81, 275, 293

    Tichitt, drystone 506, 509Xinglonggou 343–9 see also houses

    Arizona 154–6Arkaim settlement 181Armelagos, George G. 105, 119arrowroot 329, 518artefacts see tools and artefactsAsa Koma 477, 478ashmounds 282–4Asmara (Eritrea) 479Asouti, E. 240Assefa, Shiferaw 77asthma 104Astragalus sp. 350Atbasar 177Athens 201Atlit-Yam (Israel) 220

    Index

    613

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  • auroch 179Australia 431Avise, John 27avocado 518Ayako, Shibutani 362

    Babb, Jeff 119Baden culture cemetery (Budakalász) 586badger 573Baida 418Baijia-Dadiwan culture 336Baiyinchanghan (Linxi) 336, 342Bajpur 279Balandino 181Balaresque, Patricia et al. 37Balatonszárszó-Kis-erdei-dülö 557Balkansdairy farming methods 170goldwork 139–41

    Balsas teosinte 514–15Baluchistan 272Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

    483, 491Bambata Cave (Zimbabwe) 493bamboo 19, 406, 416Ban Chiang 423, 425Ban Lum Khao 425Ban Na Di 422Ban Non Wat 423, 425–6Banabasa 279bananas 19, 81, 329, 416, 419cultivation (New Guinea) 417, 445, 458,

    462–3, 468domestication 24, 417words for 80–1

    Bangladeshcopper 307flint 307rice 280–1

    Bani River 205Banning, Edward B. 224Bannu basin 267baobab tree (Adansonia digitata) 483, 489Baoulé cattle 485Barbujani, Guido 34barleydomesticated:Central Europe 605China 330–1Japan 354, 361, 367, 404South Asia 18, 269, 292–3, 297–9Southwest Asia 15

    genetic origins 297–8

    hulled two-row 292–3, 297naked six-row (Hordeum vulgare) 292–3, 297pre-domestication, Southwest Asia 17use in alcohol 25wild:

    Fertile Crescent 297South Asia 16, 269, 274, 292–3, 297–9

    Barnard, Alan 583barnyard millet (Echinochola utilis) 18, 361Barton, Huw 18–20Bar-Yosef, Ofar 223Bashidang 146, 323basketry 230, 292Basques 36, 38Basta 254Batanes Islands 430, 435, 442beadscarnelian and amazonite 509greenstone (Brittany) 565ostrich eggshell 494

    beansAfrica 483Americas 85, 151, 154, 518, 520, 541, 544China 17, 319, 322, 332, 350India 86, 275, 285Japan 18, 322, 354, 361, 367, 404Korea 322

    bear 573, 605beaver 605Bedouin 172, 173beer 221 see also barleyBegash (Kazakhstan) 177, 330Begazy-Dandybaevsky culture 182Bellwood, Peter 19, 414, 442Benefica 495Benue-Kwa, dispersal 76Berbers 172, 508bezoar 16, 299Bezuapan 152Bieniek, Aldona 596, 605–7Binford, Lewis 217bioarchaeology 11–12, 93, 126–7abnormal variation (palaeopathology) 100–2methods and data 98–9normal variation 99–100principles 97–8

    birds 605Birimi 484Bismarck Archipelago 50, 81Blombos Cave (South Africa) 493blood (as secondary product) 165Bogaard, Amy 12Bogucki, Peter 23, 605

    Index

    614

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  • Bolan River 290, 297Bølling/Allerød interstadial 129bone 230, 231alveolar loss 111fractures 110, 115–18industry 230ornaments 231, 609periosteal reaction 111tools 177, 230, 231, 278, 338weapons 278see also skeletal evidence

    Borneo 50, 416climate 411cultural sequence 432–4geography 413swiddening 439, 442

    Boserup, Esther 199–200Botai culture 177–81pottery 180

    bottle gourd (Legenaria sp.) 205, 328, 361,418, 469

    Bou Khzama i i 501Brahmagiri 282Brahmani River 280Braidwood, Ann 5Braidwood, Linda 216–17Braidwood, Robert 2, 213, 216–17breadfruit 80–1, 468Breasted, James Henry 187Bridges, P.S. 117Brillat-Savarin, Jean Anthelme 94bristly foxtail millet 86British Islesburial monuments 563–5causewayed enclosures 581dairy farming 168–9, 170–2jadeitite axes 576

    Brittany 563, 565jadeitite axes 576

    Broederstroom site 496Bronze Age 3expansion of pastoralism 166–7globalization 330Kazakhstan 181–3rice consumption (MSEA) 426South Asia 262urban culture (Levantine) 189

    broomcorn millet (Panicummiliaceum) 17, 18, 145, 310,316–22, 329, 331, 335–6, 338,349–51, 367

    wild progenitor (Panicum miliaceum var.ruderale) 317–18, 339

    Brown, Cecil 85browntop millet 86, 275, 278brucellosis 114Brześć Kujawski (Poland) 23, 589burials 596, 599clay pits 601houses 590–1, 597, 599Linear Pottery settlement 591–7

    Brześć Kujawski Group 590–1, 593animal economy 590–1, 605burials 602crops 605–7end of 610household composition 608houses 590–1, 600–1, 608landscape modification (sedimentary

    analysis) 607Lengyel sites 597–610long-distance contacts 609–10material culture 601, 602–4transegalitarian society 608

    buckwheat 354, 361Buddhism 354Budihal 282ashmounds 283

    buffalo, wild 269, 293Buhaya (Tanzania) 488building materials 275 see also architectureBulbeck, David 434bulrush millet 205Buokem hills (Ghana) rock

    shelters 484burdock 361Burger, Joachim et al. 105burial monuments/tombsBritain 563–5Europe 142–3, 158, 578Iberia 565, 578Japan 375–6Korea 150–1, 158Tichitt 499

    burial mounds 392, 397, 509–10,544, 549

    burialsAmericas:Ecuador 524Las Pircas (Nanchoc) 544Southwest North America 154Valdivia (Real Alto) 525–6

    Central Asia:Andronovo 181–2Petrovka 181–3Sintashta 181

    Index

    615

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  • burials (cont.)China 145, 335, 345Europe 142–3, 577–8, 585corded ware 586Kuyavia 607LBK 577–8, 596–7Lengyel (Hungary) 557

    island South East Asia 432–6Japan:Jomon 366Yayoi 366, 369, 371–2, 377, 403

    Kenya 479–80mainland Southeast Asia 420, 422–3, 425and social status 252–4, 577–8, 586South Asia:Mehrgarh period i 295Mehrgarh period i i 304

    Southwest Asia:Natufian 129

    subfloor (PPNB) 135, 234, 252–4, 366Burkina Faso 474Burma 439burningAfrica 491New Guinea 455, 458, 462North America 529see also swidden agriculture

    Burung (Sulawesi) 429Busby, George B.J. et al. 37bushbuck 206Butzer, Karl 221Bwambé-Sommet 491Byrd, Brian 234

    calcite 609Cambodiageography 413swiddening 439

    camels 176Canarium 21, 418, 491Canarium schweinfurthii 491Caoxieshan 326caprines see goatscarbon steel 489carp 573cassava 85Çatalhöyük 213, 228, 232cats 198cattleburials 141calves 168, 169–70consumption 168

    domesticated:AfricaNorth Africa 172sub-Saharan 21, 206, 474, 477–8, 479,485, 486, 492, 495

    Central Asia (Kazakhstan) 176China 330–1Europe 572, 573, 581Britain 168–9Cyprus 237Poland (Kuyavia) 605, 610

    Japan 379South Asia 263, 270, 274northwestern 300–1, 304–5savanna India 282, 283

    Southwest Asia 15, 83, 220genetic analysis 16, 300–1 see also DNAherding 162hunting of 220iconic depiction of 141linguistic evidence of 62–4, 68, 83, 89origins 43skulls 230, 234wild

    Europe 573northwestern South Asia 269, 293, 300–1Southwest Asia 220

    Cauvin, Jacques 218, 230Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L. 26, 31, 35Çayönü 213Cementerio de Nanchoc mounds 544, 549ceramics see potteryCerastium glomeratum 350cerealsfor alcohol 25by-products 163nutritional value 110–11and ritual 25as staple 138, 579–80sticky 316wild 130, 217see also names of individual species

    Cerro Juanaqueña site (Chihuahua) 528cesspits 19Chaco Canyon 154–5, 157Chad 474chaff 163absence of 350–1

    Chahai (Fuxin) 336Chalcolithic (Copper) Ageexpansion of pastoralism 166–7Mehrgarh 305–8

    Index

    616

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  • South Asia 278Southwest Asia 215

    Chama Alcove site 155Chamberlain, Andrew 103, 118charcoal 491Chengtoushan 326, 329chenopod 22, 522Chenopodium spp. 162, 350chestnut tree (Castana crenata) 405, 408chestnuts 18, 359, 367, 405chickens/fowlChina 145, 439island Southeast Asia 429, 439Japan 379Jenne-jeno 206origins 439

