Peacemaking, peacekeeping- international relations 1918-36 Paper One Li Chun Ho This is a collection of notes from various sources, including Mr. Webb’s history notes, ibguide.com, http://homepage.mac.com/stray/ib/history/ . Not all of this work is of my own writing and I acknowledges these sources. I have expanded and tried to put them all together.

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Peacemaking, peacekeeping-international relations 1918-36Paper One

Li Chun Ho

This is a collection of notes from various sources, including Mr. Webb’s history notes, ibguide.com, http://homepage.mac.com/stray/ib/history/. Not all of this work is of my own writing and I acknowledges these sources. I have expanded and tried to put them all together.

ContentsTopic Outline for Paper One Source-based questions...........................................................................3

Structure of Paper One questions:........................................................................................................3

Aims of the participants and peacemakers: Wilson and the Fourteen Points.......................................4

Terms of the Paris Peace Treaties 1919-1920: Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sèvres/Lausanne 1923.........................................................................................................................11

The geopolitical and economic impact of the treaties on Europe; the establishment and impact of the mandate system..................................................................................................................................15

Enforcement of the provisions of the treaties: US isolationism-the retreat from the Anglo-American Guarantee; disarmament-Washington, London, Geneva conferences................................................20

The League of Nations: effects of the absence of major powers; the principle of collective security and early attempts at peacekeeping (1920-5).....................................................................................26

The Ruhr Crisis (1923); Locarno and the “League Spring” (1925)........................................................31

Depression and threats to international peace and collective security: Manchuria (1931-3) and Abyssinia (1935-6)...............................................................................................................................34


Because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones who do.

Think Different, Apple Ad 1997.

Topic Outline for Paper One Source-based questions

Peacemaking, peacekeeping-international relations 1918-36

-Aims of the participants and peacemakers: Wilson and the Fourteen Points

-Terms of the Paris Peace Treaties 1919-1920: Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sèvres/Lausanne 1923

-The geopolitical and economic impact of the treaties on Europe; the establishment and impact of the mandate system

-Enforcement of the provisions of the treaties: US isolationism-the retreat from the Anglo-American Guarantee; disarmament-Washington, London, Geneva conferences

-The League of Nations: effects of the absence of major powers; the principle of collective security and early attempts at peacekeeping (1920-5)

-The Ruhr Crisis (1923); Locarno and the “League Spring” (1925)

-Depression and threats to international peace and collective security: Manchuria (1931-3) and Abyssinia (1935-6)

Structure of Paper One questions:

In order of:

-Why, according to Source B, did…(Total worth: 3 marks)

-What message is conveyed by Source B?(Total worth: 2 marks)

-In what ways do the views expressed in Source C support the conclusions expressed in Source D? (Total worth: 6 marks)

-With reference to their origins and purpose, assess the value and limitations of Sources A and B for historians studying…(Total worth: 6 marks)

-Using the sources and your own knowledge, explain to what extent you agree with this statement: “X” (Total worth: 8 marks)

Refer to Appendix One for guidance



Aims of the participants and peacemakers: Wilson and the Fourteen Points

Woodrow Wilson, United States of America

Participation & Alliances:

-Joined the War with the Entente Allies, Britain, France and Belgium.

-Assumed titled as Associate Power; American soldiers assumed orders from their own officers, not from Britain or France. They kept their own offices.

Post-war effects:

-America never invaded during WW1.

-Minimal soldier losses of 117,000 men.

-Among the countries that hugely benefited financially from handing war loans to other countries, Great Britain and France in particular.

Woodrow Wilson’s intentions

-Regarded as the Father of Liberalism, democratic and idealistic. He hated imperialism.

-Wilson reasoned America stood outside of the Allied Powers because: America was fighting for moral reasons; the promotion of peace and the protection of democracies. While so, the Allies had different aims; to benefit from the outcomes of war, war spoils, including territory, reparations and the subjugation and control of German civilians.

-Clearly wanted to use American financial and military power to create a new order after World War One.

-Idealistic aims in bid to remove factors leading to war, hence maintaining world peace highlighted in the Fourteen Points to Congress on 8th of January 1918:

Methods to avoid future aggression (1, 4, 14)-End secrecy between countries leading to undisclosed treaties that may cause misunderstanding (1);-End supply of arms by calling for general disarmament (4); and


-Create League of Nations (14).

Granting of national independence (6, 7, 13)-Other countries should leave Russian territory (6);-The Germans should leave Belgium (7); and-An independent Poland should be set up. Poland should have access to the sea.

National Self-Determination (5, 9, 10, 12)

-The future of colonies be reviewed and wishes of local people considered (5);

-The Italian borders adjusted to fit as much Italian speakers into Italy as possible (9);

-Different peoples of Austria-Hungary be given their freedom (10); and

-Non-Turkish people in the Turkish Empire should be free to have their own governments (12).

Trade (2, 3)

-Ensuring freedom of navigation in the seas (2); and

-Ensuring free trade (3).

See Appendix Two for Wilson’s 14 points.

On Germany:

Wilson deemed Germany partly responsible for outbreak of war, hence suggested reparations be paid. He also suggested that Germany be given a period of probation in which she be allowed to join the LON. He worried countries who were severely sanctioned would retaliate in the future.

Summary of key aims:

-Establish Democracy;

-Establish National Self-Determination;

-Establish League of Nations;

-Punish Germany, but first a period of probation.


David Lloyd George, Great Britain

Participation & Alliances

-Entered the war with the Entente Allies, France and Belgium; and

-Powerful navy, however small army; only country without conscription before the War.

Post-war effects

-Britain never invaded.

