Increasing Preservice Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs for Technology Integration

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [University of West Florida]On: 06 October 2014, At: 21:44Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH,UK</p><p>Journal of Research onTechnology in EducationPublication details, including instructions forauthors and subscription information:</p><p>Increasing PreserviceTeachers Self-Efficacy Beliefsfor Technology IntegrationLing Wanga, Peggy A. Ertmerb &amp; Timothy J. Newbyba Nova Southeastern Universityb Purdue UniversityPublished online: 24 Feb 2014.</p><p>To cite this article: Ling Wang, Peggy A. Ertmer &amp; Timothy J. Newby(2004) Increasing Preservice Teachers Self-Efficacy Beliefs for TechnologyIntegration, Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36:3, 231-250, DOI:10.1080/15391523.2004.10782414</p><p>To link to this article:</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all theinformation (the Content) contained in the publications on our platform.However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness,or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and viewsexpressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, andare not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of theContent should not be relied upon and should be independently verified withprimary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for anylosses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages,and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly orindirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of theContent.</p><p></p></li><li><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes.Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan,sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone isexpressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f W</p><p>est F</p><p>lori</p><p>da] </p><p>at 2</p><p>1:44</p><p> 06 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p><p></p></li><li><p>Increasing Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs for Technology </p><p>Integration </p><p>Ling Wang Nova Southeastern University </p><p>Peggy A. Ertmer Timothy J. Newby </p><p>Purdue University </p><p>Abstract This study was designed to explore how vicarious learning experiences and goal setting influence preservice teachers' self-efficacy for integrating technology into the classroom. Two hundred and eighty students, enrolled in an introductory educational technology course at a large Midwestern university, participated. Students were divided into eighteen lab sec-tions, which were assigned to one of four conditions (three experimental and one control). Pre- and post-surveys were administered to examine participants' self-efficacy beliefs for technology integration. Results showed significant treatment efficts for vicarious experiences and goal setting on participants' judgments of self-efficacy for technology integration. A significantly more powerfol effect was found when vicarious learning experiences and goal setting were both present compared to when only one of the two foctors was present. There-fore, from the perspective of teacher educators, the use of vicarious learning experiences and the incorporation of specific goals may help preservice teachers develop the confidence they need to become e./fictive technology users within their own classrooms. (Keywords: technol-ogy integration, self-efficacy, vicarious learning experiences, goal setting.) </p><p>INTRODUCTION In an effort to prepare students for the information age, public schools are in-</p><p>creasing access to technology tools by installing more hardware and software, con-necting classrooms to the Internet, and providing cable and satellite capabilities (Zehr, 1997, 1998). Yet, despite the increased availability and support for class-room computer use, relatively few teachers have fully integrated computers into their teaching (Becker, 2000; Marcinkiewicz, 1996). Teachers' uses of computers are likely to be influenced by multiple factors, including the accessibility of hard-ware and relevant software, the nature of the curriculum, personal capabilities, and external constraints such as time, equipment, and technical support (Albion, 1999). However, according to Ertmer (1999), "Even if every first-order [external] barrier were removed, teachers would not automatically use technology to achieve the kind of meaningful outcomes advocated" (p. 51). </p><p>There is substantial evidence to suggest that teachers' beliefs in their capacity to work effectively with technology-that is, their self-efficacy for technology in-tegration-may be a significant factor in determining patterns of classroom computer use (Albion, 1999; Oliver &amp; Shapiro, 1993). For example, according to Eachus and Cassidy (1999), "Self-efficacy has repeatedly been reported as a </p><p>Journal of Research on Technology in Education 231 </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f W</p><p>est F</p><p>lori</p><p>da] </p><p>at 2</p><p>1:44</p><p> 06 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>major factor in understanding the frequency and success with which individuals use computers" (p. 2). Compeau, Higgins, and Huff (1999) conducted a longi-tudinal study with 394 subscribers to a periodical over a one-year interval co test the influence of computer self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, affect, and anxiety on computer use. Their findings provided strong confirmation that computer self-efficacy beliefs had a significant positive influence on computer use. Another study conducted by Albion (1996) investigated student teachers' dispositions toward computers and their uses of computers in primary school classrooms during a final-year practicum. Results suggested that lack of confi-dence for teaching with computers was an important factor influencing the lev-els of computer use by student teachers. Taken together, these studies suggest that teachers' beliefs-and self-efficacy beliefs in particular-are useful indica-tors of levels of technology integration. Certainly, they provide sufficient reason to undertake further investigations in this area and to consider approaches to teacher education and professional development that might be effective in in-creasing self-efficacy for teaching with technology. </p><p>Bandura (1986) identified four sources of information used to judge self-effi-cacy: successful performance attainment, observing the performances of others (vicarious learning), verbal persuasion indicating that one possesses certain ca-pabilities, and physiological states by which one judges capability, strength, and vulnerability. Although performance accomplishments are considered to be the most robust source of self-efficacy information, vicarious learning is also a pow-erful source (Ban dura, 1986, 1997). That is, viewing others successfully accom-plishing a particular task can increase learners' perceptions of others' efficacy as well as their own efficacy for performing similar tasks (Ban dura, 1997). </p><p>Vicarious learning experiences have been shown to enhance student teachers' self-efficacy for using computers in their teaching. In 1993, Handler con-ducted a study with 133 education graduates. Participants responded to a sur-vey regarding their perceptions of the value of preservice computer experiences to their professional preparation. Results showed that observing cooperating teachers using