    Chifeng 336, 339, 351–2Chifumbaze Complex 494Chilbuene 495Childe, Gordon 4–5, 15, 186, 210, 216, 539chile pepper 518Chinaagricultural communities 145–6, 157agricultural transition 146archaeological research history

    313–15barley 330–1beancrops 17, 319, 322, 332, 350burials 145, 335chickens 145, 439climate 312–13, 335, 338culinary traditions 315–16diet 145, 329, 331dispersal from 419, 429–30dogs 145domesticated animals 330–1ecological diversity 310‘five grains’ 18, 331–2maize 316, 331millet 18, 145–6, 310, 316–23, 328–9, 335–6,

    349–52nuts 325–6, 350pigs 17, 145, 146, 323, 328potato 331rice cultivation 17–18, 323–9, 332settlements 335–8swiddening 439textile production 328tubers 319urbanism 188Western influence 329–31wheat 330–1, 332see also Xinglonggou

    chital deer 278Chogha Bonut 301Chogha Mish 301Cholistan survey 272Chubu 360Chulmun culture 148Chuodun 326Cishan 320Cishan-Beifudi culture 336cities 186abandonment of 200decision-making 196–203definition 193and their hinterlands 192–6social structure 190–1territorial states 194

    city-states 193–4Clark, Grahame 435Clegg, Michael T. 298climateisland Southeast Asia 411–13monsoonal system 312–13, 335, 338variability in 197, 200

    climate change 1, 2168.2 KA event (South Asia) 267Americas 521–2, 542–3, 551Niger delta 484Southwest Asia 4, 189, 214–16trends 197West Asia 129

    coca 541, 544coca leaves 549coconut 80–1coffee 479Cohen, Mark N. 102, 105–6, 119Colocasia esculenta 417Colorado 154–6common bean 520, 541communal compounds 145, 154, 156communitiesChina 145–6, 157definition 125Europe 137–44, 157evidence of 127–8Korea 148–51Mesoamerica 151–3West Asia 128–37, 157

    conflict 142, 173–4Confucius, Classic of Rites 332copper 177, 272, 306, 574–6, 578, 602–4, 609

    see also Chalcolithic Agecorn (Zea maize) 440Corsica 47

    Index

    617

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  • cottonAmericas 517, 518, 541, 544South Asia 10, 263, 270, 285

    Coulanges, Fustel de 187cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) 21, 483, 484, 489Coxcatlán 520–1craft production 16, 153Crane-Kramer, Gillian M.M. 105, 119Crawford, Gary 315, 360–1Crete 137Crickley Hill 142crop systemsdouble cropping system 275failure 200linguistic evidence of 65–7, 68, 77–8, 81, 83–4mixed cropping 532rotation 199, 532

    Csőszhalom-Polgár 569, 572cucumber (Cucumis sp.) 83, 87, 418Cucurbitaceae 496Cueva da los Vampiros site 518Cuiry-les-Chaudardes 572cumin 83cursus monuments 563–5Cushites 59proto- 67–71

    Cuzco 534Cyprus 220, 234Neolithic expansion 236–8

    Da But sites 420Dabar Kot 307Dadiwan 320Daikai (Hyogo prefecture) 366, 403dairy products 65, 134, 137, 171, 579, 596dairying 48, 65, 165–6, 167–72, 182Africa 171–2China 330Europe 137, 168, 170, 596Levant 221lipid residue techniques 168–9modern 166

    Daisen (Osaka prefecture) 359Dakhlet el Atrouss-I 507Damb Sadaat i 307Damdama 275, 276Daulatabad 268Daxi period (middle Yangtze) 326, 327, 329Daxinganling 335mountains 336

    Daxinzhuang 323deer 269, 276, 278, 293, 377, 378–9, 573, 605Denham, Tim 19

    dental evidence see teethDhar Néma (Mauritania) 477, 499, 501, 505, 509Dhar Tagant 507, 509Dhar Tichitt (Mauritania) 21, 477, 499, 505, 506,

    507, 509, 512Dhar Walata 477, 499, 505, 507, 509Dia Shoma 512dietand agriculture 11–12, 105–7China 145, 329, 331definition 94eastern India 278effects of 107–12, 120–1, 380, 604Europe 138, 141, 604Holocene 24hunter-gatherer 102–3Japan 380millets in 321–2skeletal changes and 108–13Southwest Asia 247stable isotope 24, 112–13

    dill 138Dillehay, Tom 22Dioscorea alata 417 see also yamdiseasedegenerative 103infectious 103, 107, 113–14, 121, 380–1nutritional deficiency 107, 108parasitic infection 103, 380respiratory 113sexually transmitted 102skeletal indicators 100–2vectors 474, 482

    dispersalanimals 16, 432–9crops/plants 329–31, 468–9human 26–48, 414–16, 419language 51–3, 73–4, 76–7, 429–30

    ditchescultivation 445drainage 464–6around villages 141–2, 335, 344, 366–7,

    397–400, 561, 565, 601–2, 608Djiganyai 501DNA see ancient DNA (aDNA); mitrochon-

    drial DNA (mtDNA)dog 162China 145Japan 379mainland Southeast Asia 422, 423sacrifice of 182

    dolmens 150–1, 578domestication, definition 219

    Index

    618

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  • Dong Nai drainage system 421Donghulin 320Dongodien 479donkey 83drainage 421, 464–6drought 200Durrington Walls (Stonehenge) 568

    early farming communities (EFC) 487, 494–6see also early Iron Age

    Early Iron Age (EIC) 487, 490, 491, 492, 494East Africaearly pastoralist sites 486–7livestock 486material culture 486

    Easter Island 81eastern India 276–81diet 278Neolithic chronology 277pig 278

    Ecuadorplant domestication 518raised fields 535settlements 524–6

    Egypt 202Egyptians 189Ehret, Christopher 10Eiichi, Fujimori 358, 359einkorn wheat 15, 16, 269, 297, 298Elementeitan tradition 486–7Elsloo (Holland) 596emmer wheat 15, 16, 83, 269, 297, 298enclosuresbanked 561–5causewayed 581ditched 141–2, 335, 344, 366–7, 397–400, 561,

    565, 601–2, 608earthen walled 194earthwork 146, 158palisaded 561–5

    Eneolithic cultures 177, 181Engels, Friedrich 187England 581Enkapune ya Muto 482enset 77–8, 479environmentchanges 246–7overfarming 200reconstruction methods 215variability 197, 200

    erect knotweed 522Erickson, Clark L. 199Eritrea 477

    Erlitou 332Ethiopian highlands, crop cultivation 479Etsuji 366Europeanimal husbandry 581burial practices 577–8crop cultivation 579–81households’ material culture 574–7houses 567–71Neolithic 555–67southeast 555see also individual countries and regions

    Evenki 174Evershed, Richard 168evolutionary medicine 96–7

    familiesextended groups 124, 136–7, 138, 143, 150, 152,

    156, 194, 202, 248–52, 326, 525nuclear 12, 124, 194, 217, 234, 248–52, 326, 348

    farmersage at death 119communities of practice 12–13co-operation and sharing 124–5, 248–52, 584diet and health 103–4, 120–1fertility 104growth problems 119interpersonal violence 117respiratory disease 113sense of time 584skull shape 111tooth enamel defects 119–20work-related health issues 114–17

    farmingearly crop 23mixed 134, 161–4Neolithic 23reasons for switch to 104–5southern Deccan development of 273

    feathergrass (Stipa pennata) 605–7FeJx site (Lake Besaka) 478fern roots 419Fertile Crescent 210, 297fertility 102, 104, 118–19fertility symbols 232–3fertilization 199fields 152, 529raised 534–5

    figs 83Fiji 81finger millet 285, 479, 489fire, anthropogenic 22, 455, 527, 528fish 573, 605

    Index

    619

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  • fishingAfrica 206, 474China 326Europe 573, 578Japan 379South Asia 273, 278Southwest Asia 220

    Flannery, Kent 5, 124–5, 133, 152, 154, 156, 217,346, 348

    flax 285flint 307‘chocolate’ 595, 601, 609

    flotation 314–15, 332, 336, 338, 349–50, 361flour foods 330fodder, supply of 161, 163fonio (Digitaria exilis) 21, 74, 483, 484food intolerance 103, 105, 106 see also lactose

    tolerance/intolerancefood preparationAsian 145, 315–16, 330culinary divide 17women’s role in (Europe) 141, 153

    food productionAfrica 59cultivation vs. domestication 78–9decisions and control of 186, 196–203India 85–90lexical evidence for 62–4, 80–1, 83–4Xinglonggou 349–51

    forestsburning of 455, 458, 462Central Africa 489–92Pleistocene New Guinea 455–7Southeast Asia 411

    Formative period 151fowling 578foxnuts (Euryale ferox) 326foxtail millet (Setaria italica) 17, 18, 80, 145, 310,

