Improving the Academic Vocabulary and Content ... ELL+   Improving the Academic Vocabulary

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  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 1

    Improving the Academic Vocabulary and Content Comprehension of ELLs and

    Struggling Readers in the Intermediate Grades Through High School

    By Margarita Caldern, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 2

    Objectives for Todays Session

    Research highlights on reading development and academic achievement for ELLs.

    Strategies and techniques for teaching language and reading to ELLs.

    Integrating ELL literacy strategies into the content areas.

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 3

    Academic Literacy Includes reading, writing, and oral discourse

    for school Varies from subject to subject Requires knowledge of multiple genres of text,

    purposes for text use, and text media Is influenced by students literacies in contexts

    outside of school Is influenced by students personal, social, and

    cultural experiences

    Source: Short, Deborah J., and Shannon Fitzsimmons. Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy for Adolescent English Language LearnersA report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, D.C.: Alliance for Excellent Education, 2007.

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 4

    National ELL Statistical Trends

    Nationally, over 6 million American students in Grades 6 through 12 are at risk of failure because they read and comprehend below the basic levels needed for high school success.

    Approximately 85% of ELLs in middle and high school were born in the United States and have been in U.S. schools since Kindergarten!

    Newcomers and refugees are mainly SIFE(Students with Interrupted Formal Education).

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 5

    Promising Practices for Developing Literacy in Adolescent ELLs

    Integrate all four language skills into instruction from the start

    Teach the components and processes of reading and writing

    Teach reading comprehension strategies Focus on vocabulary development Build and activate background knowledge Teach language through content and themes Use native language strategically Pair technology with existing interventions Motivate ELLs through choiceSource: Short, Deborah J., and Shannon Fitzsimmons. Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring Language and

    Academic Literacy for Adolescent English Language LearnersA report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, D.C.: Alliance for Excellent Education, 2007.

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 6

    Interventions for ELLs

    Initiatives Title I Title III Response to

    Intervention (RtI) Reading Next Even Start Early Reading

    First/Reading First

    Instructional Models TWI (Two-Way Bilingual

    Immersion) DBE (Developmental

    Bilingual Education) TBE (Transitional

    Bilingual Education) SEI (Structured English

    Immersion) Push-in ESL Pull-out ESL

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 7

    New York City Schools and Others Have Found That:

    Literacy interventions for native English speakers will not work for ELLs.

    Adolescent ELLs generally need much more time focused on developing vocabulary and background knowledge.

    ESL-only programs (language without content) do not work.

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 8

    New York City Schools and Others Have Found That:

    Elementary-level programs do not work for adolescents.

    Phonics-only programs do not work.

    Successful literacy interventions for SIFE and older ELLs integrate language and literacy development, along with content-area knowledge.

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 9

    10 Instructional Components1. Content-driven language and reading2. Explicit vocabulary instruction3. Explicit fluency instruction 4. Explicit comprehension and strategic reading

    instruction5. Discourse and peer interaction6. Consolidation of knowledge, language, and literacy7. Reading and writing connections8. Phonemic awareness and phonics (as needed)9. Assessment10. Professional development

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 10

    Instructional Component #1

    Content-Driven Language and Reading

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 11

    Making connections/building background

    Previewing the book

    Comprehension strategies

    Fluency

    Phonics and vocabulary in context

    Grammar and language connections

    Oral language practice

    Content-Area Reading

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 12

    Instructional Component #2

    Explicit Vocabulary Instruction

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 13

    Teaching Vocabulary/Concepts

    Why breadth and depth of vocabulary? Vocabulary knowledge correlates with

    comprehension.

    Comprehension depends on knowing between 90% and 95% of the words in a text.

    To overcome the vocabulary disadvantage, we need to teach vocabulary explicitly on a daily basis.

    A high-achieving 12th-grader has learned some 15 words a day, over 5,000 words a year.

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 14

    Vocabulary Tiers

    Tier One

    words that ELLs need for everyday speech for academic conversations and explanations for scaffolding more complicated text

    Examples: find, search, answer, so, if, then, simple idiomatic expressions

    Tier Two

    challenging words that we need in order to access cognitively demanding content

    may be multiple-meaning words

    Examples: round, right, table, ring, bad

    Tier Three

    discipline-specific academic words for Social Studies, Science, and Math concepts

    Examples: peninsula, osmosis, democracy

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 15

    Nonfiction Text Structures and Tiers One and Two Words

    Comparison and Contrast

    however but on the

    other hand instead while either . . . or although

    Sequence

    on (date) not long

    after now as before after when then finally

    Description

    to begin with most

    important also in fact for instance for example

    Cause and Effect and Problem and Solution

    because since therefore consequently as a result if . . . then

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 16

    Cognates in ScienceTiers Two and Three

    hypotheseshiptesis observationsobservaciones classificationclasificacin predictionspredicciones tentative conclusionsconcluciones tentativas evaluateevaluar

    experimentexperimento

    experimentationexperimentacin

    investigation investigacin

    inferencesinferencias

    processproceso

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 17

    Tier Two words can also include polysemous words

    across academic content areas ring solution table divide prime round

    trunk power cell right radical leg

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 18

    1. Teacher says the word.

    2. Asks students to repeat the word 3 times.3. States the word in context from the text.

    4. Provides the dictionary definition(s).5. Explains meaning with student-friendly

    definitions.

    6. Engages students in activities to develop word/concept knowledge.

    7. Highlights grammar, spelling, polysemy, etc.

    Pre-Teaching Vocabulary

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 19

    How many Tier Three vocabulary terms can you find in your books?

    What are the supportive vocabulary features found in your books?

    Hands-On Investigation

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 20

    What language and literacy features do you think will support your ELL students?

    How do these features make content more comprehensible?

    Hands-On Investigation

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 21

    Instructional Component #3

    Explicit Fluency Instruction

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 22

    Fluent Readers

    read in phrases read with expression monitor their comprehension read accurately demonstrate automaticity practice reading attend to punctuation and word choice

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 23

    Why Use Teacher Read-Alouds with Secondary Students?

    Engagement with Text Read Aloud

    Model fluent reading

    Extend comprehension

    Teach more vocabulary words!

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 24

    Instructional Component #4

    Explicit Comprehension and Strategic Reading

    Instruction

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 25

    Fix-Up and Monitoring Strategies

    Make Connections

    Visualize

    Ask Questions

    Determine Importance

    Infer

    Synthesize

    Metacognitive Strategies

  • 2008 Benchmark Education Company, LLC TX Invitationals 2008BEC 26

    Comprehension Skills & Strategies

    Analyze text structure & organization

    Compare & contrast Draw conclusions Evaluate authors purpose Evaluate authors