Improving Classroom Learning Environments by Cultivating ...
Improving Classroom Learning Environments by CultivatingAwareness and Resilience in Education (CARE): Results of aRandomized Controlled TrialPatricia A. Jennings, Jennifer L. Frank, Karin E. Snowberg, Michael A. Coccia,and Mark T. GreenbergPennsylvania State UniversityCultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE for Teachers) is a mind-fulness-based professional development program designed to reduce stress and improveteachers performance and classroom learning environments. A randomized controlledtrial examined program efficacy and acceptability among a sample of 50 teachersrandomly assigned to CARE or waitlist control condition. Participants completed abattery of self-report measures at pre- and postintervention to assess the impact of theCARE program on general well-being, efficacy, burnout/time pressure, and mindful-ness. Participants in the CARE group completed an evaluation of the program aftercompleting the intervention. ANCOVAs were computed between the CARE group andcontrol group for each outcome, and the pretest scores served as a covariate. Partici-pation in the CARE program resulted in significant improvements in teacher well-being, efficacy, burnout/time-related stress, and mindfulness compared with controls.Evaluation data showed that teachers viewed CARE as a feasible, acceptable, andeffective method for reducing stress and improving performance. Results suggest thatthe CARE program has promise to support teachers working in challenging settings andconsequently improve classroom environments.Keywords: teacher stress, teacher efficacy, mindfulness, burnout, classroom climateThe U.S. policy agenda to improve studentacademic outcomes has begun to focus attentionon teacher quality (Wilson et al., 2008). Fur-thermore, the public recognizes that a good ed-ucation should enhance academic achievementand students character, social-emotional com-petence, and civic engagement (MetLife, 2002;Public Agenda, 2002; Rose & Gallup, 2000).The Collaborative for Academic Social andEmotional Learning (CASEL) defines socialand emotional competence (SEC) as involvingfive primary skills: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationshipskills, and responsible decision-making (Col-laborative for Academic, Social and EmotionalLearning, 2003). Cultivating teachers SEC andwell-being may be an important component infulfilling this agenda (Jennings & Greenberg,2009). However, little research has been de-voted to exploring methods for promoting theseskills among teachers. Here we test the effec-tiveness of the Cultivating Awareness and Re-silience in Education (CARE) model of profes-sional development on teachers well-being,classroom efficacy, burnout, stress, and health.The prosocial classroom theoretical modelemphasizes the significance of teachers socialand emotional competence (SEC) and well-being in the development and maintenance ofsupportive teacherstudent relationships, effec-tive classroom management, and social andemotional learning (SEL) program effective-ness (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). These fac-This article was published Online First September 9, 2013.Patricia A. Jennings, Jennifer L. Frank, Karin E. Snow-berg, Michael A. Coccia, and Mark T. Greenberg, Preven-tion Research Center, Pennsylvania State University.Funds for the research reported in this article were pro-vided by a grant from the U. S. Department of EducationInstitute of Educational Sciences #R305A090179. Thanksto the Garrison Institute for providing support for the de-velopment of the CARE program. Also, special thanks toChrista Turksma and Richard Brown, who developedCARE with the corresponding author.Correspondence concerning this article should be ad-dressed to Patricia A. Jennings, Ph.D., Prevention ResearchCenter, Pennsylvania State University, 308B BBH Build-ing, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.School Psychology Quarterly 2013 American Psychological Association2013, Vol. 28, No. 4, 374390 1045-3830/13/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/spq0000035374tors, as well as teachers classroom manage-ment and instructional skills contribute to cre-ating a classroom climate that is conducive tolearning and that promotes positive develop-mental behavioral and academic outcomesamong students (see Figure 1). The model alsorecognizes that teachers well-being and SECare also affected by the school and communitycontext. For example, supportive school culture,strong principal leadership and collegiality pre-dict teachers job satisfaction (Johnson, Kraft,& Papay, 2012). Although the model suggeststhat well-being and social and emotional com-petence should benefit teachers at every level,effects on student outcomes may vary by grade,due to differences in time students spend withone particular teacher. Because students at theelementary level spend most of their day withone teacher, the relationship between a teach-ers well-being and SEC and student academicand behavioral outcomes may be stronger at theelementary level than the secondary level. How-ever, the model proposes that teachers well-being and social and emotional competence arealso important contributors to the quality oftheir performance that have been overlooked inprevious research. An extensive review of theliterature supporting the links in this model canbe found elsewhere (Jennings & Greenberg,2009). The following is a brief review of thisresearch.The bidirectional relationship between class-room improvement and student improvementproposed in this model is well documented inthe literature (see Allen, Pianta, Gregory, Mi-kami, & Lun, 2011; Crosnoe et al., 2010; Kane& Staiger, 2008; Mashburn, Downer, Hamre,Justice, & Pianta, 2010; Mashburn et al., 2008).Furthermore, there is evidence that teacherstudent relationships (Merritt, Wanless, Rimm-Kaufman, Cameron, & Peugh, 2012; Wang,Brinkworth, & Eccles, 2012), effective class-room management (Marzano, Marzano, & Pick-ering, 2003), and the effective implementationof social and emotional learning (SEL) pro-grams (Brock, Nishida, Chiong, Grimm, &Rimm-Kaufman, 2008; Durlak, Weissberg,Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011) are re-lated to both classroom