-Soldier losses of 703,000 men.

-Heavy debts to America, lowered standards of living, raised food prices and disdained wage costs. Women had greater roles in the workplace.

-Britain successfully eliminated the risk of the German naval fleet and German plans to control Europe.

David Lloyd George’ intentions

-Moderately liberal.

With Germany

-Had an opinion between Wilson’s and Clemenceau’s intentions:

-Similarly under pressure by British public to, “make Germany pay”. Politicians in the December 1918 Elections had promised about making Germany pay for all of the damages and costs surfaced from the War.

-Agreed to some extent with Wilson that Germany should pay extensive reparations. A key difference between Lloyd George and Wilson was that the British PM wanted colonies of Germany to be divided up between the winning powers, while Wilson wanted them to be looked after by the LON until they were ready to be independent since he disliked imperialism. Britain and France both wanted pieces of the former Turkish lands in the Middle East.

-Did not want Germany to expand outside of Alsace-Lorraine.

-To prevent Germany from becoming a future source of conflict.


-Britain wanted German economic recovery in order for Germany to return to its pre-war conditions to continue trade and market to benefit Britain as Germany was an important buyer of British goods.

-Wanted a moderately strong Germany as a buffer against possible spread of Communism. This fear derived from the 1917 Bolshevik takeover of Russia, leading to a Communist state.

With Europe

-Wanted to maintain stable balance of power in Europe:

-Traditional enemies of Colonial empires, Britain did not want France to become the dominant power in Europe.

-This was a reason for limiting France’s territorial expansion.

-Britain believed in the freedom of action when the balance of power was threatened, and was not willing to form a guaranteed alliance that would provide assistance to France when deemed necessary.

-Wanted to maintain her overseas imperial empire.

-Supported the creation of an independent Polish state. The opportunity for a Polish state was raised when the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 divided Germany’s eastern territory, with remains that were not returned to either Russia or Germany.

-Supported Wilson’s National Self-Determination proposal by wanting self-government for the peoples of Austro-Hungarian Empire and non-Turkish civilians within the Ottoman Empire.

Summary of key aims:

-Maintain balance of power in Europe, prevent France from dominating it.

-Ensure Germany has economic recovery to return to pre-war trade relations with Britain as Germany was a very important buyer of British goods.

-Maintain freedom of choice to assist France and the strength of her own imperial empire.


Georges Clemenceau, Republic of France

Participation & Alliances

-Entered the War with the Entente Allies, Britain and Belgium;

-Territory heavily ruined by invasion during the War.

Post-war effects

-Suffered disastrous consequences of War.

-Soldier losses of 1,500,000 men.

-3,000,000 civilians displaced by the fighting.

-5,200 factories, 4,800 kilometers of roads destroyed.

-Accumulated massive debt.

Georges Clemenceau’s intentions

-Right-wing, anti-communist.

With Germany

-Aimed to greatly strike down on Germany for revenge, reparations to compensate the damage Germany caused, to permanently weaken its economy so it would never have the capacity to wage such an attack on France again;

-Wanted extensive disarmament and restrictions imposed on the size of Germany’s army;

-To reduce Germany’s territory:

-Wanted Alsace-Lorraine to be returned;

-Wanted the west of Rhineland to be demilitarized as a buffer zone separating France and Germany;

-Wanted the rich coal-mining region of Saar to be used as compensation and source of reparations;

-Wanted Rhineland to be set up as an independent state (disagreed by the Two);

-Sought huge punitive damages;


With Europe

-Wanted Britain to promise to a set-in-stone alliance with France that would provide British assistance when France was under German threat.

-Wanted America to guarantee French security against German aggression through a firm alliance.

Vittorio Orlando, Republic of Italy

Participation & Alliances

-Entered war with Entente Allies, Britain and France. However, Italy originally joined the Dual Alliance (Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1879), leading to the Triple Alliance. Due to the nature of how the War began, Italy switched sides.

-Entered due to promises of territorial gain set in the secret Treaty of London 1915 where Italy was promised the Dalmatian Coast, Trieste, South Tyrol, Trentino and the Dodecanese Islands.

Post-war effects

-Suffered heavy defeats at the Trentino Offensive, 1915 and the Battle of Asiago, 1916;

-Soldier losses of 460,000 men;

-Would later not be awarded the promised land under the Treaty of Versailles 1919;

Vittorio Orlando’s intentions

-Italy did not take into account National Self-Determination as they wanted lands populated other by Italian speakers;

-Italy was outraged that it was not awarded the Promised Land despite fighting with the Allies, on the winning side. This led Italian politicians to denounce the War, known as the Mutilated Victory.

-The Italian delegation would later walk out the Paris Peace Conferences on the Treaty of Versailles because its wishes were denied.


Makino Nobuaki, Japan

Participation & Alliances

-Fought alongside the Entente Allies.

-Main engagements were against the eastern island colonies of Germany through amphibious assaults against typically weak German military frontiers.

Post-war effects

-Soldier losses of 250 men.

-Similarly with America, Japan financially benefited from the War by handing war loans to other countries.

Makino Nobuaki’s intentions

-Did not take into account National Self-Determination;

-Wanted their efforts in having a strong dominant position in China to be recognized through post-war territorial arrangements. These territories include former German colonies in China and the Pacific Ocean.

-Pushed for a Racial Equality clause to be in the Treaty of Versailles, to include the words, “All races are equal”. This would protect Japanese citizens in the west, America in particular.

-By being equally treated as western people, and by maintaining a strong empire for economic strength, Japan aimed in being one of the major powers.


