ICT for education: a conceptual framework for the sustainable adoption of technology-enhanced learning environments in schools

  • View
    213

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • This article was downloaded by: [University of Birmingham]On: 03 October 2013, At: 13:56Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

    Technology, Pedagogy and EducationPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rtpe20

    ICT for education: a conceptualframework for the sustainable adoptionof technology-enhanced learningenvironments in schoolsPatricio Rodrguez a , Miguel Nussbaum b & Lioubov Dombrovskaiac

    a Center for Advanced Research in Education, Universidad deChile, Santiago, Chileb Department of Computer Science, Pontificia UniversidadCatlica de Chile, Santiago, Chilec Informatics Department, Universidad Tcnica Federico SantaMara, Santiago, ChilePublished online: 28 Sep 2012.

    To cite this article: Patricio Rodrguez , Miguel Nussbaum & Lioubov Dombrovskaia (2012) ICTfor education: a conceptual framework for the sustainable adoption of technology-enhancedlearning environments in schools, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 21:3, 291-315, DOI:10.1080/1475939X.2012.720415

    To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2012.720415

    PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE

    Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever orhowsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arisingout of the use of the Content.

    This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,

  • systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions

    Dow

    nloa

    ded

    by [U

    nivers

    ity of

    Birm

    ingha

    m] at

    13:56

    03 O

    ctobe

    r 201

    3

  • ICT for education: a conceptual framework for the sustainableadoption of technology-enhanced learning environments in schools

    Patricio Rodrgueza*, Miguel Nussbaumb and Lioubov Dombrovskaiac

    aCenter for Advanced Research in Education, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile;bDepartment of Computer Science, Ponticia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Santiago,Chile; cInformatics Department, Universidad Tcnica Federico Santa Mara, Santiago, Chile

    (Received 26 October 2011; nal version received 23 March 2012)

    Currently, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) ineducation does not conclusively demonstrate signicant effects on learning.However, not all ICT usage models are designed to affect student outcomes.Therefore, to accurately study the impact of ICT, the concept of an educationalprogramme supported by ICT must rst be dened. The authors propose theICT for Education (ICT4E) programme, an evidence-based framework to deter-mine a models ability to produce improvements before having to evaluate itsresults. The framework has four components: implementation, intervention,transference and total cost. Based on an explicit denition of the outcomes pur-sued by a given programme, this framework supports the design of its activitiesto promote sustainable changes in pedagogical practices in schools and calculatethe programmes total cost. The authors illustrate this with a programme imple-mented in six countries. In Chile, the ICT4E programme forms part of the pol-icy for educational technology, evaluating the effectiveness and scalability ofsuch initiatives.

    Keywords: technology-enhanced learning; pedagogic model; ICT effects; scala-bility; sustainability; ICT integration

    1. Introduction

    Attempts to improve education with modern machines such as the phonograph,lantern slides and television date from the early twentieth century (Castro, 2004;Cuban, 1986; Earle, 2002; Reiser, 2001; Snider, 1992). For the most part suchinventions come and go, yet what happens in the classroom looks pretty much thesame (Callister, 1992). Information and communication technologies (ICT) werealso introduced in schools to transform teaching and learning processes and toimprove strategies for better educational attainment (Culp, Honey, & Mandinach,2003; Kozma, 2003; Sunkel, 2006).

    Nonetheless, such desired effects are far from becoming a reality (Moonen,2008; Reynolds, Treharne, & Tripp, 2003; Robertson, 2002; Tondeur, van Braak, &Valcke, 2007; Trucano, 2005). A wide range of ICT applications and uses wereanalysed in several impact assessments: programme evaluations, specic educationalsoftware in particular subjects at large scale, research and case reviews, and

    *Corresponding author. Email: prodriguez@ciae.uchile.cl

    Technology, Pedagogy and EducationVol. 21, No. 3, October 2012, 291315

    ISSN 1475-939X print/ISSN 1747-5139 online 2012 Association for Information Technology in Teacher Educationhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2012.720415http://www.tandfonline.com

