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  • November 2007

    Implementing the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in Southern Africa

  • November 2007

    Implementing the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in Southern Africa

    CeNTer oN GlobAl CoUNTerTerrorISm CooperATIoN

  • Authors

    Acknowledgments

    erIC roSANd is a senior fellow at the Center on Global Counterterrorism Cooperation in New York and a non-resident fellow at New York University’s Center on International Cooperation. Previously he served in the U.S. Department of State for nine years, including in the Office of the Counterterrorism Coordinator and as Deputy Legal Counselor at the U.S. Mission to the UN in New York. He is the author of numerous articles, book chapters, and reports on the role for the UN and other multilateral bodies in the global counterterrorism campaign. He has a LLM from Cambridge University, a JD from Columbia University Law School, and a BA from Haverford College.

    JASoN Ipe is a research associate for the Center on Global Counterterrorism Cooperation. Mr. Ipe has provided research and written contributions to numerous book chapters and reports on issues of counterterrorism, money laundering, and nonproliferation. He received his BA in International Relations from Connecticut College in New London, Connecticut and his MA degree in International Security Policy from the Elliott School of International Affairs at The George Washington University in Washington, DC.

    AlISTAIr mIll Ar is the director of the Center on Global Counterterrorism Cooperation. He also teaches graduate level courses on counterterrorism and US foreign policy at Johns Hopkins University and The George Washington University. He has written numerous chapters, articles, and reports on international counterterrorism efforts, sanctions regimes, and nonproliferation. He is the author, with Eric Rosand, of Allied against Terrorism: What’s Needed to Strengthen Worldwide Commitment (Century Foundation, 2006). He has an MA from Leeds University and is a PhD candidate at the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom.

    The Center on Global Counterterrorism Cooperation (the Center) gratefully acknowledges the generous financial support of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the support we received from officials in the Foreign Ministry, in particular Onno Kevers and André van Wiggen. The Center is also thankful to the Dutch Mission to the UN in New York and Brechje Schwachöfer, in particular, for allowing the Center to brief representatives from UN Missions, including those from southern Africa, on the project.

    The Center benefited from the research assistance of Claire Christian, Julie Faust, and Gina LeVeque. The Center is grateful to David Cortright and the staff of the Fourth Freedom Forum for their support over the course of the project. Invaluable information and analysis of the counterterrorism related activities of various international, regional, and sub-regional bodies was provided by representatives of those organizations too numerous to identify here but without whose cooperation this project would not have been possible.

    Both this report and the recommendations contained herein were informed by the discussions at two workshops: one in The Hague in July 2007 and one, co-sponsored by the Institute for Security Studies, in Benoni, South Africa in September 2007, as well as other discussions with officials from the UN, regional and sub-regional bodies, governments from within and outside southern Africa, as well as other experts. The Center is particularly thankful to Jakkie Cilliers and his colleagues Anneli Botha and Wafula Okumu of the Institute for Security Studies for their help organizing the meeting in South Africa and their invaluable contributions over the course of the project.

  • Table of Contents

    executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    I . The UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and the UN Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force . . . . . . . . . 2

    II . Southern Africa: Threat and vulnerabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 III . The role of regional and Sub-regional organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    Iv . The role of the UN System and Its programs and Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    v . The role of NGos and Civil Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    Findings & recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

  • Acronyms

    ACSrT African Center for Study and research on Terrorism (AU)

    Aprm African peer review mechanism (NepAd)

    ArNTACT African research Network on Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism

    AU African Union

    CTC Counter-Terrorism Committee (UN Security Council)

    CTed Counter-Terrorism executive directorate (UN Security Council)

    eSAAmlG eastern and Southern African Anti-money laundering Group

    eU european Union

    FATF Financial Action Task Force

    Gpml Global programme against money laundering (UNodC)

    ICpAT Intergovernmental Authority on Development’s Capacity building program against Terrorism

    ICAo International Civilian Aviation organization

    Imo International maritime organization

    ImF International monetary Fund

    ISS Institute for Security Studies

    NepAd New partnership for economic development (AU)

    NGo Non-Governmental organization

    oAU organization of African Unity

    oeCd organization for economic Co-operation and development

    oHCHr Office of the UN High Commissioner on Human rights

    pIA preliminary Implementation Assessment (CTed)

    reC regional economic Commission

    SAdC Southern African development Community

    SArpCCo Southern African regional police Chiefs Cooperation organization

    Tpb Terrorism prevention branch (UNodC)

    U .S . United States (of America)

    UN United Nations

    UNdp United Nations development programme

    UNdpA United Nations department of political Affairs

    UNeSCo United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization

    UNHCr Office of the UN High Commissioner for refugees

    UNodC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

    WCo World Customs organization

  • v

    Center on Global Counterterrorism Cooperation

    executive Summary

    Adopted unanimously by the UN General Assembly on 8 September 2006, the UN Global Counter- Terrorism Strategy (UN Strategy) elaborates a broad range of counterterrorism measures and acknowledges that national governments, different parts of the UN system, regional and sub-regional bodies, and civil society each have important roles to play to promote and ensure its effective implementation. With the inclusion of the existing Security Council imposed counterterrorism mandates and socio-economic and political measures related to addressing conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism in the context of a framework endorsed by all UN member states, the Strategy may help reconcile the security agenda of the global north with the development priorities of the global south.

    Because the nature of the threat varies from region to region, however, it is important for each region and sub-region to determine how best to implement the Strategy’s generally broad provisions to maximize its impact on the ground. Nowhere is this more true than in southern Africa, given the political sensitivities surrounding counterterrorism initiatives in the sub- region, particularly those originating from outside the continent. Effective implementation of the Strategy will therefore need to take into account local needs, perspectives, and priorities and involve the active participation of key sub-regional stakeholders, including national governments, sub-regional bodies, and civil society. Efforts to sell the Strategy in the sub-region must be clearly aligned with these needs, perspectives, and priorities.

    The report discusses the political significance of the broad-based Strategy for a sub-region where the

    threat of international terrorism is seen as less pressing than that posed by violent crime, poverty, HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases, and corruption, and where the lack of both a common perception of the terrorist threat and capacity has impeded efforts to develop a cohe