Terms of the Paris Peace Treaties 1919-1920: Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sèvres/Lausanne 1923

The Paris Peace Settlement

-Began on 18 of January, 1919;

-Representatives of 32 countries who participated in the War met at the Settlement to discuss how the peace settlement should be;

-The settlement created five treaties; the Treaty of Versailles, Saint-Germain (1919), Trianon (1920), Neuilly (1919), Sevres (1920)/Lausanne (1923);

-Treaty of Versailles focused on ramifications on Germany, while the other four affected Europe’s geo-economic future;

-Was mainly dominated by the Big Three (Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau and David Lloyd George) influenced by Italy as well (Vittorio Orlando);

-The rules of the League of Nations, the League Covenant, were agreed on every treaty.

The Treaty of Versailles

-Date: June 1919

-Subject: Germany’s future;

-Germany had to accept full responsibility of the waging of the War (231);

German Reaction:

-German delegation was not consulted before the sign in and only had 22 days to acknowledge and sign a treaty with up to 440 clauses or face invasion;

-Germany believed the Treaty would be based on Wilson’s 14 points given Germany surrendered specifically to America, not the Entente Allies;

-German politicians and public heavily denounced the treaty, naming it “diktat”, a dictated peace;

-Military restrictions humiliated German nationalists and this was intensified when German was forbidden National Self-Determination, on the issue of Austria-Hungary;

-Further resentment when Rhineland was occupied by the French with colonial troops;


-Germany saw the Treaty of Versailles as a first step to global disarmament. They believed all of the countries should disarm as well.

Territorial losses:

-Germany looses all her colonies that would be placed under the authority of the Allies as temporary agreements of Mandates of Britain and France (119);

-Germany forbidden to unite with Austria permanently (80);

-Danzig, a former German city, becomes a free city under protection of the League (102);

-The Saar region is administered by the League for 15 years where France has control of its coal mines for compensation, where a plebiscite will be held after the 15 years (150);

Alsace-Lorraine to be returned to France (51);

Losses to Poland:

-An independent Polish state with access to the sea set up (27);

-To determine the sovereignty of Upper Silesia, West Prussia and Schleswig, plebiscites would be held in these areas (88);

-West Prussia and Posen given to Poland (XX);

Military restrictions:

-Recognition of German war guilt, basis of reparations, war guilt clause (231);

-Germany not to construct any fortifications on either side of the Rhine for 50 years (42);

-The west of Rhineland to be occupied by the Allies for 15 years (428);

-German army reduced to 100,000 men. The army is forbidden from constructing tanks, submarines and airplanes and no more than 6 battleships (160); made German army smallest in Europe

-No conscription of the army allowed (XX);

-The Allies control all commissions in Germany until 1927 (XX);


-Germany has to pay 6,600 million pounds

-Germany would later fail to meet regular installment payments of gold and goods.


Name of treaty Saint-Germain Neuilly Trianon Sèvres Lausanne

Date signedSeptember 1919

November 1919 June 1920 1920 1923

Country dealt with Austria Bulgaria Hungary Turkey Turkey

Land losses

South Tyrol, Trentino, Trieste & Istria to Italy, Bohemia and Moravia to Czechoslovakia, Galicia to Poland, Dalmatia, Slovenia and Bosnia to Yugoslavia & Bukovina to Romania. (Sudetenland with over 3 million German speakers to Czechoslovakia)

Some land given to Greece, Yugoslavia and Romania. Western Thrace to Greece, Dobrudja to Romania, Northern Macedonia to Yugoslavia

2/3 of land given to Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia Romania and Austria. Slovakia and Ruthenia to Czechoslovakia, Transylvania to Romania, Burgenland to Austria, Slovenia and Croatia to Yugoslavia.

Lost most land in Europe to Greece. Confiscated land in Arab Middle East; Syria given to France, Palestine, Jordon and Iraq given to Britain. Allies given control of Straits of Dardanelles, Saudi Arabia independent, Turkey lost Sudan and Libya, Eastern Thrace and some Turkish Aegean Islands to Greece.

Reversed treaty of Sèvres. Allowed most land lost to Greece to be regained. Constantinople returned to Turkey

Military restrictionsLimited to 30,000 men

Limited to 20,000 men

Limited to 35,000 men

Limited to 50,000 men

Reversed reparations. No longer need to pay them.


Special remarks

Forbidden Anschluss (unification) with Germany as a single German speaking state. Population reduced to 6.5 million

Bulgaria had fought on losing side of war

Population reduced from 18 to 7 million. Treaty delayed as Hungarian communist led by Béla Kun seized power in Budapest. New ruler was Admiral Horthy. Idea of self-determination led to shaping of new Hungary

Very harsh treaty. Turkey ruled by powerful Ottoman family for centuries, declined and lost WW1.

General Ataürk led revolution to overthrow the Ottoman family 1921. He also used armies to overturn treaty, led to revision of it.


The geopolitical and economic impact of the treaties on Europe; the establishment and impact of the mandate system

Geopolitical impact of the treaties

Immediate developments:

-US Senate did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles and the United States did not join the League of Nations. This was so for two main reasons:-The Treaty did not support Article X of the League of Nations where members of the League agree to use power to resist aggression when necessary, as the Senate feared this America would be responsible for peacekeeping other member countries when needed;-Republicans who were vast supporters of isolationism did not want to engage into European affairs, which they believed were not in their spheres of influences.

-France originally believed an alliance would occur after the Treaty of Versailles. However, America and Britain failed to facilitate an alliance of military guarantee to France. As America could not help due to the Senate’s refusal, Britain pulled out as well. This worsened relations between the three.