climate and studentoutcomes.For example, supportive teacherstudent re-lationships play an important role in studentsFigure 1. A Model of Teacher Well-Being and Social and Emotional Competence, Support,and Classroom and Student Outcomes. From Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). Theprosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student andclassroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79, 491525. Reprinted with permis-sion from SAGE Publications, Inc.375IMPROVING CLASSROOM LEARNING ENVIRONMENTSThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.feelings of connectedness to school and boththeir academic and social-emotional outcomes(Abbott et al., 2002; Gambone, Klem, & Con-nell, 2002; McNeely, Nonnemaker, & Blum,2002; Osher et al., 2007). When teachers holdpositive attitudes toward students and build astrong sense of community among their stu-dents, problem behaviors decline and on-taskbehaviors increase (Battistich, Schaps, Watson,Solomon, & Lewis, 1997; Solomon, Battistich,Watson, Schaps, & Lewis, 2000). Furthermore,evidence suggests that this link is bidirectional(Houts, Caspi, Pianta, Arseneault, & Moffitt,2010).Research has also demonstrated links be-tween teachers psychosocial characteristicsand the critical elements of the prosocial class-room model. Several studies have found signif-icant relationships between teachers psychoso-cial characteristics and classroom climate. Forexample, in a study that examined 730 kinder-garten classrooms, teacher psychological vari-ables were stronger predictors of classroomquality than were teacher educational attain-ment and experience (La Paro et al., 2009).Furthermore, de Schipper, Riksen-Walraven,Geurts, and Derksen (2008) reported thatteacher positive mood was positively related tohigh quality caregiving among a sample of 238early childhood educators. In our previouswork, we found relationships among depressivesymptoms and all three dimensions of theCLASS measure of classroom climate (Pianta,La Paro, & Hamre, 2003) among a sample of 35preschool teachers (Jennings & Snowberg,2009). Depressive symptomology was signifi-cantly negatively correlated with emotionalsupport, organization, and instructional support.Positive affect, self-compassion, depersonaliza-tion, teaching efficacy, and mindfulness werepositively correlated with emotional climate.Other research has found support for the bidi-rectionality of this link (Byrne, 1994).Teacher StressTeachers must employ a high degree of SECto successfully manage the social and emotionaldynamics of the classroom environment (Shul-man, 2005). When teachers have difficultiesrelating to students and managing their class-room, both student behavior and achievementsuffer (Marzano et al., 2003). As classroomsocial interactions deteriorate and conflicts es-calate, the demands on the teacher multiply,which can lead to a burnout cascade (Jennings& Greenberg, 2009, p. 492). Faced with thesechallenging classroom conditions, teachers mayrespond with hostility and enact punitive mea-sures, reactions that may disrupt student moti-vation and contribute to a self-sustaining cycleof classroom disruption. High levels of distressmay lead to teacher burnout (Tsouloupas, Car-son, Matthews, Grawitch, & Barber, 2010) anddeteriorating teacher performance and studentbehavior and achievement (Osher et al., 2007).Teachers who report high levels of burnoutare at increased risk of physical and mentalillness, resulting in higher levels of absenteeism(Schonfeld, 2001), reduced quality of perfor-mance, and frequent irritable mood (Huberman,1993). High rates of teacher burnout (Johnson etal., 2005; Travers & Cooper, 1993) and thecorresponding low overall quality of classroominstruction (Blase, 1986; Pianta, Belsky, Houts,& Morrison, 2007; Travers, 2001) support theneed for specialized professional developmentthat promotes teachers SEC. Further, reducingteacher stress should maximize their capacity tocreate and maintain optimal classroom organi-zation and to provide emotional support to theirstudents.Mindfulness-Based ApproachesThere has been growing interest in applying amindfulness-based approach to supportingteachers SEC and promoting prosocial class-room outcomes (Jennings, Roeser, & Lantieri,2012; Roeser, Skinner, Beers, & Jennings,2012). Mindfulness refers to a particular kindof attention characterized by intentionally fo-cusing on the present moment with a curious,nonjudgmental attitude (Kabat-Zinn, 1994).Mindfulness can be conceptualized as a way ofpaying attention and as the practice of payingattention in this way. The practice of mindful-ness typically involves directing and maintain-ing attention on a specific target, such as thebreath, but there are numerous approaches(Vago & Silbersweig, 2012). Research on theeffects of mindfulness training with adults hasshown numerous positive effects including en-hanced body awareness (Lazar et al., 2005),improved attention, and working memory (Jha,Kropinger, & Baime, 2007; Jha, Stanley, Kiyo-376 JENNINGS, FRANK, SNOWBERG, COCCIA, AND GREENBERGThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.naga, Wong, & Gelfand, 2010; Tang et al.,2009; van der Hurk, Giommi, Gielen, Speckens,& Barendregt, 2010; Zeidan, Johnson, Dia-mond, David, & Goolkasian, 2010). Other ben-efits include increases in positive mood andimmune response (Davidson et al., 2003), em-pathy (Block-Lerner, Adair, Plumb, Rhatigan,& Orsillo, 2007), improved emotion regulation,and reduced stress (Chiesa & Serreti, 2009;Eberth & Sedlmeier, 2012; Jimenez, Niles, &Park, 2010).For teachers, practicing mindfulness may bean effective means of reducing stress and pro-moting well-being and may also promote self-awareness and self-regulationtwo importantintrapersonal social and emotional competen-cies (Vago & Silbersweig, 2012). Regularmindfulness practice may facilitate emotionalself-awareness (Brown & Ryan, 2003) andthereby promote cognitive and emotional regu-lation by supporting deep reflective capacitiesand perspective-taking (Zelazo & Cunningham,2007). Practicing mindfulness may also helpteachers reappraise stressful situations more ef-fectively. In this way, mindfulness-based inter-ventions may be ideally suited to promote thedevelopment of the mental set