Image and Sound Editing. Raed S. Rasheed 2012. Image. Image. Digital image. Raster images . Vector Images. Stereo Images. Image File Formats Lossless compression Lossy compression. Image. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Image and Sound Editing
Image and Sound EditingRaed S. Rasheed2012ImageImage.Digital image.Raster images.Vector Images.Stereo Images.Image File FormatsLossless compression Lossy compression
ImageAn image: is an artifact, that has a similar appearance to some subject - usually a physical object or a person.2-D such as a photograph, screen display, and 3-D such as a statue or hologram.
Digital ImageAn digital image: is a numeric representation (normally binary) of a 2-D image. Depending on whether the image resolution is fixed, it may be of vector or raster type. "digital image" usually refers to raster images also called bitmap images.(Raster, Vector, and Stereo) Images.Digital Image
Raster ImagesRaster images have a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. The digital image contains a fixed number of rows and columns of pixels. Pixels are the smallest individual element in an image, holding quantized values that represent the brightness of a given color at any specific point.Raster ImagesRaster image typeBinary: is a digital image that has only two possible values for each pixel.Grayscale: is an image in which the value of each pixel is a single sample, that is, it carries only intensity information.Color: is a digital image that includes color information for each pixel.Raster Images
Vector ImagesVector images resulted from mathematical geometry (vector). In mathematical terms, a vector consists of point that has both direction and length.Often, both raster and vector elements will be combined in one image; for example, in the case of a billboard with text (vector) and photographs (raster).Stereo ImagesStereoscopy (also called stereoscopic or 3-D imaging) refers to a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by presenting two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer. These 2-D images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3-D depth.Image File FormatsImage file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images. Image files are composed of either pixels, vector (geometric) data, or a combination of the two.Image File FormatsImage file compressionLossless compression algorithms reduce file size without losing image quality, though they are not compressed into as small a file as a lossy compression file.Lossy compression algorithms take advantage of the inherent limitations of the human eye and discard invisible information. Most lossy compression algorithms allow for variable quality levels (compression) and as these levels are increased, file size is reduced. Image File FormatsRaster formatsJPEG/JFIF JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is a compression method JPEG compression is (in most cases) lossy compression. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) format is a flexible format that normally saves 8 bits or 16 bits per color (red, green, blue) for 24-bit and 48-bit totals. Can be lossy and lossless.GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is limited to an 8-bit palette, or 256 colors. Image File FormatsRaster formatsPNG (Portable Network Graphics) file format was created as the free, open-source successor to the GIF. Supports truecolor (16 million colors). BMP (Windows bitmap) handles graphics files within the Microsoft Windows OS. Typically, BMP files are uncompressed, hence they are large; the advantage is their simplicity and wide acceptance in Windows programs.WebP is a new image format that uses lossy compression. It was designed by Google to reduce image file size to speed up web page loadingImage File FormatsRaster formatsJPEG XR (New JPEG standard based on Microsoft HD Photo)TGA (TARGA)ILBM (InterLeaved BitMap)IMG (Graphical Environment Manager image file; planar, run-length encoded)PCX (Personal Computer eXchange)ECW (Enhanced Compression Wavelet)IMG (ERDAS IMAGINE Image)Image File FormatsRaster formatsSID (multiresolution seamless image database, MrSID)CD5 (Chasys Draw Image)FITS (Flexible Image Transport System)PGF (Progressive Graphics File)XCF (eXperimental Computing Facility format, native GIMP format)PSD (Adobe PhotoShop Document)PSP (Corel Paint Shop Pro)Image File FormatsVector formatsCGM (Computer Graphics Metafile) is a file format for 2D vector graphics.SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) is an open standard created and developed by the W3C.Image File FormatsStereo formatsMPO (Multi Picture Object) (.mpo) format consists of multiple JPEG images (Camera & Imaging Products Association) (CIPA). PNS PNG Stereo (.pns) format consists of a side-by-side image based on PNG (Portable Network Graphics).JPS JPEG Stereo (.jps) format consists of a side-by-side image format based on JPEG.