General changes:

-Seven new states developed: Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia and Yugoslavia;

-Central and Eastern Europe drastically changed, used to be composed of the empires of Germany, Russia, Austro-Hungarian and the Ottoman Turks.

On Poland:

-A new independent Polish state set up with access to the Baltic Sea by the Polish Corridor;

-The new Poland gained territory from Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary. The Polish Corridor was formed by West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia, dividing Germany from East Prussia.

On Germany:

-Upset they were not consulted beforehand and given the chance to negotiate;


-Germany lost 12% of its population and 13% of land territory and was not given self-determination;

-A significant land loss was Alsace-Lorraine;

-These German minorities were now part of Czechoslovakia, Poland and Austria;

-The Polish Corridor separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany by giving Poland access to the Baltic Sea;

-Although the division of Europe created many states, these states were small and vulnerable to aggression. Therefore, once Germany’s military strength was recovered, it could easily defeat these small states.

National Self-determination:

-Most countries were granted National Self-determination. This was made difficult with different nationalities, racial ethnicity and linguistic abilities;

-Self-determination largely ignored in South Tyrol, Sudetenland and the Polish Corridor.


-Minorities may appeal to the Minorities Commission of the League of Nations;

-The rights of vulnerable minorities within states were asked by the Allies to be protected by the newly established states within their borders.

Political instability and vulnerability of newly made small states:

-The creation of small states led to their vulnerability with diminished political and economic stability which reduced Europe’s overall stability;

-As a result, these states experience internal tension, despite effort was made to contain people of the same ethnic, cultural and linguistic backgrounds;

-There were also economic problems between states divided from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which instigated trade barriers.

-These tensions led to a lack of economic cooperation, hence were vulnerable to Germany and Russia;

-Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia, in recognition of their vulnerability, formed the Little Entente, 1921;


-The Little Entente was established to collect the countries’ economic and military might together against Hungarian aggression as Hungary lost these territories;

-The Little Entente remained small due to tensions between other small states vulnerable to Russian and Germany. Moreover, Poland did not join due to ongoing disputes with Czechoslovakia on the Teschen region. The two fought over the land for important rail infrastructure and coal resources.

On the USSR

-The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk exemplified the damages done to Russia during the Civil War that led to the Bolshevik’s regime.

-Land loss to Poland was significant as Russia lost the war;

-Russia’s state did not pose any threat to the small states established in Europe.

The Treaty of Rapallo 1920

-Signed on 12 of November, 1920 between the Kingdoms of Serbs, Croats, Slovenes and Italy.

-The treaty aimed to resolve the dispute over the Upper Adriatic territories, also known as the Julian March.

-The treaty decided to annex to Italy the territories of former Austrian Littoral, except for Kastav and Kirk Island, Western part of former Duchy of Carniola and former Dalmatian capital city of Zadar. The city of Rijeka (Fiume in Italian) would become the independent free state of Fiume.

-The treaty disdained National self-determination as it displaced many Slovenes and Croatian citizens into Italy.

The Treaty of Rapallo 1922

-Signed on 16 of April, 1922 between Germany and Russia, with both denied joining the League;

-Willingness to financially cooperate between one another;

-To form a partnership against Poland, where both countries lost land to;

-Secret military clauses agreed Germany to test military equipment in Russian territory, a loophole over the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles;

-These objectives were reinforced at the Treaty of Berlin 1926.


Economic impact

-The Treaty did not consider the economic ramifications of the War, list suggestions on funding war debts or financial issues other than paying reparations;

-Destabilized the German economy which affected the overall European economy. Instead of raising taxes, Germany printed more money, leading to hyper-inflation;

-The creation of multiple small states also imposed trade barriers that would exaggerate the effects of the Wall Street Crash in October 1929;

-America repeatedly asked for Britain and France to repay their war debts to her, worsening diplomatic relationships between them;

-Britain and France financed their American loans through German reparations;

-Repaying war loans influenced an economically depressed Europe, leading to adverse effects on world trade;

-The Genoa Conference 1922 aimed to discuss methods to promote European economic recovery and disarmament, with no significant results reached;

-These factors influenced the Ruhr Crisis to erupt in 1923;

-America and Britain began to see the economic effects of the Treaty hence the need to revise the Treaty, which further deteriorate French support;

-America offered the Dawes Plan to financially assist Germany to allow it to pay reparations to the Allies:

Dawes Plan 1924:

-Proposed by Charles Dawes;

-Germany to receive a loan of $200,000,000 from America;

-Reparations payments to be rescheduled;

-Germany to raise funds using specific taxes and bonds;

-Reparations agency established to supervise payment;

-France agreed to withdraw from Ruhr within one year.

The currency was changed from mark to Rentenmark. The Plan was a symbol of the good times, 1924-1929. It was an answer to the Ruhr/Reparations Crisis.


Establishment and impact of the Mandate System

-The covenant of the League provided that former colonies of Germany and the provinces of the Ottoman Empire should be under the care of the Allies as “mandates”. These countries would administer the territories and report to the League until they are ready to become independent;

-The mandatory mandate system, supervised by the League, was to primarily maintain a good standard of living in these countries and their developments as well as ensuring effective trade and no slavery occurred;

-Supervising countries had responsibility over the mandates;

-Mandates that went against the system were referred to the international body;

-Mandates were divided into classes of A, B and C, where each class reflected their stage of development and the expectancy of its time to become independent;

-Mandates A, most ready for independence: Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Transjordan;

-Mandates B, not going to become independent for some time: former German colonies in Africa that were given to Britain, France and Belgium;

-Mandates C, low population and underdeveloped, were handed to countries who defeated them: colonies in the Pacific received by Japan, New Zealand and Australia, Southwest Africa received by South Africa;

-There were some disagreements between the Allies and Austria, New Zealand, South Africa and Japan who wanted to annex the territories;

-Japan, treated her mandates as their own colonies which violated the mandatory system.