associated witheffective classroom management (Kounin,1970; Marzano et al., 2003).The CARE ProgramThe present study examines whether the Cul-tivating Awareness and Resilience in Education(CARE) professional development program canimprove teachers social-emotional competence(SEC) and well-being. CARE combines emotionskills instruction, mindful awareness practices,and compassion building activities to provideteachers with skills to reduce their emotionalstress and to improve the social and emotionalskills required to build supportive relationshipswith their students, manage challenging studentbehaviors, and provide modeling and direct in-struction for effective social and emotionallearning. CARE is an intensive 30-hr programpresented in four day-long sessions over 46weeks, with intersession phone coaching and abooster held approximately two months later.Although this level of intensity is unusual forteacher professional development, it is typicalof mindfulness-based interventions that requirepractice time to promote behavioral change(Cullen, 2011).The typical one day workshop approach toin-service professional development has beencriticized for lacking continuity and coherenceand for failing to appreciate the challenges andcomplexity of teachers work (Parsad, Lewis,Farris, & Breene, 2001; Selman, 2003). In con-trast, the CARE program is a comprehensive,well-specified, fully-developed professional de-velopment model grounded in theory and basicresearch, and aimed at strengthening teacherspersonal resources and their performance. It isdesigned to give teachers the tools to engage indaily professional learning to better understandthemselves and their students within the class-room context and how best to support studentlearning (Fullan, Hill, & Crevola, 2006).The CARE Intervention Logic ModelFigure 2 illustrates the CARE interventionlogic model. K12 teachers who participate inthe CARE intervention are introduced toemotion skills instruction, mindful awarenesspractices, and caring and compassion practices.These are hypothesized to produce the proximaloutcomes of teacher improvement (well-being,efficacy, and mindfulness) and classroom im-provement (organization and instructional andsocial support). These proximal outcomes arehypothesized to result in the distal outcomes ofstudent improvement (student/teacher relation-ships, academic achievement, behavior). In ad-dition, we hypothesize that teachers classroommanagement and instructional skills may mod-erate the effects of the CARE intervention; thatis, teachers who are more skillful will demon-strate more gains in the proximal outcomes as aresult of participation in the training. However,we anticipate that participation in CARE willalso promote these skills. In the current studywe examine a limited and specific part of thelarger logic model focused on the impact ofCARE on teacher changes in well-being, class-room efficacy, burnout, stress, and health. Nextwe describe the components of the program andtheir rationale.The CARE Program ComponentsFollowing best practices in adult learning,CARE introduces material sequentially, utiliz-377IMPROVING CLASSROOM LEARNING ENVIRONMENTSThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.ing a blend of didactic, experiential, and inter-active learning processes (Bash, 2005). CAREcombines direct instruction in specific skills andopportunities to practice these skills, individualreflective writing activities, small and largegroup discussion, and activities to complete athome or at work. These learning activities in-crease in difficulty over the course of the pro-gram. Table 1 contains examples of activitiesfrom each CARE component organized by levelof complexity. The program also includes acoaching component that typically takes placebetween program sessions. Each participantmeets by phone with a facilitator who reviewstheir progress, answers questions, and helps ad-dress challenges that may arise. Program mate-rials include a CARE Facilitators Manual, aParticipant Workbook containing presented in-formation, exercises, and homework activities,a Participant CD containing guided activitiesfor home practice, and a series of PowerPointslides that support the presentation of the didac-tic portions of the program. Next we describeeach component of the CARE program.Emotion Skills InstructionCARE introduces emotion skills instructionusing a combination of didactic instruction andexperiential activities (e.g., reflective practicesand role-plays), in order to support teachersunderstanding, recognition, and awareness ofemotional states and explore their habitual emo-tional patterns and related cognitions (Ekman,2003). Teachers learn how to practice self-induction of positive emotions to promote resil-ience and self-regulation (Cohn, Brown,Fredrickson, Milkels, & Conway, 2009;Fredrickson & Losada, 2005). These practicesare designed to help teachers to be more sensi-tive to students needs, more aware of the class-rooms emotional climate, and more self-awareand less reactive when dealing with challengingstudent behavior.Mindfulness PracticesMindfulness practices involve deliberatetraining of attention to cultivate present mo-ment awareness of experience, and, to pro-mote insight, reflection, and concentration(Kabat-Zinn, 1994; Zajonc, 2006). Mindful-ness can be conceptualized as a trait and astate that can be developed with practice(Brown, Ryan, & Creswell, 2007). Mindful-ness-based interventions (MBIs) are effectivein reducing stress (Werner & Gross, 2009)and improving psychological functioning(Weinstein, Brown, & Ryan, 2009). Mindfulawareness practices promote a nonelabora-tive, nonjudgmental, present-centered aware-ness in which each thought, feeling, or sen-sation that arises in the attentional field isFigure 2. The CARE Intervention Model.378 JENNINGS, FRANK, SNOWBERG, COCCIA, AND GREENBERGThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.acknowledged and accepted as it is (Bishopet al., 2004, p. 232).Mindfulness promotes self-regulation of at-tention and metacognitive awareness of onesmoment-to-moment experience. This en-hanced attention and a nonjudgmental aware-ness (characterized by curiosity, openness,and acceptance) support emotional and cog-nitive flexibility, self-awareness, and self-regulation (Jimenez, Niles, & Park, 2010)with the goal of helping teachers be less re-active and reduce the automatic appraisals ofstudent behavior that contribute to emotionalexhaustion (Chang, 2009).CARE introduces a series of mindfulawareness practices, beginning with the basicpractice of focusing on the breath and extend-ing to activities that promote a mindful ap-proach to daily activities such as standing,walking, being present in front of the class-room, listening to others, and so forth.Through practicing these activities, teacherslearn to bring greater nonjudgmental aware-ness to their classroom organization and totheir interactions with students, parents, andcolleagues.Compassion PracticesTo promote empathy and compassion,CARE introduces caring practice andmindful listening. Caring practice involvesa guided reflection of loving kindness fo-cused on generating feelings of care for selfand others by mentally offering well-being,happiness, and peace (Hopkins, 2001). Re-search has demonstrated that regular practiceof this activity produces increases in dailyexperiences of positive emotions and de-creased illness and depressive symptoms(Fredrickson, Coffey, Pek, Cohn, & Finkel,2008; Hofmann, Grossman, & Hinton, 2011).Mindful listening exercises are designed topromote the ability to simply listen to anotherwithout judgment. The practice involves no-ticing (without acting upon) emotional reac-tions such as urges to interrupt, offer advice,or judge while listening (Shapiro & Mariels,Table 1CARE Program ComponentsEmotion skills instructionMindfulness/Stress reductionpractices Compassion practicesApproximately 40% Approximately 40% Approximately 20%1. Introduction to emotions, purpose,universal expressions, relevantbrain research2. How emotions affect teaching andlearning3. Didactic information aboutuncomfortable or negativeemotions (anger, fear, sadness)including physiology, cognitiveand behavioral responses4. Didactic information aboutcomfortable or positiveemotions (joy, appreciation)including physiology, cognitiveand behavioral responses5. Exploring bodily awareness ofemotions6. Exploring individual differencesin emotional experiences(emotional profile, triggers &scripts)8. Practice using mindful awarenessand reflection to recognize andmanage strong emotions1. Body awareness reflection2. Basic breath awareness practice3. Mindfulness of thoughts andemotion practice4. Mindful movement practices(standing, walking, stretching,centering)9. Practice maintaining mindfulawareness in front of a group10. Role plays to practicemindfulness in the context of astrong emotion related to achallenging classroom situation1. Caring practice A series of guidedreflections focused on caring for self,loved one, colleague, challengingperson2. Mindful listening partner practices, oneperson reads a poem or talks about aproblem, partner listens mindfullypracticing presence and acceptance379IMPROVING CLASSROOM LEARNING ENVIRONMENTSThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.2013). These exercises are designed to helpteachers to listen more effectively to studentsand be more sensitive and responsive to theirneeds, especially during conflict when ateachers calm, supportive presence can facil-itate conflict resolution.Focus of the Present StudyThe present study involved a randomizedcontrolled trial of CARE; results are reportedhere. This study represents the culmination ofa 2-year project funded by the U.S. Depart-ment of Education, Institute of EducationalSciences (IES) Education Research Grantsprogram under the project goal Developmentand Innovation. Following from funding re-quirements, an iterative development processinvolved a cycle of program development,implementation, observation, and revision(see Jennings, Snowberg, Coccia, & Green-berg  for a first-year report on thisproject). In the first year, two pilot cycleswere performed, resulting in the final programdesign tested here. Here we test the hypothe-ses that compared with controls, teachers whoreceived CARE would show improvements inmeasures of general well-being (including re-ductions in depressive and daily physicalsymptoms), efficacy, burnout/time pressure,and mindfulness. We also hypothesized thatteachers would find the program to be feasi-ble, acceptable, socially valid, and beneficial.MethodSampleFifty-three participants were recruited fromurban and suburban public schools in twoschool districts in a small northeast U.S. met-ropolitan area. Attrition was low at 5.6% (onefrom control, two from intervention). Eighty-nine percent of participants were female (n 47) and 11% were male (n 6). Forty-sevenparticipants identified as White, two as AfricanAmerican, and two as Hispanic, and one partic-ipant identified as being of a mixed racial back-ground. One participant declined to providerace-related information. Participants agesranged from 2260 years (mean age 36years). Seventy-two percent had a graduate de-gree (n 38). Participants had been teachingfrom 1 to 36 years (M 11.7 years). Partici-pating teachers were representative of the gen-eral population of teachers in the metropolitanarea with regards to years of teaching (M 11.9 years). However, the sample was moreeducated (area average is bachelors degreeonly) and more female (M 73%) than thegeneral population (Pennsylvania State Depart-ment of Education, 2013). No data regardingracial characteristics of the area population ofteachers are available.Participants instructional contexts andtraining background were diverse. Thirty-three were regular education teachers, eightwere in special education, six identified asspecialists (e.g., speech-language pathology),and three noncore instructional educators (e.g., art education). A majority of participants(47%; n 25) taught at the elementary level.The remaining teachers taught at the pre-school (n 3), middle (n 3), or high school(n 6) levels or in mixed grade settings (n 16). Active consent was obtained in accor-dance with university Institutional ReviewBoard procedures. No financial incentiveswere provided to participants.ProcedureParticipants were recruited from schoolsvia flyers and group presentations during fac-ulty meetings. After consent was provided,participants were matched on age, years ofteaching experience, grade