Hydropower Plant Seminar

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    Introduction of Hydro Power

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    Introduction

    Most widely used renewable resource for

    generation of electricity is hydropower.

    The power obtained from river or ocean water is

    called as hydropower.

    Hydropower is the renewable source of energy

    since water is available in large quantities.

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    Region wise contribution of

    Hydropower

    REGION PERCENTAGE

    NORTH 30.34WEST 13.86

    SOUTH 37.2

    EAST 15.27NORTH-EAST 37.72

    INDIA 24.74

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    Major Hydropower generating units

    NAME OF DAMS STATE CAPACITY (MW)

    BHAKRA PUNJAB 1100

    NAGARJUNA ANDHRA PRADESH 960

    KOYNA MAHARASHTRA 920

    DEHAR HIMACHAL PRADESH 990

    SHARAVATHY KARNATAKA 891

    KALINADI KARNATAKA 810

    SRISAILAM ANDHRA PRADESH 770

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    Advantages of Hydropower Plant

    Its life is about 50 years.

    It does not cause any kind of pollution.

    The running cost of this plant is very small.

    These plants are reliable and give high efficiency.

    It uses water as source of energy ; which can be

    reused for various other purposes.

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    Hydropower is an important renewable

    energy source world wide...

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    Large Scale

    Small Scale

    Micro

    Sizes of Hydropower Plants

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    Large Scale Hydropower plant

    Large

    hydropower

    systems typically

    require a dam.

    Large plants :

    capacity >30 MW.

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    Small Scale Hydropower Plant

    Small hydropower

    facilities may involve

    a small dam, or be a

    diversion of the main

    stream.

    Small Plants :

    capacity b/w 100 kW

    to 30 MW.

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    Micro Hydropower Plant

    Micro Plants :

    capacity up to 100

    kW.

    Micro-hydro facilities

    typically use a run-of-

    river system.

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    Mechanism of a HydropowerPlant

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    PRINCIPLE OFHYDRO POWER

    PLANT

    Water cycle in nature

    Water surface

    evaporation.

    Precipitation ofclouds.

    Collected back to the

    oceans.

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    How Hydropower Works!

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    1.Dam 5.Generator

    2.Intake 6.Transformer

    3.Penstock 7. Outflow

    4.Turbine 8. Power House

    Elements or Components of aHydropower Plant

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    DamsClassification of dams

    Storage dams Diversion Dams

    Detention Dams

    Overflow Dams

    Rockfill Dams

    Gravity Dams

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    Intake

    A water intake must

    be able to divert water

    into a penstock

    without producing anegative impact on

    the environment.

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    Penstock

    Penstock is used as a

    medium to convey

    water from intake to

    the tunnel and finallyto the power house.

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    Turbines

    Types of Hydro

    Turbines:- Impulse turbines Pelton Wheel

    Cross Flow Turbines

    - Reaction turbines Propeller Turbines

    Francis Turbines

    Kaplan Turbines

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    Impulse Turbines

    Uses the velocity of the water to move the runner

    and discharges to atmospheric pressure.

    The water stream hits each bucket on the

    runner.

    High head.

    Types : Pelton wheel, Cross Flow

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    Pelton Wheels

    Water with pressure

    strikes the spoon

    shaped buckets.

    It reverses the flow ofwater and this

    impulse spins the

    turbine.

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    Pelton Wheels (continued)

    Suited for high head,

    low flow sites.The largest units can

    be up to200MW.

    Can operate with

    heads as small as15metersand as high as1,800 meters.

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    Cross Flow Turbines

    Drum-shaped

    Elongated,

    rectangular-section

    directed against curved

    vanes.

    Squirrel cage blower

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    Reaction Turbines

    Combined action of pressure and moving water.

    Lower head and higher flows than compared

    with the impulse turbines.

    Types of reaction turbines:- Propeller Turbines

    Francis Turbines

    Kaplan Turbines

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    Propeller Hydropower Turbine

    Runner with three to

    six blades.

    Water contacts all of

    the blades constantly.

    Through the pipe, the

    pressure is constant

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    Kaplan Turbine

    It has adjustable

    blades or pitch.

    It allows efficient

    power production inlow head application.

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    Francis Turbines

    Best suited for sites

    with high flows and

    low to medium head.

    Efficiency of 90%.

    Expensive to design,

    and install.

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    Generator

    Generator is the

    heart of hydropower

    plant.

    As the turbine bladesturn, so do the coil of

    generator producing

    current.

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    Principle of Generator

    The turbine turns,excitor sends anelectrical current

    To the rotor. It spinsinside a tightly wound

    coil of copper wireThe stator. Thus the

    magnetic fields createelectric current.

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    Transformers

    A transformer is used

    to step up the voltage

    created by the

    generator and pass itout to the power

    house.

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    Out flow

    Used water from the

    turbines is carried

    through pipelines,

    called tailraces, and it

    thus re-enters the

    river.

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    Power House

    The function of powerhouse is to protect the

    mechanical equipment.

    For this purpose acleaning machine called

    TRASH TRACK is used.

    It removes the materialfrom water to avoidentering the plant anddamaging the machines.

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    we can experience

    new, renewable

    technologies with

    the power of water!

    Even here

    in our deserthome,

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    PGI/CIV/09/6935

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