-Other member countries disliked the fact many of mandates were under France and UK considering their already large global overseas empires.

-Italy upset that promised territories were not given to them, nor were any mandates;

-Not many Middle Eastern countries were given land and independent status although they assisted Britain in toppling over the Ottoman Empire;

-Only Saudi Arabia given full independence in 1920;

-Jordan was given independence in 1923 under a puppet government until 1946;

-Syria and Lebanon granted independence by France in 1946;

-Palestine: tensions between Arabs and Jews led to the splitting of the country after their independence in 1947.

-An issue occurred when the British agreed to the Balfour Declaration, 1917.


Enforcement of the provisions of the treaties: US isolationism-the retreat from the Anglo-American Guarantee; disarmament-Washington, London, Geneva conferences


-Anglo-French tensions became more visible when Britain openly criticized French and Belgium efforts in occupying the Ruhr in 1923 to force Germany to pay reparations.

American Isolationism

-The US Senate refused to join the League on the basis that Article X held America responsible for the security affairs of other member countries and lead America to become a “world policeman”;

-Therefore, America not only refused to ratify the Treaty, she did not join the League;

-America signed a separate peace treaty with Germany in 1921 which was entirely the same without the League of Nations clause;

-Isolationism was the traditional policy of the United States where it assumed its affairs to be in its spheres of influence in the Pacific and the Americas as decided by the Monroe Doctrine, 1823.


Britain’s position:

-Focused on maintaining colonial empire and financial indebtedness;

-By doing so, avoided military and diplomatic involvement in Europe;

-British military expenditure and strength reduced during 1920s. Military leaders advised the Government on lack of military resources to interfere in Europe;

-Hence, UK willing to compromise and make concessions to Germany regarding their enforcement of TOV.

France’s position:

-Continued to feel insecure as a result of failing to get a military guarantee from Britain and America;

-Rejected idea of France disarming due to belief that Germany may have possible economic and military recovery;

-Aimed at encircling Germany with allies from East & West by signing military agreements with Poland (1921) and Czechoslovakia (1924).

-Military agreements undermined by Polish-Czech rivalries

The retreat from the Anglo-American guarantee

-France continued to view Germany as a potential threat when she recovered her economic and military strength;

-As America and Britain recognized France’s fear of insecurity, they realized they had to award France with a firm guarantee of military support despite refusing the proposal of Rhineland to become an independent state;

-The Anglo-French agreement was signed on 28 of June, 1919

-The US Senate refused to agree to the Anglo-American Guarantee that would extend American military assistance to France if she was under German attack;

-This failed despite of Wilson’s frequent promotion of the Treaty and the League from 1919-1920 in the United States;

-Amid America withdrawal, Britain did not feel it had the military capacity to dependently assist France and therefore withdrew from the agreement as well;

-This worsened relations between the three as France had no military guarantee from America and Britain.

Tension between America and Japan

-Japan treated its mandates as its colonies;

-Territorial expansion by dominating China was an aim by Japan;

-This threatened American interests and others as it had trade relations with China as well as assets in the Philippines;

-Japan also felt threatened by the increasing American naval fleet in Asia and America’s failure to recognize her growing power status;

-These shortcomings led to talk of war;

-Britain’s defensive alliance with Japan, known as the Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902) made Britain happy in supporting the Washington Conference on disarming countries.


The Washington Conference

-Between 1921 and 1922 at Washington on Disarmament;

-Considered most successful of the disarmament conferences;

-The major naval powers, America, Britain and Japan met in November 1921, signing a number of treaties between December 1921 and February 1922.

Terms of the Washington Treaties

The Four Power Treaty:

-Between America, France, Britain and Japan;

-Ended the Anglo-Japanese Alliance;

-Countries agreed to recognize the possessions of one another in the Pacific and communicate in times of problems to reach a diplomatic solution;

The Five Power Treaty:

-Between America, Britain, Japan, France and Italy;

-Agreed to have naval sizes in the ratios of 5:5:3:1.67:1.67;

-Agreed not to construct new naval armaments in the next 10 years

-America and Britain not to fortify or build naval bases in the Western Pacific.


The Nine Power Treaty:

-Between America, Japan, France, Britain, Italy, China, Belgium, Netherlands and Portugal;

-Agreed to have an open door trade policy with China to give equal trading rights to China;

-Agreed to respect China’s authority by not creating overlapping spheres of influence over Chinese territory;

-Agreed to have a “full and frank communication” between each other when there are problems to complying with the Treaty.

The London Conferences 1930-1936

The London Naval conference 1930:

-Between America, Japan, Britain, Italy and France;

-Revision of the Washington Treaty;

-Moved ratios of capital ships (most important warships) from ratios of 5:5:3 of America, Britain and Japan to 10:10:7;

-Although France and Italy was not part of this agreement, they agreed to continue not to build additional naval armaments for the next five years;

-Restrictions placed on the numbers of submarines, cruisers and destroyers should country may possess;

-Restrictions on submarine warfare were most strict;

-The Treaty was effective up to 1936.

The London Naval conference 1935-1936:

-Between the signatories of the last conference;

-Japan refused to sign as America and Britain denied her request to have equality in the ratios of naval fleets with the two powers;

-Italy refused to sign due to her invasion in Abyssinia;

-France and Britain and America continued to agree on provisions of naval size limitations;

-These agreements were broken when Italy and Japan entered rearmament programs that led to world-scale conflicts.

