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Impact of Hypertension and Diabetes on Kidneys

Impact of Hypertension and Diabetes on Kidneys · Diabetes and Kidney Disease ØDiabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure in adults in the U.S. (CDC, 2017). ØInjured blood

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Text of Impact of Hypertension and Diabetes on Kidneys · Diabetes and Kidney Disease ØDiabetes is the...

  • Impact of Hypertension and Diabetes on Kidneys

  • Hypertension and How it Effects your Kidneys

  • What is hypertension?

    A common, long term, condition

    Narrowing of blood vessels; increasing resistance to blood flow

    When hearth pumps blood through the narrow vessels, blood pressure goes up

  • Categories of Hypertension

  • Causes of hypertension• Primary hypertension

    95% of causes of hypertension is unknown.

    • Secondary hypertension

    5% is caused by an underlined condition such as: Sleep Apnea, Kidney problems, Adrenal gland tumors,

    Thyroid problems, Birth defects, Certain medications, Illegal drugs (cocaine and amphetamines), Poor diet, Alcohol, and Smoking use

  • Risk Factors

    Increasing Age Common in men Common in African-Americans Tends to run in families Overweight and obese Inactive lifestyle Smoker/excessive alcohol High intake of sodium Stress Certain chronic conditions (kidney dieses, diabetes, and sleep apnea)

  • Complications of Uncontrolled Hypertension

    Damage of arteries

    Enlargement of the Heart

    Heart Failure

    Stroke

    Visual Disturbances

    Sexual Dysfunction

    KIDNEY FAILURE

  • What is Kidney Failure?

    A condition in which the kidneys lose the ability to remove waste and balance fluids.

  • Stages of Kidney Failure

  • Aftermath of Kidney Failure

    Dialysis

    3-4 hour treatments, 3-4 days per week

    Effects lifestyle, ability to work, family dynamics, body image, decreases energy

  • Prevention

    Lifestyle Modifications Healthy diet, daily exercise, and clean social habits

  • Diet

    ALL VEGETABLES• Avoid potatoes and

    French fries.

    WHOLE GRAINS• Brown rice• Whole Wheat Bread• Whole Wheat Pasta• Limit white rice and

    white bread.

    HEALTHY PROTEIN• Chicken• Fish• Avoid red meat, cold cuts,

    and all processed meats!

    All fruits are healthy choices.

    At least 8 cups of water a day.

  • Exercise

    30 mins a day of exercise or brisk walking

    Join a gym if feasible

  • Social Habits

    Decrease alcohol Intake White Wine vs Red Wine

  • Social Habits Smoking Cessation

    Chantix Nicotine Patch Decrease in Cigarettes or Cigars until you reach ‘0’

    per day

  • Social Habits

    Meditation De-stress tactics

  • Social Habits

    Avoid Fast Food Choose the right path by making healthier decisions.

  • Medication Compliance

    Take medications as prescribed

    Getting prescriptions refilled in a timely fashion

    Do not miss doses

    Do not double up on a dose if a dose is missed

    Monitor Blood Pressure routinely

    Keep a log of your blood pressure & take with you to appointments.

  • Impact of Diabetes on the Body

  • ØDiabetes is a disease that affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin

    ØThe 2 most common types:

    1. Type 1

    2. Type 2

    What is diabetes?

  • Types of Diabetes

    ØType 1• Usually diagnosed in

    children and young adults.• The body is not able to

    make insulin.

    ØType 2• This type occurs because the

    body does not use enough insulin or use the insulin properly.

  • Mechanisms of Diabetes

    Ø Diabetes is due to one of two mechanisms:

    1. Insufficient production of insulin 

    2. Inadequate sensitivity of cells to the action of insulin.

  • Common Causes of Diabetes?

    ØFactors you can control:

    • Poor lifestyle

    • Obesity

    • Unhealthy diet

    • Gestational Diabetes

  • What Causes Diabetes? (cont’d)

    ØFactors that you cannot control:

    • Hereditary • Auto-Immune• Increasing Age

  • Complications of Diabetes

    ØEye problems, such as Retinopathies

    ØHeart disease

    ØStroke

    ØKidney disease

    ØNerve damage

    ØFoot problems

  • Diabetes and Eye Problems

    ØDamage of tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, fingers, feet and eyes.

    ØScar tissue and detached retina.

    Ø“sugar cataracts”

  • Diabetes and Heart Disease

    ØPlaque formation in blood vessels leads to narrow vessels

    Ø Improper circulation of blood will lead to a heart attack

    Ø Individuals with diabetes are 2-4 times more likely to have a heart attack than those without the disease (CDC, 2017).

  • Diabetes and Nerve Damage

    ØDiabetes affects nerve fibers in the body, mainly the ones in the legs and feet.

    ØNerve damage causes numbness and tingling.

  • Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    ØDiabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure in adults in the U.S. (CDC, 2017).

    Ø Injured blood vessels in kidneys are unable to filter blood properly.

    ØWeight gain and ankle swelling from retention of excess water and salt.

    ØProtein may build–up in the urine, and waste materials will build up in the blood.

  • Signs of Kidney Disease

    ØEarly Signs• Increased excretion of

    albumin in the urine.

    • Weight gain and ankle swelling may occur.

    • Elevated blood pressure

    Ø Late Signs • Nausea, vomiting, a loss

    of appetite

    • Weakness, increasing fatigue, itching, muscle cramps (especially in your legs)

    • Anemia (a low blood count). 

  • Prevention of Diabetes

    ØManage your diabetes by ABC

    • A for A1C Test. Average blood glucose levels over the past 3 months. The goal is below 7%.

    • B for Blood PressureThe blood pressure goal is below 140/90 mm Hg.

    • C for CholesterolMonitor your cholesterol levels. The goal is less than 70-100.

  • Managing Diabetes ØKeep all your appointments

    ØBring a log of your blood glucose readings as ordered by your provider

    ØMake sure you visit your eye and foot provider yearly, and if you notice any changes (i.e. blurred vision, double vision) every year

    ØUse all medications as prescribed

    ØLifestyle and diet change with your provider

    ØExercise at least 3 times a week for 30 mins per day

    ØDental Check-up

  • Conclusion

    Get healthy and stay healthy

    Live a better lifestyle

    Make healthier food choices

    Make time for yourself and exercise.

    Take your medications as prescribed

    Share your knowledge with someone else

  • References

    ØAmerican Heart Association. (2017). Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes. Retrieved from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/Diabetes/WhyDiabetesMatters/Cardiovascular-Disease-Diabetes_UCM_313865_Article.jsp#.WqINaejwbIU

    ØCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (2017). Diabetic Basics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/research/index.html