    316–22, 328–9, 331, 332, 335–6, 338,349–51, 367, 440

    wild progenitor (Setaria viridis) 317, 339Franceburial practices 577dairy farming methods 170ditched enclosures 565

    fruit 18, 279, 350, 367wild 476

    fruit treesAmericas 152, 516–17China 328South Asia 279, 285

    Fujian province 328, 419Fula 172

    Fuller, Dorian Q. 16, 17, 240, 505Funiu mountains 335Funnel Beaker culture 610Furuichi Omizo 376

    Gallagher, Daphne 14game 141Ganges basin, early cultivation 87–8Gangetic plains 273–6architecture 275Neolithic culture 275pottery 275rice 273–6sedentism 273–6

    Ganj Dareh 301Gansu province 331garden egg 205gardening see horticulturegardensAmazon basin 535Eastern Woodlands 529Europe 23, 580–1, 582, 584, 599grid (New Mexico) 155Mesoamerica 529Nanchoc valley 543–4, 550proto-Austronesian word for 80urban 194

    garlic 83Garlowska, Emilia 604Garrod, Dorothy 129Garstang, John 213gazelle 129, 130, 162, 219, 220, 269, 276, 292–3Geduld (Namibia) 493gender roles 136–7, 141, 153, 158–9genetic evidence 105 see also ancient DNA and

    mitochondrial DNAGermany, Neolithic settlement 138Gexinqiao 418Ghana, ancient (Wagadu) 510giant ragweed 522Gilgal I 130–1gluten 106goat grass, diploid 298goatsChina 330dwarf 485–6Europe 573, 605Jenne-jeno 206Kazakhstan 176mitochondrial DNA analysis 299–300origins of domestication 299–300remains 247South Asia 16, 274, 282

    Index

    620

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  • Southwest Asia 15, 83, 162, 220, 237sub-Saharan Africa 479, 485–6, 491, 492–4, 495terms for 64, 68, 70–1, 83, 89wild, northwestern South Asia 16, 269, 293,

    299–300Gobedra (Ethiopia) 478Göbekli Tepe (Turkey) 132–3, 142, 221, 224–8,

    234Gobi desert 312Gogo Falls 489Gogoshiis Qabe rock shelter (Somalia) 478Golbai Sasan 277–9goldwork 139–41, 576Golson, Jack 19, 447, 451, 463Gopalpur 277–9Gopher, Avi 232Gorecki, Pawel 451Gorman, Chester 418gourds 67, 280, 469Americas 516–17, 529Panama 518South Asia 280Southeast Asia 469

    see also Cucurbitaceaegrain domestication of 79Dravidian names 86harvesting of 79lack of in Oceanic cultures 81Niger–Congo words for 74–5proto-Austronesian cultivation 80Southwest Asia 83 see also cereals; and under

    individual names of speciesgrape 83grasses 335Artemisia 405Digitaria 484edible 458panicoid 319wild 479, 492

    grasslands, burning of 458, 462Great Hungarian Plain 578Greece 137, 142, 144secondary products revolution 169

    groundnut 21 see also Bambara groundnutGua Sireh (Borneo) 428Guangdong province 328, 419–20Guangxi province 328Guilá Naquitz 520–1Guitarrero Cave (Peru) 520Gujarat 86

    Haak, Wolfgang et al. 41hackberry (Celtis) 484

    Haeapugua 466Haginomoto site 389, 400Haimenkou 331Hajji Firuz Tepe 221Hallan Cemi (Turkey) 130, 220Hambledon Hill 142Han River 148, 325Handoga (Djibouti) 478Hangzhou Bay 326Hansen, Judith D.L. 103Happy Rest site (South Africa) 495Harappa 272early Harappan period 272Ravi phase (3300–3000 bc ) 272

    Harlan, Jack 477, 514Harris, David R. 440hartebeest 206Harunari, Hideji 403harvest, reproducibility of 408harvesting, sickle 130Hawaii 81healthand agriculture 11–12, 96–7, 105–7Cypriot Neolithic 237definition 94and diet 11–12, 96–7, 107–12, 120–1,

    380, 604and environment 113–18farmers 103hunter-gatherers 102–3skeletal indicators 100–2, 105, 107–21

    hemp (Cannabis sativa) 17, 322–3, 330,332, 361

    Hemudu culture 146, 323, 325, 326, 328Henry, Donald 218herding 67–71, 157, 161Levant 134linguistic evidence of 83movement 175–6southern Africa 492–6

    heterophylla 350Hidaka (Gunma prefecture) 369Higgs, Eric 315Himiko, Queen 377Hi-Naka (Fukuoka) 381Hiroko, Koike 378Hiroshi Tsude 374Hittites 189Hodaka 373Hodh depression (Mauritania) 499Hoenzaka (Osaka prefecture) 373Hole, Frank 5Holl, A.F.C. 509

    Index

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  • Holocene 1archaeobotany, China 320archaeogenetic research 9climate 4, 214, 335environmental changes 312–13food available 24foraging systems 17hunter-gatherers 7, 15, 418landform changes 215

    Holy Cross mountains (Poland) 595, 601Homo erectus 313Hong (Red) River 420, 421Hongshan culture 336Hopf, Maria 297Hornstaad-Hörnle 1A 138, 571horse 13–14, 162, 176–83, 379sacrifices 181–2wild 179, 605

    horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) 86,275, 278

    horticultureEurope 555, 566island Southeast Asia 435, 464mainland Southeast Asia 418Nanchoc (Peru) 22, 543–4, 550, 552sub-Saharan Africa 472see also gardens

    Houli culture 336houses’Ain Ghazal 248–52Alpine foreland 570–1Chengtoushan 327courtyardMesoamerica 152Sha’ar Hagolan 136, 229

    ‘cult’ 138–9investment in (Levantine MPPNB) 135–6,

    248Las Pircas (Nanchoc) 544, 548, 549longhousesLinear Pottery (Linearbandkeramik, LBK)

    culture 137, 585, 593, 597post-built (Kuahuqiao and Hemudu)

    326post-framed (western Europe) 557, 559–61,

    568, 569–70trapezoidal longhouses (Brześć Kujawski

    Group) 573, 590–1, 600–1, 608lower Xiajiadian 351Mumun period 148Natufian 222ovoid huts 326Pengtoushan 326

    pit housesBotai and Tersek 177Chulmun 148–50Nakanishi-Akitsu 400Southwest North America 154–5

    Pre-Neolithic 229Pre-Pottery Neolithic 228Pre-Pottery Neolithic B 226stilted and ground level (mainland

    Southeast Asia) 421–2storage 138, 148subfloor burials 135, 234, 252–4, 366Tierra Blanca (Nanchoc) 544, 548, 549Valdivia 525

    Hsiao-Chun Hung 419Huai River 310Huang Qixu 315Huarpa 533Hudson, Mark 377, 380–1Hughes, Philip 447human behavioural ecology (HBE) theory 539human body, treatment and representation of

    143Hunamni 150Hungary 556hunter-gatherers 5–7, 15Africa, late StoneAge 482–3, 489, 490, 492, 494bone size and shape 117diet and health 102–3fertility 102, 118–19Japan 18–19life expectancy 102mainland Southeast Asia 417–18respiratory disease 113and rice cultivation 325skull shape 111South Asia 268vs. farmers 583

    hunting 141, 162, 164–5, 278, 419, 495, 578Hurrians 189Huysecom, Erik et al. 74hyacinth bean 285Hyakkengawa-Sawada settlement (Okayama

    prefecture) 366, 369, 371Hyksos 189

    Iberia 565, 578ice core (GISP2) analysis 215Iceman (Ötzi), Chalcolithic Tyrolean 47, 141,

    574, 579Ikegami-Sone (Osaka prefecture) 367, 368Ikeshima-Fukumanji (Osaka) 369Ileret 479

    Index

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  • India 16–17agriculture, lexical evidence of 85–90bean crops 86, 275, 285Eastern Wetlands traditions 277–9pottery 275, 277, 281rice 278–9, 280–1, 323–5see also eastern India; Gangetic plains;

    savanna IndiaIndonesia 80, 411Indus civilization 262, 273, 274Indus River 267Indus valley 262inequality 152Ingold, Tim 13, 164–6Iraq 213, 216–17Ireland 568stone walls 580

    Iron Agemainland Southeast Asia 426South Asia 262, 276sub-Saharan Africa 487, 490, 491, 492, 494

    iron-smelting 201irrigationcanal 369, 532, 533, 544, 550networks 194North America 529, 532–3paddy field 364, 369, 371, 376, 383, 406–9projects 312small ditch 532

    island Southeast Asia 411, 426–34appearance of domestic rice 20climate 411–13genetic diversity 49–51landforms 413linguistic history 79–83Neolithic 413–17

    isotope analysis 127, 145, 338Israelites 188–9Italian 574Italydairy farming methods 170ditched enclosures 565