-In conclusion, the conference was a failure.


The Geneva Conferences 1932-1934

-Conference sponsored by the League;


-Germany asked for France to disarm to German levels for equality;

-Germany wanted either for the major powers to disarm to the German level, or for Germany the ability to rearm to their level;

-Germany was refused by the powers, hence walked out 1932

-Hitler came to power in Germany during in 1933;

-Hitler again asked for equal treatment, denied and walked out;

-Instigated German rearmament program.


-Fearful of German military revival, wanted to have a military alliance between the other countries;

-When unsupported with a military guarantee, France refused to reduce its military capacity;

-France increased its military spending.


-Not interested in talks of disarmament and reduction of military spending.


-Tension increased as countries began to consider the best option for self-protection;

-Disarmament was ruled out due to rising tensions and potential source of conflict.


The League of Nations: effects of the absence of major powers; the principle of collective security and early attempts at peacekeeping (1920-5)

-League of Nations mentioned in Wilson’s 14 points;

-Great support for the league was given by many;

-League Covenant written into TOV, hence signatories were members of the LON;

-With 26 articles, the most important one of the Covenant was Article X, where, “The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled”;


-Promote international cooperation;

-End war;

-Settle international disputes peacefully;

-Assist with humanitarian and economic issues.

Collective security:

-The idea that if one member state was attacked by another, other member states are obligated to cut off financial and diplomatic links and defend the victim country;

-Military of other countries need to make sacrifices;

-Established by Article X;

-Powers included the pressure of world public opinion, use of trade sanctions, reducing armaments of all countries to a minimum level and the use of force.


-The LON comprised by the council, assembly and the secretariat.

The Council:

-Met 3 to 4 times annually. Originally, there were five permanent members, France, Britain, Italy, Japan and America. America couldn’t join. There were additional places for rotating members, at first 4, then 11.


-The council would discuss a problem then inform the Assembly of its decision; decisions must be unanimous.

The Assembly:

-Met annually in Geneva. 42 country members later grew to 55;

-Discussed global issues and passed decisions to the Secretariat.

The Secretariat:

-In charge of civil service, organize the league, headed by the Secretary-General;

-Responsible for financial and administrative work, keeping the League updated;

-Responsible for tracking millions of displaced and missing people from the war.


-The mandate commission was set up to supervise countries that are responsible in looking after former colonies of defeated empires until they are ready for independence;

-The Refugee Organization assisted victims of war;

-International Labor Organization to improve working conditions;

-Health organizations to encourage programs to improve world healthcare.

Effects of the absence of major powers

-Russia, who was in diplomatic isolation, and Germany were forbidden to join;


-Could not join due to Senate’s refusal, most significant loss;

-Only member country to financially and militarily benefit from the war;

-Had greatest military power to intervene;

-When America did not join the League, hence cannot also agree to the American-French guarantee, Britain also withdrew support to France, going into splendid isolation;

-Weakened meaning of collective security.


France and Britain:

-Had different intentions on the enforcement of the Treaty that created conflict within the League.

Russia and Germany:

-Russia, who was in diplomatic isolation, and Germany were forbidden to join;

-Both felt greater resentment as the League forbad defeated countries from joining, and saw the League as a Rich Europeans’ Club;

-As Germany tested weapons in Russia, disarmament process was not effective as the two were not member countries.


-Collective security further weakened with Italy and Japan quite the League.

The principle of collective security

-Collective security was a new idea of Wilson, incorporated into the League;

-It derived from Article X, where members were obligated to protect their fellow member countries when they were attacked;

-This meant countries had to sacrifice money and their military for the problems of other countries regardless of the causes and outcomes;

-Collective security was rejected by the US Senate who didn’t want America to be a “world policeman”;

-Member countries lost the freedom of action;

-Collective security disdained the interests of South American countries in engaging in a war in Central Europe;

-As Britain and France regularly were at odds on their roles in the League, it was possible a disagreement on how to react may occur when under German aggression;

-The absence of many world powers reduced the possibility that collective security would be feasible.


Early attempts at peacekeeping (1920-5)

-Interventions were mostly successful when the parties involved were small or moderately in size who also did not intend to go to war;

-Interventions were mostly unsuccessful when the parties involved major powers who did not see keeping peace as important and disagreed with the League’s peace settlement;


-1920-1: Aaland Islands. Resolved Dispute between Finland and Sweden;

-1923-4: Mosul. The League settled dispute between Turkey and Iraq. Mosul remained part of Iraq;

-1925: Greek-Bulgarian Crisis. The crisis was seen as a great success as the League prevented a war between Greece and Bulgaria over a border dispute. Bulgaria ordered troops to provided token resistance for LON to intervene. Greece was fined;

-1926: Germany joined the League of Nations as part of the Locarno settlement;

-1934: Soviet Union became a member of the League.


-1919: Eupen and Malmedy awarded to Belgium;

-1920: Schleswig, divided Denmark and Germany;

-1920: Allenstein and Marienwerder awarded to Germany;

-1921: Upper Silesia divided between Poland and Germany, neither side satisfied with decision.


-1920: Vilna. Poland took control of Vilna, previously part of Lithuania until 1922. In 1923 Conference of Ambassadors, not League of Nations awarded Vilna to Poland. Lithuania refused to recognize this.

-1920-1923: Russo-Polish War. Poland made substantial territorial gains which were recognized by treaty of Riga 1921. League was not able to influence events.