level, position,and school environment (urban and subur-ban); pairs were randomized to interventionor wait-list comparison condition.The CARE program was presented to twocohorts of teachers. Each program was facili-tated by two of the programs developers acrossfive full-day sessions. The intervention beganwith a 2-day weekend session (12 hours) fol-lowed by a 1-day session 2 weeks later and afourth day 2 weeks after the third session (4weeks after the initial sessions). Approximatelyone month later, a 1-day booster session waspresented. Between sessions, participants re-ceived one coaching phone call by programfacilitators. The intervention was delivered toCohort 1 between October 2010 and January2011 and to Cohort 2 between January andApril 2011 (see Table 2).380 JENNINGS, FRANK, SNOWBERG, COCCIA, AND GREENBERGThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.Each participant was assigned a facilitator/coach. The teacher and facilitator held coachingsessions by phone between CARE sessions.These calls lasted approximately 20 minutesand were intended to support teachers devel-opment of an at home mindfulness practice andthe application of CARE skills and concepts totheir teaching. Facilitators asked participantsabout their use of practices, what they foundhelpful or not, and whether they had any ques-tions or challenges for which they needed sup-port.MeasuresParticipants completed an online battery ofself-report measures at pre and post to assessgeneral well-being, efficacy, burnout/timepressure, and mindfulness. Participants in theCARE group also completed a postinterven-tion evaluation of program acceptability.General well-being. Four measures as-sessed teachers general well-being.Positive and Negative Affect Schedule(PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988).The PANAS assesses positive and negativeaffect. Participants were asked to rate howthey felt during the past few weeks on 20emotions (such as hostile and enthusias-tic) using a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 very little or not at all to 5 extremely).Coefficient alphas for the positive and nega-tive affect subscales were 0.92 and 0.85,respectively.Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross& John, 2003). The ERQ is a 10-item as-sessment of two emotion regulation strate-gies: cognitive reappraisal and expressivesuppression. Respondents reported on emo-tional experience (what you feel like inside)and emotional expression (how you showyour emotions in the way you talk, gesture, orTable 2CARE Program ScheduleIntervention group wave 1Fall 2010Winter2011Oct. 2324 Nov. 6 Nov. 20 Jan. 15Session 1 Intersession Session 2 Intersession Session 3 Intersession Boostersession2 continuous days(12 hours total)2 weeks ofindividualizedcoaching byphone (one20- to 30-minute callbetweensessions)1 day (6hours)2 weeks ofindividualizedcoaching byphone (one20- to 30-minute callbetweensessions)1 day (6hours)Local groupsupportactivities1 day (6hours)Intervention group wave 2Winter 2011Spring2011Jan. 1516 Jan. 29 Feb. 12 April 30Session 1 Intersession Session 2 Intersession Session 3 Intersession Boostersession2 continuous days(12 hours total)2 weeks ofindividualizedcoaching byphone (one20- to 30-minute callbetweensessions)1 day (6hours)2 weeks ofindividualizedcoaching byphone (one20- to 30-minute callbetweensessions)1 day (6hours)Local groupsupportactivities1 day (6hours)381IMPROVING CLASSROOM LEARNING ENVIRONMENTSThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.behave) on a 7-point Likert-type scale (1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree).Coefficient alpha for the reappraisal subscalewas 0.90 and suppression subscale was 0.67.The Center for Epidemiologic Studies De-pression Scale (CES-D-20; Radloff, 1977).On the CES-D, participants were asked to rate 20depressive symptoms over the past week and thenrank the frequency of these feelings using a Likertscale where 0 rarely (less than one day) to 3 most of the time (57 days). The coefficient alpha forthe CES-D was 0.87.The Daily Physical Symptoms (DPS; Larsen& Kasimatis, 1997). The DPS is a physicalsymptom checklist containing 27 items. Par-ticipants were asked whether or not they ex-perienced each particular symptom todayand, if so, to rate the severity on a 110 scale,with 1 very mild and 10 very severe.Symptoms included pain such as headacheand backache, gastrointestinal problems suchas nausea and diarrhea, cold and flu symp-toms such as cough and sore throat, and othersymptoms such as eye- and ear-related symp-toms. The coefficient alpha for the DPS was0.77.Efficacy.Teachers Sense of Efficacy Questionnaire(TSES; Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy,2001). The TSES is a 24-item Likert measureof three dimensions of teaching efficacy: effi-cacy for instructional strategies (How muchcan you use a variety of assessment strate-gies?), efficacy for classroom management(How well can you keep a few problem stu-dents form ruining an entire lesson?), and ef-ficacy for student engagement (How much canyou do to foster student creativity?), and totalefficacy score. Items asked teachers to indicateHow much they can do in response to variousclassroom and instructional challenges. Itemsranged from 1 nothing to 9 a great deal.Coefficient alphas were as follows: efficacy forinstructional strategies 0.89, efficacy forclassroom management 0.92, efficacy for stu-dent engagement 0.88, and total efficacy 0.95.Burnout and time pressure. Two mea-sures assessed burnout and time pressure.Maslach Burnout Inventory (EducatorsSurvey)(MBI; Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter,1997). The MBI is a 22-item Likert measuredesigned to assess burnout syndrome in teach-ers, as characterized by high levels of emotionalexhaustion and depersonalization and low lev-els of personal accomplishment. Coefficient al-phas for the emotional exhaustion subscale were0.89; depersonalization, 0.70; and personal ac-complishment, 0.79.The Time Urgency Scale (TUS; Landy, Ra-stegary, Thayer, & Colvin, 1991). The TUSassesses the multidimensional construct of timepressure. The scale is composed of 33 Likertitems; 24 are part of five subscales to measurespeech patterns (five items such as I talk morerapidly than most people), eating behavior (fiveitems such as I eat rapidly, even when there isplenty of time), competitiveness (six items suchas I go all out), task-related hurry (three itemssuch as I often feel very pressed for time), andgeneral hurry (five items such as I usually workfast). The remaining nine items can be includedin the mean to create a total scale score. Respon-dents are asked to indicate the extent to whichvarious descriptors apply to them personally.Items ranged from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. Coefficient alphas for the speechpatterns scale were as follows: 0.72; eating be-havior, 0.92; competitiveness, 0.70; task-relatedhurry, 0.84; and general hurry, 0.57.Mindfulness.The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire(FFMQ; Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer,& Toney, 2006). The FFMQ is a 39-item Lik-ert instrument with a total score and five sub-scales: observing, describing, acting withawareness, nonjudgmental, and nonreactive.Respondents are asked to indicate the extent towhich various mindfulness-related statementsare generally true for them. Items ranged from1 never or rarely true to 5 very often oralways true. Coefficient alphas for the total scorewas .63 and for the subscales: observing .85;describing .92; acting with awareness .90;nonjudgmental .88; and nonreactive .80.Program evaluation. The CARE Accept-ability Questionnaire (CAQ) is a10-item self-report Likert questionnaire that asked interven-tion participants to assess their overall programsatisfaction, as well as specific aspects of theprogram (program content, facilitator skill, pro-gram length, setting/atmosphere, program de-sign, communication received from facilitatorsand coaching calls; 1 highly unsatisfied to5 highly satisfied), likeliness to recommendto a colleague (1 highly unlikely to 5 highly382 JENNINGS, FRANK, SNOWBERG, COCCIA, AND GREENBERGThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.likely), perceived effects on teaching effective-ness and stress (1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree), perceived effects on studentsprosocial, on-task behavior and academic per-formance (1 much worse to 5 much better),overall quality, and perceived impact on jobperformance (1 much lower to 5 muchhigher) in comparison to other professional de-velopment programs.Fidelity. The CARE program was deliveredby two of the programs developers who manual-ized the program content in the form of proce-dures and scripts for each activity. For each ses-sion a Facilitators Record Sheet was created toevaluate that session based upon the manualizedscripts; both facilitators and a trained observercompleted the sheet at the end of each session toevaluate the program fidelity. Because the facili-tators were working directly from the materialsthey created, the program was delivered with ahigh degree of fidelity (100%).AnalysesPrior to conducting analyses, data were in-spected and no significant departures from as-sumptions were detected. Less than 5% of caseswere missing data on any variable at pre or post.Because of this listwise deletion was used toaddress missing data. As individual teacherswere randomly assigned to the intervention orcomparison groups, and data were analyzed atthis level, we utilized single-level analyses ap-propriate for a person-randomized (vs. clusterrandomized) control trial. Prior to conductinganalyses, a series of independent t tests revealedno significant differences between interventionand control groups on any baseline measures onany pretest measure. For all self-report mea-sures, ANCOVAs were computed between theCARE intervention group and comparisongroup for each outcome, and the pretest scoresserved as a covariate. Effect sizes were calcu-lated as Cohens d (Cohen, 1988).ResultsSelf-ReportUnadjusted pre-/postintervention mean com-parisons for all outcomes are reported in Table3. The results of the ANCOVAs follow and canbe found in Tables 47.Well-being. ANCOVAs controlling forbaseline measures indicated significant effectson some aspects of well-being (see Table 4).Specifically, significant intervention effectswere found on the reappraisal subscale of theERQ, F(1, 47) 10.9, p .002; d .80, andreports of Daily Physical Symptoms, F(1, 47) 10.2, p .002; d .32.Efficacy. Significant and positive interven-tion effects were found for multiple indicatorsof teacher efficacy (see Table 5). Specifically,significant effects were found for the total scoreon the Teachers Sense of Self-Efficacy mea-sure: F(1, 47) 10.6, p .002; d .60);efficacy in student engagement: F(1, 47) 10.3, p .002; d .56; and sense of efficacy ininstruction: F(1, 47) 11.6, p .001; d .59.However, no significant intervention effects werefound on the efficacy in classroom managementsubscale, F(1, 47) 2.3, p .13; d .24.Burnout/time-pressure. With regard toteacher burnout and sense of time pressure, sig-nificant intervention effects were found on thegeneral hurry subscale of the Time UrgencyScale, F(1, 47) 5.4, p .025; d .42, andthe personal accomplishment subscale of theMBI, F(1, 47) 3.9, p .05; d .40. Nosignificant effects were found for the remainingsubscales (see Table 6).Mindfulness. Significant intervention ef-fects were found for the observing, F(1, 47) 9.8,p .003; d .69, and nonreactive, F(1, 47) 8.4, p .006; d .73, subscales of the FFMQ.Significant intervention effects were also found onthe summary mindfulness score (average of allitems), F(1, 47) 4.29, p .044, d .56. Nosignificant intervention effects were found for theother subscales of the FFMQ (see Table 7).Program EvaluationCARE acceptability questionnaire.CARE was well received by the teachers. Amajority (87%) reported that they stronglyagreed or agreed that this type of programshould be integrated into preparation and in-service training. Teachers reported that CAREimproved their self-awareness (96%) and well-being (92%). They also strongly agreed oragreed that as a result of CARE they werebetter able to manage classroom behaviors ef-fectively and compassionately (77%) and bet-ter able to establish and maintain supportive383IMPROVING CLASSROOM LEARNING ENVIRONMENTSThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.relationships with the children they taught(83%). Finally, participants noticed improve-ments in students (much better or better) proso-cial behavior (76%), on-task behavior (66%),and academic performance (57%).DiscussionThe results reported here suggest that CAREhad significant positive effects on teachers gen-eral well-being, efficacy, burnout/time pressure,and mindfulness. With regard to measures ofgeneral well-being, CARE participants showedstatistically significant improvements in the re-Table 3Unadjusted Postintervention Mean Comparison for all OutcomesControl group M (SD) Intervention group M (SD)Pre Post Pre PostGeneral Well-Being-Related OutcomesPANAS Positive affect 3.35 (0.92) 3.26 (0.81) 3.44 (0.65) 3.51 (0.71)PANAS Negative affect 2.23 (0.71) 2.27 (0.74) 2.05 (0.60) 1.94 (0.52)ERQReappraisal 4.37 (1.10) 4.45 (0.98) 4.61 (1.26) 5.36 (.82)ERQSuppression 2.85 (1.07) 3.26 (1.06) 3.16 (1.32) 2.91 (1.50)CES-Depression 14.61 (8.74) 17.82 (11.53) 11.56 (6.99) 11.30 (6.88)Daily physical symptoms 24.89 (20.97) 30.37 (25.48) 20.20 (13.97) 13.13 (10.82)Teacher Efficacy-Related OutcomesTotal sense of self-efficacy 6.92 (1.12) 6.78 (1.04) 6.69 (1.09) 7.13 (1.05)Instructional strategies 7.18 (1.14) 7.01 (1.07) 6.84 (1.15) 7.35 (1.06)Classroom management 6.98 (1.28) 6.90 (1.23) 6.74 (1.32) 7.07 (1.34)Student engagement 6.60 (1.28) 6.44 (1.18) 6.54 (1.11) 6.97 (1.08)Teacher Burnout and Time Pressure-Related OutcomesSpeech patterns 3.30 (0.75) 3.32 (0.76) 3.26 (0.78) 3.00 (0.70)Eating behavior 2.96 (1.10) 3.07 (1.17) 3.25 (1.16) 3.05 (1.10)Competitiveness 3.90 (0.66) 3.86 (0.57) 3.74 (0.48) 3.67 (0.65)Task-related hurry 3.87 (0.79) 3.98 (0.73) 4.11 (0.72) 3.86 (0.61)General hurry 3.57 (0.53) 3.62 (0.47) 3.59 (0.65) 3.38 (0.68)Emotional exhaustion 3.36 (1.33) 3.49 (1.32) 3.30 (1.09) 3.43 (1.10)Depersonalization 2.07 (1.38) 2.24 (1.34) 1.69 (1.06) 2.02 (1.30)Personal accomplishment 4.63 (0.83) 4.53 (0.76) 4.54 (0.76) 4.76 (0.62)Mindfulness-Related OutcomesObserving 3.08 (0.74) 3.13 (0.66) 2.88 (0.83) 3.55 (0.69)Describing 3.74 (0.65) 3.67 (0.60) 3.44 (0.84) 3.65 (0.78)Acting with awareness 3.11 (0.69) 3.17 (0.64) 3.49 (0.72) 3.35 (0.70)Nonjudgmental 3.41 (0.75) 3.51 (0.85) 3.75 (0.75) 3.77 (0.59)Nonreactive 2.89 (0.70) 2.82 (0.62) 2.91 (0.58) 3.25 (0.68)Summary score 3.26 (0.47) 3.27 (0.44) 3.29 (0.52) 3.52 (0.43)Table 4Covariance Adjusted Postintervention MeanComparison of General Well-Being-RelatedOutcomesM-ctrl (SD)M-CARE(SD) d pPANAS Positiveaffect 3.31 (0.74) 3.46 (0.52) .24 .356PANAS Negativeaffect 2.23 (1.94) 1.99 (0.53) .16 .130ERQReappraisal 4.54 (0.98) 5.26 (0.82) .80 .002ERQSuppression 3.35 (1.06) 2.80 (1.50) .43 .076CES-Depression 15.58 (11.53) 12.61 (6.89) .45 .154Daily physicalsymptoms 20.61 (25.48) 14.16 (10.82) .32 .004Note. Negative effect size scores indicate higher scores inthe control group relative to intervention.Table 5Covariance-Adjusted Postintervention MeanComparison of Teacher Efficacy-Related OutcomesM-ctrl (SD)M-CARE(SD) d pTotal sense of self-efficacy 6.696 (1.04) 7.232 (1.05) .60 .002Efficacy instructionalstrategies 6.887 (1.07) 7.51 (1.06) .59 .001Efficacy in classroommanagement 6.83 (1.23) 7.14 (1.34) .24 .133Efficacy in studentengagement 6.41(1.18) 7.05 (1.09) .56 .002384 JENNINGS, FRANK, SNOWBERG, COCCIA, AND GREENBERGThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.appraisal subscale of the ERQ and daily physi-cal symptoms compared with controls.The ability to reappraise a stressful situationplays an important role in successful self-regulation of emotion (Gross, 2002). TheCARE program is designed to help teachersregulate their emotional reactivity in provoca-tive situations by applying mindful awarenessto emotional experience: noticing the physicalsensations and cognitions associated with theirreactions and when needed, taking a few deepbreaths. This practice is designed to help teach-ers calm down, decenter, and reappraise provoc-ative situations.Chronic stress can erode physical health(McEwen, 2004) and the significant reductionin teachers reports of daily physical symptomssuggests that the CARE program may help re-duce stress, supporting teachers resilience andpreventing stress-related illnesses. Future re-search with a larger sample should provide anopportunity to test whether CAREs effects onphysical symptoms are mediated by improve-ments on other variables.With regard to teacher efficacy, CARE teach-ers showed improvement in the TSES totalscore, compared with controls. Significant in-tervention effects were also found on the in-structional strategies and student engagementsubscales of the TSES. Helping teachers betterrecognize and regulate their emotional reactiv-ity may improve their efficacy by preventing thedegradation to cognitive functioning that isprovoked by the stress response (McEwen &Sapolsky, 1995). Although more research isrequired to fully examine the relationship be-tween teachers cognitive functioning, self-reported sense of efficacy, and emotion regula-tion, the results of this study are promising.With regard to burnout and time pressure,significant intervention effects were found onthe general hurry subscale of the TUS and thepersonal accomplishment subscale of the MBI.CARE may help teachers better manage theirtime. The mindfulness-based interventions re-duce rumination (Jain et al., 2007). When teach-ers spent less time ruminating about their to-dolist they may have more time to focus on thosetasks.The personal accomplishment subscale of theMBI is very similar to measures of efficacy(e.g., I have accomplished many worthwhilethings in this job) so it is not surprising thatCARE demonstrated effects on this subscale. Itis notable that the intervention did not demon-strate effects on emotional exhaustion or deper-sonalization. However, baseline levels of thesetwo variables were relatively low possibly re-sulting in ceiling effects.With regard to mindfulness, compared withcontrols, CARE teachers showed significant im-provement on the observing and nonreactingsubscales of the FFMQ. A large component ofthe CARE program involves learning mindfulself-observation and self-regulation. The de-scribing, acting with awareness, and nonjudgingsubscales showed no significant improvement.Although these dimensions of mindfulness arealso included in the CARE program, improve-ments in these subscales may take more time toappear. Further