    Itazuke 356, 364ivory 578

    jack bean 518jade 341, 342–3Jakkalsberg 493Jalilpur 272Japan 18–19animals 382civil engineering projects 375–6dryfield agriculture and horticulture 367

    hunting and gathering 382laurel forest culture 359matagi hunters 382paddy rice farming 353–4early Yayoi period 366–7, 388–404introduction of 362–6Kofun period 379late Yayoi period 370–3, 382, 389middle Yayoi period 367–9, 389storage facilities 373–4, 376technology 373

    population increase 376violence and warfare 377–8

    japonica rice 330Jarigole 480Jarmo 5, 213, 298, 301Jarrige, Jean-Francois 290, 293, 295, 307Java 416Jaz·dz·ewski, Konrad 590–1Jenne-jeno 14, 203–7, 485Jerf el Ahmar 223, 230, 233Jericho 5, 132, 213, 216, 222–4, 228, 234jewellery 143, 231, 421, 422–3 see also beadsJhandi Babar 306Jhandi Babar A (Gomal plain) 272, 306Jhusi 274Jiahu 322, 323Job’s Tears 329, 419, 440Jomon culture 18–19, 366–7animal husbandry 378cultivation 357–62dental caries 109farmers 380–1landscape 405–6, 407–8material culture 359, 405periods 354, 387–8, 389–91, 394–7, 404, 405–6pottery 354, 360, 387, 394–7, 404, 408–9ritual 408–9settlements 389–91, 405storage 408technologies 406–7

    Jones, Glynis et al. 298Jones, Martin 17Juglans mandshurica 350

    Kabusanze 489Kacchi plain 289–90Kadzi 495Kalundu 495Kana 466Kaner, Simon 18Kannonji-Honma site 405, 408Kanto 360

    Index

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  • Kantun 418Karako-Kagi (Nara) 356, 367, 368–9, 371, 379, 387,

    388–9, 397Karkarinchinkat 477, 505Karnataka 282Kashihara 387, 408Kashiwa, Oyama 358Kasteelberg Hill (South Africa) 493Katsuragi River 392Kawanishi-Nenarigaki 403Kazahari (Aomori prefecture) 360Kazakhstan 161crop dispersal 330forced pastoralism 173horses 176–83nomadism/transhumance 174,

    176–7pottery 177–9steppes 164, 176–81

    Kemondo Bay, KM2 and KM3sites 489

    Ken’ichi Yano 18Kent site (Kazakhstan) 183Kenya, Savanna Pastoral Neolithic

    tradition 70Kenyon, Kathleen 5, 213, 223, 228Kfar Ha-Horesh 227Khameswaripali 277–9Khao Wang Prachan valley 442Khirokitia culture 236Khoe 51–2Khok Phnom Di 423–5, 439Khorat plateau (Thailand) 422–3Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 272Kikuchi, Yukiko 402Kili Gul Mohammad 268, 293–7, 302,

    306, 307King, Roy 36Kingwell-Banham, Eleanor 16, 289Kintampo sites 484, 485Kivisild 35Kivu-Rusizi River 488Klein Africa (South Africa) 495kob 206Kodekal 282Kofun period 354Koldihwa 274, 275Kolima Sud 474, 510Kolima Sud-Est 512Konary 599, 605–7Koreabean crops 322burial monuments 150–1, 158communities 148–51, 157

    migration 18rice farming 364

    Körös culture 578Kosipe (New Guinea) 19Krigbaum, John 433Kruger National Park 495Kruszyn 599Kuahuqiao culture 326, 328Kuchai 279Kudatini 283kudzu (Pueraria lobata) 469Kuijt, Ian 235Kuk Swamp (New Guinea) 19, 417, 437, 442,

    445–6burning 455, 462ditches 464–6geographical setting 446–7history of research 447–50mound cultivation 462–4pig rearing 467–8plant exploitation:

    cultivation practices 460–1Holocene–Pleistocene transition 457–9Pleistocene 454–7

    statigraphy 450–1swidden cultivation 462tree fallowing 467

    Kuma-Nishida 369Kumali rock shelter (Ethiopia) 479!Kung San 6Kuroimine 373, 379, 383Kutsukata (Miyagi prefecture) 369Kuyavia (Kujawy)animal remains 595–6burials 596crops 596diet 604landscape 589LBK farmers 591–7Lengyel culture 597–610pottery 594–6, 601see also Brześć Kujawski

    KwaZulu-Natal 495Kyushu 362, 364, 377, 387

    La Draga (Spain) 568La Joya 152La Pastora dolmen 578labourcontrol of 199division of 136–7organization of (urban) 201–2

    lacquer 361lactose persistence 48

    Index

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  • lactose tolerance/intolerance 103, 105, 137,170–2

    Africa 172Europe 579

    Laga Oda rock shelter 477, 478, 479Lahuradewa 273–5Lake Balaton 556Lake Bosumtwi 484Lake Constance 138Lake Eyasi basin 483Lake La Yeguada 518Lake Titicaca basin 533, 534–5Lake Van 215Lake Victoria 483Lane, Paul 20languages/language families 60–7Andes 7Atlantic–Congo 73Austroasiatic 51, 83, 87Austronesian 49, 79–83, 415, 429, 431Bantu 49, 51–3, 73–4, 76–7Basque 90Benue-Kwa 73Caucasian 84cultural salience (of lexicon) 57–8dispersal 51–3, 73–4, 76–7, 415, 429–30, 431Dogon 73Dravidian 263Eastern Bantu 487as evidence of crop cultivation 65–7, 76,

    77–8Hattic 84Hurrian 84Indo-Aryan 87, 263Indo-European 88–9Indo-Hittite (period) 88Japanese 381, 383Khoisan click 51–2lexical change 56–7Mande 73Munda 87, 263Niger–Congo 59, 71Nilo-Saharan 60–7, 70–1Omotic 77–8Pama-Nungyan 431proto-Agaw-East-South Cushitic 68proto-Atlantic 73proto-Atlantic–Congo 73proto-Austronesian 19, 79–81proto-Bantu 76proto-Cushitic 68–71proto-Dravidian 86proto-Eastern Bantu (Mashariki) 487, 492

    proto-Ijo–Congo 73proto-Indo-European 88–9proto-Khoekhoe 492proto-Malayo-Polynesian 80–2proto-Niger–Congo 71–3, 74proto-Northern Sudanic 62–3, 65proto-Omotic 77–8proto-Saharo-Sahelian 63, 65proto-Sahelian 63–7, 70–1proto-Semitic 83–4proto-Southern Cushitic 481proto-Volta–Congo 75proto-Western Bantu 490protolanguages 56and relatedness 55–6Sahelian 487Sino-Tibetan 82–3Sudanic 487Trans-New Guinea 82Urartian 84Volta–Congo 73

    Langweiler 8 (Merzbach) 570Laos, swiddening 439lapis lazuli 271, 295, 302Lapita culture 81, 416, 434–6Larsen, Clark Spencer 109, 380Larsen, Greger et al. 438late Majiabang (lower Yangtze) 327Lawrence, T.E. 213LBK see Linear Pottery (Linearbandkeramik,

    LBK) cultureleeks 83Legge, Tony 167legumes (pulses) 489, 516–17Lekhahia 276Lengyel culture 557Kuyavia 597–610

    lentils 274Leopard Cave (Erongo mountains, Namibia)

    493Lesser Sunda Islands 411Levant 212agricultural communities 128–36animal domestication 220animal husbandry 111ceramics 232–3climate 215dental health 108, 112evidence of livestock 127, 130olive oil production 221PPNA architecture 131–4primacy model 236southern, Neolithic study 213

    Index

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  • Levant (cont.)southern, Pre-Neolithic architecture 228–9trade 234transition to farming 129urbanism 188

    Levantine Corridor 220Lévi-Strauss, Claude 584Li Bing 312Li, H.L. 322Liangzhu 327–8Libya 65LiDAR technology 195Lilley, Malcolm C. 112lima bean 520lime production 549–50Limpopo valley 496Linear Pottery (Linearbandkeramik, LBK)

    cultureburials 577–8, 596–7dispersal 594–5DNA 37, 41–4, 48farmers 591–3gardens 580longhouses 585, 593, 597material culture 574, 594–6settlements 137, 556, 559, 568, 569–70, 572–3,

    580, 581linguistics 10–11 see also languageslittle barley 522little millet 86Liu, Guoxiang 17Liu, Xinyi 17livestockBantu words for 76Cushite words for 68–71dwarf species 485–6feeding 163grazing 163Nilo-Saharan words for 62–4proto-Indo-European words for 89proto-Malayo-Polynesian words for 80–1see also under names of individual species

    llama 162llerén (Calathea allouia) 518Loc Giang 421–2Locust-bean tree (Parkia biglobosa) 483Lokori 480Loma Alta 518long barrows 563–5, 610Lorkiewicz, Wiesław 604lower Xiajiadian culture 336Lubell, David et al. 113lucuma 520

    Ludwigshafen (Lake Constance) 138Ludwinowo (LBK settlement) 593, 596luffa 87lupine 535