computers during the student teaching experience was one of the three most important factors that influenced feelings of preparedness for the use of computers for instruction in their own classrooms. </p><p>Downes (1993) investigated student teachers' uses of computers during practicum sessions in order to identifY relationships among computer uses and spe-cific practicum factors. Results indicated a significant increase in computer use over the three practicum sessions, and this increase was consistent from one practicum group to the next. What is interesting to note, however, is that when examining the factors involved in the practicum environment, only one factor, supervising teach-ers' uses of computers with children, was significant. No other practicum-related factors, including level taught and technology resources, were significant. The in-fluence of the supervising teachers' uses of computers was so strong that first-year students, whose supervising teachers used computers with children, were more likely to use computers with children than third-year students whose supervising teachers did not. Apparently, observing positive role models (in this case, supervis-ing teachers) favorably influenced the student teachers to perform similarly. </p><p>232 Spring 2004: Volume 36 Number 3 </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f W</p><p>est F</p><p>lori</p><p>da] </p><p>at 2</p><p>1:44</p><p> 06 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>Although novice learners can acquire skills and strategies from social modeling, when performing independently they are likely to oYer- or underestimate their own capabilities (Schunk, 2001). However, students' judgments of progress, as well as their judgments of self-efficacy, increase in both accc.racy and strength when goals are made explicit (Schunk, 2001). Research in education (Schunk, 1990) and orga-nizational management (Lee, Locke, &amp; Latham, 1989) has emphasized the impor-tance of goals directed toward specific performance levels, with concrete, measur-able outcomes. Because specific goals help define what constitutes an acceptable level of performance, the explication of these goals can help students make more accurate, as well as more robust, judgments of efficacy. By establishing goals, stu-dents typically experience a sense of efficacy for attaining them (Schunk, 2001). </p><p>The literature has established independent effects of both vicarious learning experiences and goal setting on learners' judgments of self-efficacy, yet little work has been done to examine how these strategies might be combined to crec..te even more accurate and more robust judgments of efficacy. In 1992, Gist and MitcheL identified three general strate-gies for enhancing self-efficacy beliefs. Of these three, tv\'0 related to vicarious learning and goal setting, respectively: providing opportunities to observe experts' practice and providing opportunities to address a specific goal while resolving a particular teaching is-sue. Gist and Mitchell concluded that these strategies contributed to building teachers' confidence for achieving effective teaching. </p><p>According to Neck and Manz (1992), when individuals mentally rehearse a task, they see themselves performing it and thus are exposed to the positive ef-fect of modeling (i.e., they learn through vicarious experiences). Furthermore, the intense cognitive processing that occurs during mental practice can heighten awareness of how to attain specific goals and hence increase goal commitment and task performance. Based on these premises, it was hypothesized that vicari-ous learning experiences and goal setting could be combined to achieve a sig-nificant effect on learners' self-efficacy beliefs and rask performance. </p><p>PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study was designed to examine the impact of vicarious learning experi-</p><p>ences and goal setting on preservice teachers' self-efficacy for technology inte-gration. Specifically, this study was guided by the following research question: </p><p>What are the effects of vicarious experiences and goal setting on preservice teachers' judgments of self-efficacy for technology integration? </p><p>Based on the self-efficacy literature described above, it was hypothesized that preservice teachers who were exposed to vicarious experiences related to success-ful technology integration would experience significantly greater increases in judgments of self-efficacy for technology integration than those who were not exposed to these vicarious experiences. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that preservice teachers who were assigned specific goals would experience signifi-cantly greater increases in judgments of self-efficacy than those who were not assigned any goals. Finally, it was hypothesized that preservice teachers who were exposed to vicarious experiences and assigned specific goals would demon-strate the greatest increases in judgments of self-efficacy compared to students who received either one of these conditions alone. </p><p>Journal of Research on Technology in Education 233 </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f W</p><p>est F</p><p>lori</p><p>da] </p><p>at 2</p><p>1:44</p><p> 06 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>METHODS Research Design </p><p>A 2 x 2 (Vicarious Experiences x Goal Setting) mixed factorial research design was used to examine how vicarious experiences and goal setting affected preser-vice teachers' judgments of self-efficacy for technology integration. These inde-pendent variables were combined to form four experimental conditions: (a) NVE/NGS: no vicarious experiences and no goal setting (also defined as the control group), (b) NVE/GS: no vicarious experiences but with goal setting, (c) VE/NGS: vicarious experiences with no goal setting, and (d) VE/GS: vicarious learning experiences with goal setting. </p><p>Participants Participation was solicited from the 408 students enrolled in an Introduc-</p><p>tion to Educational Technology course during the spring of 2003. Among these students, 337 agreed to participate in the study, although complete data sets were available from only 280 participants, including 92 males and 188 females. The participants' ages ranged from 18 to 38 years (M = 19.88, SD = 2.69). The majority of the participants were freshmen (n = 153); the rest were sophomores (n = 72), juniors (n = 36), seniors (n = 16), and graduate students (n = 3). Participants were majoring in elementary educa-tion (n = 105), secondary education (n = 113) within various content areas, pre-kindergarten to kindergarten education (n = 13), and others (n = 49). The demographic data collected from the participants also showed that among the 280 participants, 268 students (96%) planned to become teach-ers after graduating. The majority (n = 221) of the participants had never taken a computer class before. Those participants who had completed pre-vious computer classes reported that the classes were mostly introductory computer literacy courses. Based on a four-point Likert-style question (1-not confident, 4-very confident), participants' initial confidence levels av-eraged 2.77 with a standard deviation of 0.82. In general, the participants rated themselves somewhat confident to confident in their ability to use technology to teach. </p><p>The participants' pre-course understandings of computer uses and te...</p></li></ul>


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