-1920-1923: Turkey went to war against Greece against Treaty of Sevres. This led to a confrontation with Allied forces, known as the, “Chanak Incident.” The League of Nations was unable to end conflict. This resulted in a revised settlement, leading to Treaty of Lausanne. Britain and France took opposite sides.


-1923: Memel. The region was administered by Allies, however occupied by Lithuania. Conference of Ambassadors failed to resolve matter and it passed it onto LON. Partial concessions regarding German speaking inhabitants was made.

-1923: Corfu Incident. Following the murder of Italian general working at Conference of Ambassadors by Greek bandits, Italy occupied Corfu Island of Greek. League of Nations ruled Italy should leave Corfu, but, over-ruled by Conference of Ambassadors. Finally League ordered Greece to pay compensation to Italy, leading to Italy’s withdrawal.

-1931: Japan invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria. The Lytton Commission set up by the League took nearly a year to arrive, condemned the action. Japan left the League in 1933.

-1934: Hitler hated the League, Germany left in 1933 after he took power.

-1935: Abyssinia Crisis, where Italy invaded the African country. Use of economic sanctions was futile as they did not cover oil bans. Following this failure, the League was no longer respected as a prominent effective peace-keeping organization.


The Ruhr Crisis (1923); Locarno and the “League Spring” (1925)

The Ruhr Crisis (1923)

-The Crisis was an example of the inability of French British cooperation in reaching a consensus on how to treat Germany;

-France wanted Germany to closely comply with all of TOV’s terms, including reparations, which would help weaken the German economy as much as possible;

-France needed the reparations to repay American loan debts;

-Britain, on the other hand, felt these terms would cause Germany to become closer to Russia, who similarly was in terrible condition after the War;

-France was especially sensitive in Germany maintaining the payment of reparations, because:

-France feared the Rapallo Treaty Germany signed with Russia may be a way for Germany to lose her obligation to pay up;

-France feared this would help improve the German economy;

-Therefore, when Germany missed a delivery to deliver timber as part of her payments, France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr region;

-The occupation took place on 11 of January, 1923, despite protests from the British government;

-France’s main objective was to collect reparations by seizing the output of mines, factories and equipment to ship directly to France.

-The German workers did not cooperate and held passive resistance and sabotaged their own machines and goods rather than have the French to seize them;

-The German government responded with printing additional money to pay German workers for the movement;

-This led to a hyper-inflation, where prices of goods rose to hundreds and billions of marks;

-In the eyes of the world, France and Belgium were seen as the aggressors and lose international reputation;


Effect on the Weimar Government

-The inflation in Germany struck the main class with greatest impact;

-The savings of the middle class were eliminated and instead were imposed with a negative outlook on their future;

-Their views were exploited by extremists who promised their rise to power would restore Germany’s economy, its pride and optimism of people;

-This led to a more unstable government with growing unpopularity;

-The next year, Hitler attempts to gain power in 1924 through the Beer Putsch which was unsuccessful.

The Locarno and the Locarno Spring 1925

-When appointed as chancellor of Germany, Gustav Stresemann had a big impact on Germany’s position with other countries;

-His successful negotiation led to the Locarno Treaties being signed in September 1925;

-The Treaty was between Britain, France, Italy, Belgium and Germany;

-Gustav wanted a security pact between Britain and France as this may lead to a revision of TOV, change Germany’s Eastern borders, early withdrawal of the Allied Control Commission, as well as withdrawal of Allied Forces in Rhineland, due in 1935;

Locarno Treaty:

-Stresemann agreed with the border arrangements it shared between Belgium and France;

-Belgium, France and Germany accepted Western borders of German asset at TOV;

-Germany did not promise the arrangements of Eastern borders, however agreed to settle any issues with them peacefully;

-Britain and Italy agreed to act as guarantors of “flagrant” breaches of Western borders (fragrant as asking for trouble; defiant);

-League of Nations to manage “Alleged” breaches;

-France renewed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia;

-Promised not to send German troops into Rhineland;

-Understood Alsace-Lorraine permanently belonged to France;

-Germany to join the LON.


The results of the Locarno Treaty

-France and Britain could work better on how to deal with Germany;

-Germany was led to believe there could be changed to their Eastern borders with little objection from the Allies;

-Germany could grow economically without posing a threat to Western Europe;

-Confirmed the merits of TOV;

-Germany treated as equal to others again;

-Rhineland was evacuated in 1926;

-Allied Control Commission ended in 1927;

-A period of international cooperation was perceived among the global community as “The Spirit of Locarno”;

Kellogg Briand Pact 1928:

-President of France, Kellogg, wanted to strength relationships with America by promising not to go to war with each other.

-US feared this was a step towards their intervention in Europe;

-Other countries began to sign the pact;

-By 1933, 65 countries had signed, including Germany, Italy and Japan. It was of little practical value as no method to enforcing the pact was given.

Young Plan 1928:

-Devised by American banker Ernest Young;

-Amount of reparations further reduced;

-Payment to be extended to 1988;

-Another loan to Germany agreed;

-All Allied troops to withdraw from Rhineland by 1930;

-Reparations agency to be abolished.


Depression and threats to international peace and collective security: Manchuria (1931-3) and Abyssinia (1935-6)

The Great Depression 1929

-The Wall Street crashed on 24 of October 1929;

The overall world markets were negatively influenced by the disorder in Russia and Eastern Europe precipitating international financial instability.

-Countries lost focus on international agreements and cooperation;

-A new mentality appeared, where countries began to only look after their own affairs, spending own money on domestic problems;

-The Depression threatened the capitalist system and parliamentary democracy;

-This was so as aggressive states began to emerge based on the concept of the survival of the fittest;

-The Economic Crash spelled the death of the free trade.