    Maasai 165, 172, 173Maasai Mara 483, 486MacDonald, Kevin 21Mahadaha 276Mahagara 275mainland Southeast Asia 411, 417–26animal domestication 438–9climate 411–13crop domestication 436–8early Neolithic sites 419–20horticulture 418landforms 413Neolithic 413–17, 421pre-Neolithic 420–1rice farming 18–19

    maizeChina 316, 331cultivation 151–2lexical history 85Mexico 514, 526North America 22, 154nutrition 111origins 22, 514–15Panama 518Southwest Americas 154use in alcohol 25see also teosinte

    Majiayao culture (Linjia) 323Makowiecki, Daniel 605Makriyalos 142malaria 121Malayo-Polynesians 80–2Mali 474Manganji River 392Mangniu River 338manioc 515, 517–18Manning, Kate 505Manser, Jessica 433–4Maoshan 327–8Maros Cave (Ulu Leang) 429marsh elder 22, 522Marston, John M. 198–9marten/polecat remains 573Matarrubilla dolmen 578material culture 5, 127–8, 212, 222–33Africa 476–7, 478, 486–7, 494, 510–11China 145–6, 328, 336, 338, 341–3, 345Europe 5, 137–44, 566, 574–7, 584

    Index

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  • island Southeast Asia 20, 432–6Japan 356, 372–3, 378–9Kazakhstan 177–9Korea 148–51Lapita 81mainland Southeast Asia 419Mesoamerica 151–3Nanchoc valley (Peru) 544–51Natufian 129, 222, 229–30Nilo-Saharan 60pastoralists 164Pottery Neolithic (PN) 136–7, 228–9,

    232–3Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) 131–4,

    222–4, 230–1Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) 134, 136,

    224–8, 231Pre-Pottery Neolithic C (PPNC) 228, 231proto-Oceanic 81proto-Sudanic 62Southwest North America 154–6Yayoi 18, 356, 372–3

    Matola 495Mayan urban centres 194maygrass 522McElroy, Ann 96McIntosh, Roderick J. 14, 187McIntosh, Susan 204, 206Meadow, Richard H. 297, 305medical anthropology 96Mediterranean islands 236–8Mehrgarh 16, 267–71, 274ceramic production 303–4, 305–6, 307–8Chalcolithic occupation 292period i i i (Togau phase) 305–7periods i v and v 307–8

    contact with other settlements 302location 289–90Neolithic occupation 290–2period i 268, 292–301period i i a 267, 271, 295–7, 302–5period i i b 305

    site 293–7, 302, 306subsistence economy changes 304–5

    Meiklejohn, Christopher 119Mekong River 422Mellaart, James 213melons 67, 205, 328, 329, 367Merzbach valley (Germany) 569–70Mesoamericacommunities 151–3, 157crops 151early domestication 520–1

    late Archaic/early Formative period 527–8linguistic evidence of agricultural practices

    84–5terracing 533water management 533

    Mesolithic (middle Stone Age) 3DNA 41–8South Asia 268, 275–6

    Mesopotamia 191cities 193effects of intensive farming 201irrigation 221organization of production 201

    metallurgy 16, 306, 330, 354, 432, 487–8, 490and expansion of pastoralism 166–7Japan 354, 373Kazakhstan 177Korea 150–1Neolithic Europe 139–41, 574–6South Asia 262sub-Saharan Africa 487, 494, 508 see also

    copper; Iron Age; iron-smeltingMexicoCentral Balsas River valley 521early farmers 526–8highlands 151plant domestication 22, 514raised fields (chinampa) 534

    Mgombani 489mice 129, 130Micronesia 81genetic diversity 49

    middle Niger floodplain 203, 205, 206legacy of Tichitt tradition 510–12

    Miechowice 599crops 605–7LBK settlement 593, 596

    migration 9–10, 16Africa 480–2, 487, 490–1Austronesian 20Bantu 76–7from Europe to Near East 36from Korea to China 18into Japan 364, 381, 383into Lake Turkana basin 480–2South Asia 271, 295–7Southeast Asia 434, 435

    milk/milking 165–6, 167, 581linguistic evidence 65mare’s 180sustaining letdown 169–70see also dairy products; dairying; lactose

    tolerance/intolerance

    Index

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  • millet(s)Africa 21, 491, 492, 495, 496, 499, 505China 145–6, 310, 316–23, 328–9, 335–6, 349–52island Southeast Asia 440Japan 18, 354, 367, 404Kazakhstan 176linguistic evidence 80mainland Southeast Asia 419, 442middle Niger 205non-shattering rachis 505South Asia 17, 263, 278, 284spread 329wild 205see also under names of individual species

    mint (Perilla frutescens) 329Mirabib (Namibia) 493mitrochondrial DNA (mtDNA)admixture effect 36–7, 50Africa 51–3ancient Europeans 40–8and analysis of human dispersal patterns

    26–48chicken 439contemporary Europeans 31–40founder analysis 30, 32–5, 37, 51genetic dating 28–9haplogroup H 43–6haplogroup J 42haplogroup K 42haplogroup L3 30haplogroup N1a 41–4, 46haplogroup T 42haplogroup U 41–2, 46–7horse 13–14, 180human–chimp split 29MSY variation 35–6, 46, 49pig 20, 438Polynesian motif 49–51Southeast Asia 49–51

    Mitsudera i 373, 376, 383Miyamoto, Kazuo 364Miyoshi, Nobuaki 402Mizoguchi, Koji 367, 376moat building 426Modjeska, Nicholas 451Mogollon mountains, SU site 154Monelirio dolmen 578Mongol herders/pastoralists 173, 177Mongol Hordes 173monumental architecture 234, 563–5construction 158 see also burial monuments/

    tombsMorelli, Laura et al. 37

    Morioka, Hideto 403Morrell, Peter L. 298mortuary practices 128, 233–4, 236China 145Europe 144, 577–8see also burials

    Moruo, Guo 313mosquitoes 121moundsAmazon basin 535burial 392, 397, 509–10, 544, 549, 561–5ceremonial 525–6cultivation 462–4settlement 501, 557, 566, 569, 571–3shell 527

    Mount Haruna (Gumma prefecture) 373Mount Kilimanjaro 480Mozambique 495Mugumamp 464Mumun period 148mungbean 86, 275Munson, Patrick 499–501, 506, 508Mureybat 222Murono-Miyayama mounded tomb

    (Nakanishi-Akitsu) 392, 397Murray, Tim 435Myres, Natalie M. et al. 37

    N’Dama cattle 485Nabatake (Saga prefecture) 364, 379Nabta Playa 64, 67Naderi, Sean et al. 300Naka-Kunryu (Fukuoka) 371Nakanishi-Akitsu complex 367, 392–409buried forest 400–1chronology of paddy fields 394–7food consumption 403–4forest life 404–5irrigated rice cultivation 406–9landscape 405–6population 403village 397–400

    Nalepka, Dorota 607Nam River valley 148Nanchoc valley (Peru) 22burials 544climate change 551construction projects 549–50crops 520, 541, 544El Palto phase 543–4environmental parameters 542–3Las Pircas phase 544Tierra Blanca phase 544–9, 550, 552

    Index

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  • Nantaizi (Keshiketeng) 336Nanzhuangou 320Napachik (Manipur) 281Narhan 275Narutaki (Wakayama prefecture) 373Native Americans 85Natufian periodarchitecture 131, 222artefacts/material culture 129, 229–30settlements 129, 222status differentiation 233

    Ndondi Tossokel (Mali) 510–11Near East see Southwest AsiaNeolithic (New Stone Age) 3‘broad spectrum subsistence’ model 217chronologies:eastern India 277northwestern South Asia 267–70savanna India 281–2South Asia 262–3 see also MehrgarhSouthwest Asia 212–14

    definition 177–9, 210–12DNA 37, 41–4, 48ecological and social consequences

    of 238–9expansion 236–8‘hilly flanks’ model 16, 216–17material culture 222–9Oasis Propinquity Theory of 216oldest cultures 210–12post-processual models 218processual models 217Revolution 3–5, 15, 210, 216–19, 285theories for 210–12transition 31–40, 270–3

    Neon U-Loke 425New Guinea 416, 445–6human origins 49–50 see also Kuk Swamp

    New Mexico 154–6Ngamuriak 486Niah Cave 19, 432–4Niger River 205 see also middle Niger

    floodplainNil Kham Maeng 426Nilgai 278Nintoku, Emperor 375Nishijinmachi 381Nitra (Slovakia) 596Nkang 491Nkope Hill (Malawi) 495nomadism 13, 120, 134, 173–4, 176–7, 181, 220,Non Pa Wai 426noodles 330Nor Mak La 426

    North AmericaEastern Woodlands 522, 529fields 529Great Plains 523plant domestication 85, 210, 522–3southwest 154–6, 210transformation of landscapes 529–30