research involving a follow-upcollection period would be required to deter-mine whether this is the case and whether theintervention effects found in this study are re-tained over a longer period of time.Table 7Covariance-Adjusted Postintervention MeanComparison of Mindfulness-Related OutcomesM-ctrl (SD) M-CARE (SD) d pObserving 3.12 (0.66) 3.58 (0.69) .69 .003Describing 3.56 (0.60) 3.78 (0.78) .32 .156Acting withawareness 3.30 (0.64) 3.21 (0.70) .13 .562Nonjudgmental 3.59 (0.85) 3.68 (0.59) .12 .605Nonreactive 2.82 (0.62) 3.29 (0.66) .73 .006Summary score 3.27 (0.44) 3.52 (0.43) .57 .044Table 6Covariance-Adjusted Postintervention MeanComparison of Teacher Burnout and TimePressure-Related OutcomesM-ctrl (SD) M-CARE (SD) d pSpeech patterns 3.25 (0.76) 3.08 (0.70) .24 .115Eating behavior 3.18 (1.17) 2.92 (1.10) .23 .098Competitiveness 3.80 (0.57) 3.74 (0.65) .10 .536Task-related hurry 4.02 (0.73) 3.80 (0.61) .32 .207General hurry 3.62 (0.47) 3.38 (0.68) .42 .025Emotionalexhaustion 3.44 (1.33) 3.49 (1.10) .04 .866Depersonalization 2.10 (1.34) 2.18 (1.30) .06 .754Personalaccomplishment 4.51 (0.76) 4.79 (0.62) .40 .054385IMPROVING CLASSROOM LEARNING ENVIRONMENTSThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.Overall, participants reported high levels ofsatisfaction with the program. Results of theprogram satisfaction survey suggest that teach-ers found the program improved their relation-ships with their students, their classroommanagement, and their classroom climate. Theresults provide preliminary support for theProsocial Classroom Model. Improvements inteachers well-being, efficacy, burnout, andmindfulness (all related to teachers SEC) wereassociated with teachers reports of improve-ments in student and classroom outcomes.LimitationsThis study had several limitations. The sam-ple size was relatively small and we relied onself-report to determine program effects. Futureresearch should employ larger samples and ex-amine the effects on classroom climate and stu-dent outcomes. Furthermore, as data were col-lected at pre- and postintervention only, furtherfollow-ups would be required to assess its long-term effects. It is possible that some interven-tion effects may take time to appear while oth-ers may dissipate over time. Because no activecontrol group was employed, it is possible thatthe results may have occurred simply fromteachers receiving an intensive amount of atten-tion and group support. Future research shouldcontrol for this possibility by including an ac-tive control comparison condition that includesequivalent amounts of time and attention butdoes not included any active mindfulness-related components (e.g., nondirected teachersupport group etc.).Another limitation of the present study wasthat it did not assess CAREs effects on class-room and student outcomes. Additional re-search will be required to determine whetherimprovements in teacher outcomes also im-prove teachers ability to develop and maintaina well-managed learning environment and pro-vide optimal emotional support to their stu-dents. This will require a multisite randomizedtrial focused on testing the direct effects of theCARE program on teacher, classroom, and stu-dent outcomes. Such a trial may also examinewhether CARE is especially effective for teach-ers, classrooms, and students at highest risk, andprovide support for the Prosocial Classroommodel through tests of mediation. In any case, itwill be important for future research to showeffects on classroom and student outcomes tojustify the time intensity of the program.Implications for Educational Psychologyand PolicyTeacher stress and burnout is a pervasiveproblem in education today. Unfortunately, fewif any programs have addressed this issue.School psychologists are increasingly beingcalled upon to provide support to teachers in theform of professional development and consul-tation on matters related to and or associatedwith teacher stress that impact performance.CARE is a promising manualized program thatpsychologists can use to address these issues.School psychologists are ideally suited to serveas implementation agents, given their knowl-edge in both the psychological and instructionaldimensions of the classroom context. CAREcan be deployed as a universal or targeted pre-vention strategy at the school or district level.This research has implications for future ed-ucational policy and programs in at least threeways. First, CARE may reduce teacher stressand burnout, which may reduce school districtcosts in terms of personnel health care costs,absenteeism, and early resignation. Second,CARE emphasizes the teachers own develop-ment which requires further attention in educa-tional policy and research. Third, CARE mayhelp teachers establish supportive relationshipswith students at risk of school failure, therebypromoting school attachment and school cli-mate. Further studies that involve assessment ofstudent outcomes will be required to test thishypothesis. Finally, CARE may improve class-room climate which may result in improve-ments in students academic achievement, thus,supporting initiatives and policy aimed at theseoutcomes, especially those seeking to narrowthe achievement gap.In summary, this study indicates the potentialof a mindfulness professional development pro-gram to reduce emotion reactivity and promotewell-being. Although further research is re-quired to obtain a more complete understandingof CAREs effects, these results suggest it is apromising intervention to support teachers, es-pecially those working in challenging settings.Thus, CARE may fill an important professionaldevelopment need that has been long over-looked by the education research community; to386 JENNINGS, FRANK, SNOWBERG, COCCIA, AND GREENBERGThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.support teachers social and emotional compe-tence and well-being as means of promotingresilience and improving their performance andtheir students performance.ReferencesAbbott, R. D., ODonnell, J., Hawkins, J. D., Hill,K. G., Kosterman, R., & Catalano, R. F. (1998).Changing teaching practices to promote achieve-ment and bonding to school. American Journal ofOrthopsychiatry, 68, 542552.Allen, J. P., Pianta, R. 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