Increasing Preservice Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs for Technology Integration

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  • This article was downloaded by: [University of West Florida]On: 06 October 2014, At: 21:44Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH,UK

    Journal of Research onTechnology in EducationPublication details, including instructions forauthors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ujrt20

    Increasing PreserviceTeachers Self-Efficacy Beliefsfor Technology IntegrationLing Wanga, Peggy A. Ertmerb & Timothy J. Newbyba Nova Southeastern Universityb Purdue UniversityPublished online: 24 Feb 2014.

    To cite this article: Ling Wang, Peggy A. Ertmer & Timothy J. Newby(2004) Increasing Preservice Teachers Self-Efficacy Beliefs for TechnologyIntegration, Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36:3, 231-250, DOI:10.1080/15391523.2004.10782414

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  • Increasing Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs for Technology

    Integration

    Ling Wang Nova Southeastern University

    Peggy A. Ertmer Timothy J. Newby

    Purdue University

    Abstract This study was designed to explore how vicarious learning experiences and goal setting influence preservice teachers' self-efficacy for integrating technology into the classroom. Two hundred and eighty students, enrolled in an introductory educational technology course at a large Midwestern university, participated. Students were divided into eighteen lab sec-tions, which were assigned to one of four conditions (three experimental and one control). Pre- and post-surveys were administered to examine participants' self-efficacy beliefs for technology integration. Results showed significant treatment efficts for vicarious experiences and goal setting on participants' judgments of self-efficacy for technology integration. A significantly more powerfol effect was found when vicarious learning experiences and goal setting were both present compared to when only one of the two foctors was present. There-fore, from the perspective of teacher educators, the use of vicarious learning experiences and the incorporation of specific goals may help preservice teachers develop the confidence they need to become e./fictive technology users within their own classrooms. (Keywords: technol-ogy integration, self-efficacy, vicarious learning experiences, goal setting.)

    INTRODUCTION In an effort to prepare students for the information age, public schools are in-

    creasing access to technology tools by installing more hardware and software, con-necting classrooms to the Internet, and providing cable and satellite capabilities (Zehr, 1997, 1998). Yet, despite the increased availability and support for class-room computer use, relatively few teachers have fully integrated computers into their teaching (Becker, 2000; Marcinkiewicz, 1996). Teachers' uses of computers are likely to be influenced by multiple factors, including the accessibility of hard-ware and relevant software, the nature of the curriculum, personal capabilities, and external constraints such as time, equipment, and technical support (Albion, 1999). However, according to Ertmer (1999), "Even if every first-order [external] barrier were removed, teachers would not automatically use technology to achieve the kind of meaningful outcomes advocated" (p. 51).

    There is substantial evidence to suggest that teachers' beliefs in their capacity to work effectively with technology-that is, their self-efficacy for technology in-tegration-may be a significant factor in determining patterns of classroom computer use (Albion, 1999; Oliver & Shapiro, 1993). For example, according to Eachus and Cassidy (1999), "Self-efficacy has repeatedly been reported as a

    Journal of Research on Technology in Education 231

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  • major factor in understanding the frequency and success with which individuals use computers" (p. 2). Compeau, Higgins, and Huff (1999) conducted a longi-tudinal study with 394 subscribers to a periodical over a one-year interval co test the influence of computer self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, affect, and anxiety on computer use. Their findings provided strong confirmation that computer self-efficacy beliefs had a significant positive influence on computer use. Another study conducted by Albion (1996) investigated student teachers' dispositions toward computers and their uses of computers in primary school classrooms during a final-year practicum. Results suggested that lack of confi-dence for teaching with computers was an important factor influencing the lev-els of computer use by student teachers. Taken together, these studies suggest that teachers' beliefs-and self-efficacy beliefs in particular-are useful indica-tors of levels of technology integration. Certainly, they provide sufficient reason to undertake further investigations in this area and to consider approaches to teacher education and professional development that might be effective in in-creasing self-efficacy for teaching with technology.

    Bandura (1986) identified four sources of information used to judge self-effi-cacy: successful performance attainment, observing the performances of others (vicarious learning), verbal persuasion indicating that one possesses certain ca-pabilities, and physiological states by which one judges capability, strength, and vulnerability. Although performance accomplishments are considered to be the most robust source of self-efficacy information, vicarious learning is also a pow-erful source (Ban dura, 1986, 1997). That is, viewing others successfully accom-plishing a particular task can increase learners' perceptions of others' efficacy as well as their own efficacy for performing similar tasks (Ban dura, 1997).

    Vicarious learning experiences have been shown to enhance student teachers' self-efficacy for using computers in their teaching. In 1993, Handler con-ducted a study with 133 education graduates. Participants responded to a sur-vey regarding their perceptions of the value of preservice computer experiences to their professional preparation. Results showed that observing cooperating teachers using computers during the student teaching experience was one of the three most important factors that influenced feelings of preparedness for the use of computers for instruction in their own classrooms.

    Downes (1993) investigated student teachers' uses of computers during practicum sessions in order to identifY relationships among computer uses and spe-cific practicum factors. Results indicated a significant increase in computer use over the three practicum sessions, and this increase was consistent from one practicum group to the next. What is interesting to note, however, is that when examining the factors involved in the practicum environment, only one factor, supervising teach-ers' uses of computers with children, was significant. No other practicum-related factors, including level taught and technology resources, were significant. The in-fluence of the supervising teachers' uses of computers was so strong that first-year students, whose supervising teachers used computers with children, were more likely to use computers with children than third-year students whose supervising teachers did not. Apparently, observing positive role models (in this case, supervis-ing teachers) favorably influenced the student teachers to perform similarly.

    232 Spring 2004: Volume 36 Number 3

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  • Although novice learners can acquire skills and strategies from social modeling, when performing independently they are likely to oYer- or underestimate their own capabilities (Schunk, 2001). However, students' judgments of progress

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