    North Horr 479Northern Transvaal (Gauteng) 496Nowaczyk, Bolesław 607nutsAfrica 491China 325–6, 350Japan 367, 404, 406oil palm 492South Asia 279see also individual species

    oak trees 404Oaxaca valley 152obsidian 124, 479, 486oca 520Oceania, linguistic history 79–83octopus 379Odisha (Orissa) 277, 280Sundargarh district 280

    Ohalo (Sea of Galilee) 11, 215oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) 21, 76, 472, 483, 484,

    491, 492Okolište (Bosnia) 572okra 205Oksbjerg, J. 368Ol Ngoroi 482Oliga 490olive oil production 221Olmec 152, 157Orkney 586Orunwanje 95/1 (Namibia) 493Osłonki 599, 600, 601–2, 608copper artefacts 602–4crops 605–7violence 605

    osteoarthritis 117osteomyelitis 111osteopenia/osteoporosis 110–11Otsuka 369otter 573, 605Ounjougou site (Mali) 74Outram, Alan 13, 125

    pacay (guama) 541paddy fields 17–18, 146, 327–8, 353–4, 362agricultural tools 364, 366chronology and key sites 354

    Index

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  • paddy fields (cont.)early 326, 362–6irrigation 364, 369, 371, 406–9Nara basin 387–92 see also Nakanishi-Akitsu

    complexPakistan 268Pala, Maria 9Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) 3DNA 41–2, 44, 46

    Palavoy 283palm starch 329palms 518Panama 518Pandanus brosimus 455–7Panga ya Saidi Cave 489Papua New Guinea 81parasites 380Passy 563pastoralism 2, 13–14, 89African 171–2, 473, 479definition 161, 173meat 13, 164–5milch 13, 165–6, 167–72mobility 161, 163–4, 173–6nomadic 134, 174–6ranchers 13, 166savanna India 282–3territoriality/environment 163–4transhumance 174–7

    Payne, Sebastian 167pea 367peach 328, 330, 367peanuts 85, 331, 520, 541pear 367pearl milletdomesticated (Pennisetum glaucum) 285, 474,

    477, 484, 489, 491, 506wild (P. glaucum violaceum) 477

    Pearsall, Deborah 22Peiligang culture 145–6, 320, 336Peking Man 313pellagra 111Peña Roja site (Colombia) 519Pengtoushan culture 323, 326Pennington, Ruth 102Peñon del Rio complex 535pepper (Piper sp.) 418perch 573Periano Ghundai (Zhob) 272, 306, 307perilla 361Perrier, Xavier et al. 436–7persimmon 328Person, Alain et al. 501

    Peru 22water management 532 see also Nanchoc

    valleyPeterson, Christian E. 348Petrie, Cameron 16, 305Petrovka culture 181–3Philippines 80occupation 415

    Phung Nguyen Complex 420–1phylogeography 26–31 see also ancient DNA;

    mitrochondrial DNAphytolith analysis 127pigAnatolia 220Brześć Kujawski 605burials 422, 423China 145, 146, 323, 328Cyprus 237domestication 20, 413–17, 573eastern India 278Europe 162, 573island Southeast Asia 429Japan, Yayoi period 379, 382mainland Southeast Asia 422, 423New Guinea 467–8origins 43Southeast Asia 17, 438–9Southwest Asia 15, 220wild 605words for 80–1, 89

    pigeon pea 16, 87, 278–9, 284pike 573Piklihal 282Pikutkowo 599, 608pistachios 83pitpit (Setaria spp.) 458Pitted Ware culture (PWC) 46, 47plasterskulls 135, 136, 231, 233, 235, 255vessels 231

    Pleistocene Ice Age 1China 319climatic fluctuations 214hunter-gatherers 7, 15, 18–19mainland Southeast Asia

    417–18New Guinea 454–7population 1rice domestication 325

    Plog, Fred 346, 348ploughingEurope 580Nam River valley (Korea) 148

    Index

    630

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  • ploughs 373, 581plum 367Polandlonghouses 573sheep 581see also Brześć Kujawski

    Polynesia, genetic diversity 49population growth 200, 217Possehl, Greg 302, 305, 306potatoAmericas 85, 517–18, 535China 331Japan 404

    potterybasket-marked 303, 306, 432–9Boleráz style 573Brześć Kujawski Group 601and burial rituals 441–2cord-impressed 275, 418–19, 420, 429–30,

    432–9early Chinese Neolithic 335early farming communities (early Iron Age)

    487, 494–6earthenware 432Faïta 510–11and food preparation 315–16grey ware 277Hakra ware 272Ileret 479island Southeast Asia 428Neolithic 429–30, 432–6

    Jomon 354, 360, 387, 404, 408–9Kalundu tradition 495Kazakhstan 177–9Kechi Beg ware 307–8Lapita 434–6LBK (Kuyavia) 594–6Libya 65lipid residue techniques 168–9mainland Southeast Asia 441–2early Neolithic 419–20Holocene hunter-gatherer 418–19Neolithic 421, 422–3, 425pre-Neolithic 420–1

    Malongo 490Matola/Silver Leaves ware 495Nderit 479polychrome decoration (Mehrgarh i v and

    v ) 307–8pre-Tichitt 503–4, 510–11red-slipped 430, 435red ware 277, 303South Asia 262

    eastern India 277, 281Gangetic plains 275northwestern 271, 272, 292, 302–6, 307–8

    Tichitt tradition 476, 510–11tripod vessels 281Urewe ware 488–9, 494–5Valdivia 524–6Xinglongwa 341Yayoi 355–6, 366, 376–7, 397Yu’usu style (Kyushsu) 364Zofipole style 594

    Pottery Neolithic (PN) 136–7, 212–13, 232–3architecture 228–9material culture 231mortuary patterns 236ritual behaviour 236social organization 235–6Southwest Asia 231, 232–3

    Pre-Neolithic Pottery Cultures (PNPC)420–1

    Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) 212Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) 130–4, 212, 215,

    219–20architecture 131–4, 222–4, 234material culture 230–1sedentism 222–4

    Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) 134–6, 212agriculture 220animal husbandry 111, 220animal species 247architecture 224–8, 248–52, 256–60climate 215late period (LPPNB) 245–7Levantine villages 152material culture 231middle period (MPPNB) 245–57mixed farming 134plastered skulls 135, 136population growth 245pyrotechnology 231ritual 234–5, 252–4, 256–60social order 233–4social organization 234–5trade 235

    Pre-Pottery Neolithic C (PPNC) 212, 221, 245,316

    animals 247architecture 228, 250–2material culture 231

    proto-Semites 83–4Prunus armeniaca 350public buildings 152–3Pueblo period 155

    Index

    631

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  • pulsesAfrica 495, 496Americas 520cultivation of wild (West Asia) 130Japan 367South Asia 18, 263, 278, 284

    pumpkin 85Purugganan, Michael D. 298Pyrus betuleafolia 350Pyzel, Joanna 593

    Qilaotu mountains 338Qinghai province 331Qinling mountains 335Qiujialing culture 327Quercus sp., Corylus 350querns, rotary 330quinoa 520, 535, 541

    Rach Nui 421–2Rahmatabad 268Rana Ghundai (Loralai) 272phase i–i i 306phase i i i–i v 307

    rats 129Real Alto 518, 523, 524–6ceremonial mounds 525–6social organization 523

    red deer 605Red Jungle Fowl 439reedbuck 206reindeer 162, 165religion 234–5 see also ritualRenfrew, Colin 26riceAfrican 21, 205, 483, 484artificial field systems 326 see also paddy

    fieldsball 353China 87, 146, 310, 323–9, 332and dental health 109flooding 376India 278–9, 280–1, 323–5Japan 353–4, 359–61, 377, 387early Yayoi period 366–7, 388–404introduction of 362–6late Yayoi period 370–3, 389middle Yayoi period 367–9, 389

    nutrition 111pottery impressions 408–9seed (words for) 80social implications 376–8South Asia 273–6, 278–9, 280–1, 323–5

    Southeast Asia 20, 87, 416, 419, 420, 425–6,428–9, 442

    species:Oryza glaberrima 205, 483, 484Oryza rufipogon 429Oryza rufipogon sensu stricto 326Oryza sativa 280–1, 429

    tools 364wet cultivation 145, 146, 148, 326wild 17, 326, 429yield 401–2, 403–4see also paddy fields

    Richards, Martin 9, 31, 112Rindos, David 539ritualartefacts (PPNB) 231, 234–5buildings 152–3, 155–6, 256–60burials 252–4, 434–6, 441–2cereal seeds and 25‘congregations’ 138–9Nanchoc valley 544practices 158, 233–5, 252–4shamanic (Real Alto) 525–6Tichitt 509–10

    Roberts, Charlotte 11rock carving 141roe deer 605Roksandic, Mirjana et al. 117Rome 201Ronen, Avraham 224roots 19, 416, 516–18Russia, forest steppes 164Rwanda 489