    Dow

    nloa

    ded

    by [U

    nivers

    ity of

    Birm

    ingha

    m] at

    13:56

    03 O

    ctobe

    r 201

    3

  • meta-analysis research (see further details in section 2). Some of these showed apositive impact, while others a neutral or negative impact, leading many authors toargue that there is still no conclusive answer to the question about the impact andeffectiveness of ICT in education (Burns & Ungerleider, 2003; Cartwright & Ham-mond, 2007; Cox & Marshall, 2007; Kikis, Scheuermann, & Villalba, 2009;Reeves, 2008; Trucano, 2005). Other authors even argue that the introduction ofICT in schools served to amplify existing forms of inequality (Toyama, 2010, 2011;Warschauer, Knobel, & Stone, 2004).

    However, ICT was not devised with education in mind, it did not appear naturallyin educational systems, nor was it demanded by the teaching community (Sunkel,2006). It responds to a model with its concepts, discourse and practices whichoriginated outside of educational systems (Kikis et al., 2009; Sunkel, 2006) and wasthen imposed upon them (Hennessy, Ruthven, & Brindley, 2005), making theintegration a highly difcult process. This later worsened when greater emphasis wasplaced on technology than on pedagogy (Trucano, 2005; Watson, 2001), ignoring theextensive existing research on teaching and learning (Sutherland et al., 2004).

    1.1. Problem denition

    When ICT were rst being introduced in schools, they were considered so newthat some policy makers and practitioners ignored theoretical foundations central toall learning with or without ICT (Sutherland et al., 2004). In addition to learningtheories, other design aspects of curriculum integration were not considered, suchas the type of ICT resources and how they are specically used in a particular sub-ject (Cox & Marshall, 2007; McFarlane, 2001) and the design and curriculumimplementation of ICT use in the classroom (Cox & Abbot, 2004; Cox & Marshall,2007; McFarlane, 2001).

    By studying ICT integration in schools, it was determined that the way in whichthis takes place depends on the educational context. As part of this context, thefollowing factors were also identied: pedagogical approaches and beliefs (Coburn,2003; Cox & Webb, 2004; Kirkman, 2000; Trucano, 2005), teacher condence, atti-tudes and skills relating to ICT; school ICT infrastructure, supervision and technicalsupport, involvement and leadership of school principals and time spent by teacherson meetings, training, exercises and lesson planning (Baskin & Williams, 2006;Conlon & Simpson, 2003; Hayes, 2007; Pelgrum, 2001; Reynolds et al., 2003;Tondeur et al., 2007).

    Thus, after 30 years of research, the main lesson to have been learned is thatintegrating ICT in education is not a technical matter (Earle, 2002; Trucano, 2005;Watson, 2001). ICT should be the tool with which we deliver content and imple-ment educational practices in better ways, based on curriculum and learning princi-ples (Lai, 2008; Marshall & Cox, 2008; Reeves, 2008; Roblyer, 2005; Trucano,2005). Integration is determined not by the quantity or type of ICT used, but byhow and why it is used (Cox & Abbot, 2004; Cox & Webb, 2004; Earle, 2002;Trucano, 2005). Hereafter, when ICT is used to support teaching and learning activ-ities, we refer to it as technology-enhanced instructional design or technology-enhanced learning (TEL) (Dillenbourg, 2008; Kozma, 1991; Roblyer, 2005).

    The available evidence suggests that the use of TEL with specic educationalobjectives, together with an activity that is planned, guided and structured by amediator, is what makes the difference in terms of learning results (Cox & Abbot,

    292 P. Rodrguez et al.

    Dow

    nloa

    ded

    by [U

    nivers

    ity of

    Birm

    ingha

    m] at

    13:56

    03 O

    ctobe

    r 201

    3

  • 2004; Pilkington, 2008; Trucano, 2005). However, even with effective interventionsbased on TEL, one problem yet to be reso

Recommended

View more >