Impact of Hypertension and Diabetes on Kidneys
Hypertension and How it Effects your Kidneys
What is hypertension?
A common, long term, condition
Narrowing of blood vessels; increasing resistance to blood
When hearth pumps blood through the narrow vessels, blood
pressure goes up
Categories of Hypertension
Causes of hypertension• Primary hypertension
95% of causes of hypertension is unknown.
• Secondary hypertension
5% is caused by an underlined condition such as: Sleep Apnea,
Kidney problems, Adrenal gland tumors,
Thyroid problems, Birth defects, Certain medications, Illegal
drugs (cocaine and amphetamines), Poor diet, Alcohol, and Smoking
Increasing Age Common in men Common in African-Americans Tends
to run in families Overweight and obese Inactive lifestyle
Smoker/excessive alcohol High intake of sodium Stress Certain
chronic conditions (kidney dieses, diabetes, and sleep apnea)
Complications of Uncontrolled Hypertension
Damage of arteries
Enlargement of the Heart
What is Kidney Failure?
A condition in which the kidneys lose the ability to remove
waste and balance fluids.
Stages of Kidney Failure
Aftermath of Kidney Failure
3-4 hour treatments, 3-4 days per week
Effects lifestyle, ability to work, family dynamics, body image,
Lifestyle Modifications Healthy diet, daily exercise, and clean
ALL VEGETABLES• Avoid potatoes and
WHOLE GRAINS• Brown rice• Whole Wheat Bread• Whole Wheat Pasta•
Limit white rice and
HEALTHY PROTEIN• Chicken• Fish• Avoid red meat, cold cuts,
and all processed meats!
All fruits are healthy choices.
At least 8 cups of water a day.
30 mins a day of exercise or brisk walking
Join a gym if feasible
Decrease alcohol Intake White Wine vs Red Wine
Social Habits Smoking Cessation
Chantix Nicotine Patch Decrease in Cigarettes or Cigars until
you reach ‘0’
Meditation De-stress tactics
Avoid Fast Food Choose the right path by making healthier
Take medications as prescribed
Getting prescriptions refilled in a timely fashion
Do not miss doses
Do not double up on a dose if a dose is missed
Monitor Blood Pressure routinely
Keep a log of your blood pressure & take with you to
Impact of Diabetes on the Body
ØDiabetes is a disease that affects your body’s ability to
produce or use insulin
ØThe 2 most common types:
1. Type 1
2. Type 2
What is diabetes?
Types of Diabetes
ØType 1• Usually diagnosed in
children and young adults.• The body is not able to
ØType 2• This type occurs because the
body does not use enough insulin or use the insulin
Mechanisms of Diabetes
Ø Diabetes is due to one of two mechanisms:
1. Insufficient production of insulin
2. Inadequate sensitivity of cells to the action of insulin.
Common Causes of Diabetes?
ØFactors you can control:
• Poor lifestyle
• Unhealthy diet
• Gestational Diabetes
What Causes Diabetes? (cont’d)
ØFactors that you cannot control:
• Hereditary • Auto-Immune• Increasing Age
Complications of Diabetes
ØEye problems, such as Retinopathies
Diabetes and Eye Problems
ØDamage of tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, fingers, feet and
ØScar tissue and detached retina.
Diabetes and Heart Disease
ØPlaque formation in blood vessels leads to narrow vessels
Ø Improper circulation of blood will lead to a heart attack
Ø Individuals with diabetes are 2-4 times more likely to have a
heart attack than those without the disease (CDC, 2017).
Diabetes and Nerve Damage
ØDiabetes affects nerve fibers in the body, mainly the ones in
the legs and feet.
ØNerve damage causes numbness and tingling.
Diabetes and Kidney Disease
ØDiabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure in adults in
the U.S. (CDC, 2017).
Ø Injured blood vessels in kidneys are unable to filter blood
ØWeight gain and ankle swelling from retention of excess water
ØProtein may build–up in the urine, and waste materials will
build up in the blood.
Signs of Kidney Disease
ØEarly Signs• Increased excretion of
albumin in the urine.
• Weight gain and ankle swelling may occur.
• Elevated blood pressure
Ø Late Signs • Nausea, vomiting, a loss
• Weakness, increasing fatigue, itching, muscle cramps
(especially in your legs)
• Anemia (a low blood count).
Prevention of Diabetes
ØManage your diabetes by ABC
• A for A1C Test. Average blood glucose levels over the past 3
months. The goal is below 7%.
• B for Blood PressureThe blood pressure goal is below 140/90 mm
• C for CholesterolMonitor your cholesterol levels. The goal is
less than 70-100.
Managing Diabetes ØKeep all your appointments
ØBring a log of your blood glucose readings as ordered by your
ØMake sure you visit your eye and foot provider yearly, and if
you notice any changes (i.e. blurred vision, double vision) every
ØUse all medications as prescribed
ØLifestyle and diet change with your provider
ØExercise at least 3 times a week for 30 mins per day
Get healthy and stay healthy
Live a better lifestyle
Make healthier food choices
Make time for yourself and exercise.
Take your medications as prescribed
Share your knowledge with someone else
ØAmerican Heart Association. (2017). Cardiovascular Disease and
Diabetes. Retrieved from
ØCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (2017). Diabetic
Basics. Retrieved from