    Saami 36Sabaki River 483Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia) 534Saberi Faïta 510Sadr, Karim 494sago 19, 468words for 80–1

    sago palms 19, 416, 417, 419Saharafood production 59rainfall 473

    Sahelmaterial culture 476–7millet domestication 21, 477, 499

    Sahlins, Marshall 581Saikachido (Kanagawa prefecture) 369Saisho, Daisuke 298Salamini, Francesco et al. 298Salque, Mélanie 596

    Index

    632

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  • Samoa 81San 51–2 see also Kung SanSan Isidro site (Colombian Andes) 518San José Mogote 152–3Sanga cattle 485Sanganakallu 282Sannai Maruyama 378Sanzoudian 350–1Saragi site 409Sarai-Nahar-Rai 276Sarawak 442Sardinia 47Sardinians 36, 38Sargary culture 182Sasuke, Nakao 359, 361savanna Indiacattle 282, 283crop domestication 281–5Neolithic chronology 281–2pastoralism 282–3sheep 282

    Savanna Pastoral Neolithic tradition 486–7Sawada, Goichi 402Scarcelli, Nora et al. 437Schlangengraben valley (Germany) 569–70Schwartz, Glenn M. 12, 238scurvy 110seal (animal) 494seals 232–3, 307sedentism 4, 11, 151–2and fertility 118–19Peru 544, 549, 551South Asia 262, 273–6, 280, 285–6, 290–2Southeast Asia 413, 420, 422Southwest Asia 217, 218, 222–9Tichitt 500

    Semino, Ornella 35Senoi 51Senuwar 275Serengeti plains 483Sergeevka 181sesame 263, 270settlementsalluvial fan 305Central Asia 181changes 124–5China 335–8Chulmun/Mumun 148–50Ecuador 524–6European 137–9, 559–61, 569–73, 591–7flat 557, 569, 584Jomon settlements 389–91, 405Levantine Pottery Neolithic 136–7

    Linear Pottery (Linearbandkeramik, LBK)137, 556, 559, 568, 569–70, 572–3, 580,581, 591–7

    mounds/tells 501, 557, 566, 569, 571–3Natufian 129, 222pit-house (Southwest Americas) 154–5raised platform 421–2South Asia 301–2Tichitt 499, 505–10Yayoi:early 366–7, 388–404middle (Japan) 367–9late 370–3see also villages

    Sha’ar Hagolan 136, 229, 232Shabik’eschee Village 154–5ritual buildings 155–6

    Shah-Maran 268Shangsan 326Shawoli 320Shea (Karité) (Vitellaria paradoxa) tree 483sheepChina 330–1Europe 573, 581, 605genetic origins 300Jenne-jeno 206Kazakhstan 176savanna India 282selective breeding 172–3South Asia 16, 274, 300Southwest Asia 15, 83, 162, 220sub-Saharan Africa 479, 485, 486,

    493–4, 495terms for 64, 70–1, 83, 89wild 172–3Levant 130northwestern South Asia 269, 293, 300

    Shelach, Gideon 348shell artefacts 230, 231, 295, 422–3shellfish 419, 474, 492, 494, 495, 578Shennong (the divine farmer) 332Sheri Khan Tarakai (Bannu basin) 262, 306Sherratt, Andrew 13, 166–8, 173, 321Shijiahe culture 327Shijo-Shinano 400, 403Shimoyakebe (Tokyo) 362shiso minto 361Shixia site 419Shizitan 319Shum Laka rock shelter 490, 491Shunpei, Ueyama 359Siberia 162, 174Silver Leaves site 496

    Index

    633

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  • Sindh 268Sintashta culture 181Sipplingen (Lake Constance) 138Situmpa 495skeletal evidenceaccidental injuries 117–18aging of 99bone modifications 604changes and living environment 20, 113–18collection of data from 98–102effect of diet 108–13, 141, 604, 608–9evidence of violence 117–18, 605growth retardation 108, 111, 119health indicators 100–2indicators of response to agriculture 105,

    107–21, 604, 608–9stable isotope analysis 112–13, 141 see also

    skullsskullscattle 138, 230, 234cribra orbitalia 108, 111, 118, 120–1, 604Niah Cave 433–4plastering/painting 135, 136, 231, 233, 235, 255porotic hyperostosis 108, 111, 118, 120–1removal 135, 235, 254, 434shape 111

    slave trade 508Smith, Bruce 218Smólsk 594, 599Soares, Pedro 9, 35social interaction, evidence of 142Soga River 392soil, black palaeosol 405–6Solomon Islands 81Somba cattle 485Soreq Cave (Israel) 215sorghumAfrica 205, 479, 484, 489, 495, 496savanna India 285seeds (Nabta Playa) 67use in alcohol 25

    South Africa 493 see also specific sitesSouth America, raised fields 535South Asia 16–17animals 263–4, 269–70, 278–9Chalcolithic culture 272domesticates 263–4, 269, 278–9monsoon 261–2Neolithic chronology 262–3northwestern 269pottery 262, 271, 272, 275, 277, 281, 302–5terracing 534transition to agriculture 270–3

    Southeast Asia see island Southeast Asia;mainland Southeast Asia

    Southwest Asia (Near East) 4, 7, 15–16chronology 212–14consequences of Neolithic lifestyles 238–9domesticates 219economic nature of the Neolithic 219–21environment and climate 214–16first villages 222–9linguistic history 83–4material cultures 229–33Neolithic cultures 210–12regional cores and the expansion of the

    Neolithic 236–8sedentism 222–9social orders 233–6theories on the Neolithic 216–19see also ’Ain Ghazal

    soybeansChina 17, 322, 332, 350Japan 18, 322, 361, 367Korea 322

    Spengler, Oswald 187Spirit Cave 418Spoegrivier (South Africa) 493Spriggs, Matthew 430–1squash 22, 85, 516–17Eastern Woodlands 529Ecuador 518Mexican highlands 151Panama 518pepo 522Peru 541, 544Southwest North America 154

    stable isotope analysiscrops 127, 145, 338evidence of rice consumption 425–6oxygen 175skeletons 112–13, 127, 141, 154, 321–2,

    351–2, 362speleothem analysis 215

    stag beetle 404Starčevo culture 556, 568Stepleton enclosure (Hambledon Hill) 142Stone Age see Mesolithic; Neolithic;

    Palaeolithicstone wall systems 580Stone, Glenn D. 201Stone-to-Metal Age (SMA) 490, 491Stonehenge 586storageceramic vessels 145, 148exclusive 137, 138, 148, 152, 156–7, 372

    Index

    634

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  • raised floor 366, 373–4shared 150, 156, 367, 373–4storage pits 145, 148, 152, 154, 335, 346–9, 403,

    408, 496straw 163structures (Mehrgarh) 304urban centre 198

    Suberde 213Sudan, Atabi sites 477Sugao, Yamanouchi 355sugarcane 80–1, 446, 458, 468Sugenya 486Sugitani Chanobatake 353Sulawesi 416Sumatra 416geography 413

    Summer, Alan 15Sunazawa (Aomori prefecture) 369sunflower 22, 522Sunshu Ao 312Sur Jangalphase i–i i 306phase i i i 307

    Surabphase i i 306phase i i i 307

    surplus 14, 157, 187–207, 540, 551Suthiragasa, Nikhom 423sweet potato 85, 467–8swidden agriculture (slash and burn) 126, 145,

    359, 417, 420, 439–41, 462, 490–1

    Tabaqat al-Buma 136Tach Lac (Ha Tinh province) 421Taihang 335Taiwan 80dispersal from 50–1, 429–30

    Takaki, Sasaki 359Takeru, Akazawa 366Talheim 142Tamade site (Gose city) 389–91, 392, 408Tambul 464Tamil Nadu 282Tappeh Rahmatabad 301Tareyanagi (Aomori prefecture) 369taro (Colocasia esculenta L.)island Southeast Asia 19, 416, 437, 440, 446,

    458, 462, 463, 468South Asia 263, 280

    Taro, Okamoto 359tattoos 435taurine cattle 485Tayles, N. et al. 110–11

    Tchissinga West 492teethchanges in shape 111–12enamel hypoplasia 108, 111, 119–20, 604gender differences 109grooves 604isotopic record 175–6wear and disease 103, 107, 108–10, 380

    tef 21, 479Tekkalokota 282Tell Abr 3, 223Tell Aswad 254Tell Ramad 254Tell-e Atashi 301tells 557, 566, 569, 571–3, 584Temple, Daniel H. 109, 380teosinte 22, 514–15 see also maizeTeotihuacan 194Teouma cemetery 434–6tepary bean 520Tepe Abdul Hossein 301Tepe Guran 301Terasawa, Kaoru 401terracing 199, 533–4Tersek culture 177–9, 181textile productionChina 328South Asia 262, 270

    Thailandclimate 411dispersal from 419foraging practices 418geography 413Neolithic 422–5rice 442swiddening 439