-The idea of collective security was lost.

-Only USSR was unaffected by the Depression because of her diplomatic and economic isolation;

-Economic Nationalism:

-Promoted by America who imposed heavy import;

-This led European markets to retaliate and impose protectionalism;

-Government intervention mostly led to economic nationalism;

-Fascism was highly nationalistic.




Manchuria 1931-1933

-Large economic power in Asia, market mainly depended on exports of manufactured goods with America;

-Few natural resources, yet huge population growth, began to see the need to expand;

-The Crash led to wide spread unemployment and starvation;

-To save its population, Japan turned to imperialist aggression;

-Became more militaristic and nationalistic;

-This led the plan to invade Manchuria, as it had become independent as a result of the Chinese civil war;

-It was not difficult to invade Manchuria considering Japan had great economic investment in Manchuria as well as troops in the city of Port Arthur to protect its interests;

-The Japanese army blew up part of the South Manchurian Railway that was within Japanese control and blamed the Chinese;

-Japan then used the explosion as a justification to invade Manchuria;

-A diplomatic problem occurred where the central Japanese government did not have full control of the Japanese army, hence did not authorize the operation;

-Japanese troops quickly defeated Manchuria and by 1932 Japan established a puppet state of Manchukuo.

Chinese Response:

-The Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek’s key priority at the time was to defeat the communist party and unify the country. Therefore, little resistance was made against the Japanese invasion;

-The Chinese had been blamed by radical Japanese nationalists on attacking the Japanese population and property.

European Response:

-As a result of the Washington Conferences 1922, the major powers did not have naval bases in Asia, hence was not in a good position to defend Manchuria from Japanese aggression;

-Without this tactical problem, it was unlikely they would help given the burden of the ongoing economic crisis.


LON Response:

-The Lytton Commission was set up to investigate the matter, chaired by Lord Lytton;

-Travelling by boat, it took nearly one year to reach Japan;

-LON constantly condemned the attacks;

-Although China and Japan were members of the League, no action was taken;

-The Lytton Committee Report was accepted by the League Council and no trade bad or use of force was recommended;

-After being criticized by the LON and refused to withdraw its troops from Manchuria, Japan left the League in 1933.

Could not assist because:

-Greatest powers not LON members;

-UK and France not willing to risk colonies in the Far East with Japan;

-Slow responses by the LON;

-Japan was against Communism;

-Britain had little financial interest in China;

-Britain and France occupied with Great Depression and economic matters.


Abyssinia (1935-6)

-Realizing Hitler’s rise to power, Mussolini felt Europe had no real dominance in Europe anymore;

-A search for overseas colonies began in order to raise Italy’s status as a world power;

-This included having Italian colonies in Africa, Eritrea, Halian and Somaliland;

-The desire to have colonies was fuelled by nationalists who were disappointed by the TOV;

-In order to re-create the Roman Empire, Italy sought to claim Abyssinia, the only unclaimed African territory, additionally there were reports the region contained oil;

-This would help divert public Italian attention from domestic problems, economic in particular and Mussolini was satisfied with the economic benefits of invading Abyssinia;

Mussolini believed UK and France would allow this because:

-French Foreign Secretary Laval in January 1935 said there were no significant French interests in Abyssinia;

-The Stresa Front was signed in April 1935 between Britain, France and Italy.

-Mussolini began the invasion in October 1935, with 51 States voting to impose economic sanctions on Italy;

-Economic sanctions proved useless as they did not include oil ban;

-They were also not introduced until 6 weeks after Italian invasion;

-France and Britain feared applying too much pressure may cause Italy to break away from the Stresa Front against German breaches of the TOV;

-Britain and France also did not want to close the Suez Canal to Italian shipping in fear that Mussolini may turn to Hitler;

-Non-league members continued to trade with Italy, not affecting trade relations;

-Sanctions took ages to be in effect;


Hoare-Laval Pact:

-Britain and France tried to compromise the situation by agreeing to give Italy 2/3 of Abyssinian territory which included the most fertile land and south of the country by splitting it up, allowing Italy narrow access to the Red Sea;

-The pact was leaked to the press, receiving heavy criticism from the public, forcing Hoare to resign;

-Britain and France lost the respect and trust from Italy;

-Britain and France both unprepared to stop Italy by force;

-Abyssinia completely taken by Italian forces in May 1936, ending the war;

-Collective security and the League proved useless, a significant indicator that the League was no longer taken seriously by member countries again.

Italy and Hitler:

-The Stresa Front collapsed when Italy left the pact;

-Mussolini turned to Hitler for cooperation;

-In October 1936, the Rome-Berlin Axis was signed, a sign of friendship and trade agreement.

-Italy left the League;

-Hitler exploited focus of international attention by re-occupying Rhineland.



Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points

1. There should be no secret deals or treaties between states.2. Countries should be free to send ships anywhere in the world without interference.3. There should be free trade between countries.4. The level of armaments should be reduced in each country.5. The future of colonies should be reviewed and the wishes of local people taken into

consideration.6. Other countries should leave Russian territory.7. The Germans should leave Belgium. 8. Alsace and Lorraine should be returned to France.9. The Italian borders should be adjusted to bring Italian speakers into Italy as far as

possible.10. The different peoples of Austria-Hungary should be given their freedom. 11. Invading armies should leave the Balkan states.12. Non-Turkish people in the Turkish Empire should be free to have their own

governments.13. An independent Poland should be set up. Poland should have access to the sea.14. A League of Nations should be set up to preserve the future peace of the world.








America- Uncle Sam

Britain-Lion and Bull dog

France- Tiger