    Thar desert 286Thomas, Ken D. 305Thukela basin (KwaZulu-Natal) 494Tian Shan 174, 177Tibet 331Tichitt tradition (West Africa) 499chronology:pre-Tichitt (Tichitt phase 1, Akreijit

    phase) 500–6early Tichitt (phases 2 and 3, Khimiya/

    Goungou phases) 506–7classic Tichitt (phases 4–6, Nkahl/

    Naghez/Chebka phases) 507late Tichitt (phases 7 and 8, Arriane/

    Akjinjeir phases) 507–8origins of agriculture 499–505settlements 499, 505–10

    Index

    635

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  • Tichitt tradition (West Africa) (cont.)sociopolitical definition 508–10trade networks 509

    Tichitt-Oulata-Néma 474, 477Tierras Largas 152, 153Tilemsi valley 474, 477, 505timber 361Tiwanaku 534–5tobacco 517Tobol River 181Tokwa 274, 275–6tombs see burial monuments/tombsTonga 81tools and artefactsantler axes (T-axes) 604, 605, 608, 609arrowheads 372–3, 421bark cloth beaters 421, 430bone 177, 230, 231, 278, 338, 442chipped stone 230, 231–2, 335, 341–2, 360,

    510–11, 526clay balls 421clay bow pellets 421copper 591, 602–4dolerite 280edgeground axes 420farming, Americas 530figurines 143, 230–1, 232–3, 234,

    236, 292flaked stone 177, 486flint 601grinding 129, 319, 335, 338, 341–2, 372–3,

    419, 526ground stone 129, 177, 181, 229–30,

    231–2, 421, 462, 486, 544,595, 601

    harpoons 278, 421hoes/mattocks 364, 530iron 372–3jadeitite axes 142, 574, 576lunates 230maceheads 150microblades 177microliths 229, 335, 338, 341–2movement of 142picks 364planting/digging 275polished stone 335, 510–11adzes 421bars (Jomon type) 366celts 230, 275, 278, 280reaping knives 364, 366, 400

    pounding 129, 595quern stones 275, 372–3

    reaping knives 150, 364, 366, 372–3, 400shell 230, 231, 295, 422–3, 430sickle blades 230, 372–3slate spear points 429–30spades 364spade-shoes 372–3spindle whorls 150, 232, 328, 372–3, 421, 430stamp seals 232stone 280, 417–18, 419, 441

    adze 422–3, 430arrowheads 421axes 75–6, 142, 372–3, 530, 601bangles 421blades 280bracelets 421flakes 280jewellery 231net sinkers fishing 150, 419, 430reaping knives 372–3swords 150unifacial 544vases 230

    wooden 364, 530Torihama (Fukui prefecture) 362Toro (Shizuoka) 356, 362, 371Torroni, Antonio 32Toteng (Botswana) 493Totman 383Townsend, Patricia K. 96trade 234, 235, 302, 505, 508, 509transhumance 13, 174–7, 183, 302urban 198

    Trebur (middle Rhine, Germany) 141tree cotton (Gossypium arboreum) 263, 270, 285tree-rings 197treesAmericas 152, 516–17, 518, 529Castanopsis sp. 458Casuarina tree fallowing 467fruit 152, 279, 285, 328, 516–17management of 131, 279Nakanishi-Akitsu 400–1, 404–5Nothofagus 457Pandanus spp. (New Guinea) 455–7,

    458, 462West African 483–4

    Tres Ventanas Cave 520Trigger, Bruce 193–4Truswell, A.S. 103Tsavo 483tsetse fly 482Tuareg 172, 173tuberculosis (TB) 113, 121

    Index

    636

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  • tubersAmericas 516–18, 520China 319South Asia 280Southeast Asia 19, 416see also under individual names of species

    Turkana basin (Kenya) 479Turkey 213animal domestication 220architecture 224, 228

    turkey 162turquoise 295turtle 605

    Uivar (Romania) 569, 572Ulu Leang (Sulawesi) 429Underhill, Peter 36upper Khabur basin (Syria) 195Ur, Jason 195Ural mountains 181urban agriculturedecision-making 196–203diversification and intensification

    strategies 198–9growth and sustainability 199–201technologies 198

    urban despotism 190–2, 196urban hinterland 192–6urbanism 13–14 see also cities; urban

    agricultureurd bean 86Urewe sites 488–9Uryudo 367Usenge 3, 489Utah 154–6Utnar 282

    Vaihingen an der Enz 141, 569–70, 572, 576,580, 596

    Valencina de la Concepción 577–8Vam Co Dong drainage system 421Vam Co Tay drainage system 421VanDerwarker, Amber M. 152Vanuatu 81Varna 574, 576, 586vegecultural systems 415–17, 420, 439–41, 442Vietnamburials 420dispersal from 419Hoabinhian tools 417–18, 420Neolithic 421pottery 441–2

    Pre-Neolithic Pottery Culture (PNPC)420–1

    swiddening 439villagesFormative period 151–2Neolithic 222–9northwestern South Asia 267–70origins of (theory) 217PPN/PN 135–6see also settlements

    Vinča-Belo Brdo (Serbia) 557violence 19, 117, 584, 605, 608–9Vita-Finzi, Claudio 321

    Wadh Lang’o 489Wadi en-Natuf 129Wadi Faynan (Feinan) 16, 132, 223, 233Warrawau 464, 466water buffalo 146, 148, 150, 263, 270waterchestnuts (Trapa natans) 326, 367, 418waterfowl 206Watgal 282Watson, Patty Jo 315wax gourd 469Webber’s Line 411Weber, Max 187, 190, 196, 199–200Weber, Steven et al. 426weeds 126–7, 130, 138control 68, 530disturbance-tolerant (PPNB) 134isotope analysis 126–7, 130, 138

    West Africaagricultural practices, evolution of 74–7cattle breeds 485climate variability 197crops 21, 24, 76, 472, 483Dahomey Gap 484environmental shift 59linguistic record 71–4Microlithic tradition 74urbanism 188wild food 484wild plants 205see also Tichitt tradition

    West Asia, agricultural communities 128–37Westropp, Hodder 3, 7wheatChina 330–1, 332Europe 605free threshing 269genetic analysis of 298–9hexaploid 298

    Index

    637

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  • wheat (cont.)Japan 354, 404nutritional deficiency 111primitive 15, 83South Asia 16, 269, 274Southwest Asia 15, 17, 83use in alcohol 25wild 16see also names of individual species

    wheeled vehicles 141, 582Whittle, Alasdair 9, 22wild boar 378–9, 438Wills, W.H. 154Wilson, A.C. 26–7Windé Koroji Ouest 474, 477wine 83, 221Wittfogel, Karl A. 186, 187, 191, 199womencentral role 524, 525–6depiction of 143and ritual 525

    wool 161, 165–6, 167, 172–3, 581Woolley, Sir Leonard 213work parties 153, 159Wuluoxipo 320

    Xiachuan 319Xiaohexi culture 336Xiaoheyan culture 336Xihuatoxtla shelter 521, 526Ximen Bao 312Xincun site 419Xinglonggou 17, 320architecture 343–9burials 345houses 337–8landscape 338–41location 336–7material culture 338, 341–3, 345millet consumption 351–2millet production 349–51storage 346–9

    Xinglongwa culture 321sites 336 see also Xinglonggousubcultures 336

    Xinjiang 331Xinle 320Xiong Haitang 315Xishuipo 323

    Yahwism 188–90, 195yamaerial 77, 81

    Africa 76, 80–1, 491greater (Dioscorea alata) 81, 437–8proto-Malayo-Polynesian word for 85South Asia 280Southeast Asia 416, 437–8, 440, 446, 458,

    462, 468West African (Dioscorea spp.) 483, 484

    Yangtze River 274, 310–12basin 323–9rice cultivation 146valley 87, 145, 146, 310

    Yarmoukian Pottery Neolithic 245, 250–2,257–60

    Yashiro (Nagano prefecture) 369Yayoianimals 379early phase 366–7, 388–404evidence of trade 372farmers 380–1late phase 370–3, 382, 389material culture 356, 372–3middle phase 367–9, 389migration 18myth 376–8paddy fields 355–6, 362–73period 354, 387settlements 366–73

    Yellow River 310–12, 322, 329valley 145

    yields, decline in 200Yitai 335Yoruba 194–5, 201–2 see also West AfricaYoshinogari (Saga prefecture)

    356, 372Younger Dryas stadial 130, 215Yuezhuang 320Yukio, Kobayashi 377

    Zagajewice, 599LBK settlement 593

    Zagros mountains 216foothills 297

    Zarqa River 243, 245, 248, 249Zawi Chemi Shanidar 130zebu cattle 263, 270, 274, 300–1, 485Zengpiyan 418–19Zhang, C. 419Zhao Zhijun 17, 349Zhaobaogou culture 336Zhaojiazhuang 330Zhoukoudian Cave 313Zilum, Gajiganna phase i i i site 485Zohary, Daniel 297

    Index

    638

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    http://www: cambridge: org:

    9780521192187: