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    Hydraulics Section III:Hydraulics Section III:PumpsPumps

    Paul Trotta, P.E., Ph.D.Paul Trotta, P.E., Ph.D.Justin Ramsey, P.E.Justin Ramsey, P.E.

    Chad Cooper Chad Cooper

    University Curriculum Development University Curriculum Development for Decentralized Wastewater for Decentralized Wastewater

    ManagementManagement

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    NDWRCDP DisclaimerNDWRCDP DisclaimerThis work was supported by the National Decentralized Water This work was supported by the National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project (NDWRCDP) with Resources Capacity Development Project (NDWRCDP) with

    funding provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funding provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through a Cooperative Agreement (EPA No. CR827881through a Cooperative Agreement (EPA No. CR827881--0101--0) 0) with Washington University in St. Louis. These materials have with Washington University in St. Louis. These materials have

    not been reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection not been reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These materials have been reviewed by Agency. These materials have been reviewed by representatives of the NDWRCDP. The contents representatives of the NDWRCDP. The contents

    of these materials do not necessarily reflect the views and of these materials do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the NDWRCDP, Washington University, or the U.S. policies of the NDWRCDP, Washington University, or the U.S.

    Environmental Protection Agency, nor does the mention of trade Environmental Protection Agency, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute their endorsement or names or commercial products constitute their endorsement or

    recommendation for use.recommendation for use.

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    CIDWT/University DisclaimerCIDWT/University DisclaimerThese materials are the collective effort of individuals from These materials are the collective effort of individuals from

    academic, regulatory, and private sectors of the academic, regulatory, and private sectors of the onsite/decentralized wastewater industry. These materials have onsite/decentralized wastewater industry. These materials have

    been peerbeen peer--reviewed and represent the current state of reviewed and represent the current state of knowledge/science in this field. They were developed through a knowledge/science in this field. They were developed through a series of writing and review meetings with the goal of formulatiseries of writing and review meetings with the goal of formulating ng a consensus on the materials presented. These materials do not a consensus on the materials presented. These materials do not

    necessarily reflect the views and policies of University of necessarily reflect the views and policies of University of Arkansas, and/or the Consortium of Institutes for Decentralized Arkansas, and/or the Consortium of Institutes for Decentralized

    Wastewater Treatment (CIDWT). The mention of trade names or Wastewater Treatment (CIDWT). The mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute an endorsement or commercial products does not constitute an endorsement or

    recommendation for use from these individuals or entities, nor recommendation for use from these individuals or entities, nor does it constitute criticism for similar ones not mentioned.does it constitute criticism for similar ones not mentioned.

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    CitationCitation

    Trotta, P.D., and J.O. Ramsey. 2005. Hydraulics Trotta, P.D., and J.O. Ramsey. 2005. Hydraulics III: Pumps III: Pumps -- PowerPoint Presentation. PowerPoint Presentation. inin (M.A. (M.A. Gross and N.E. Deal, eds.) University Gross and N.E. Deal, eds.) University Curriculum Development for Decentralized Curriculum Development for Decentralized Wastewater Management. National Wastewater Management. National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project. University of Arkansas, Development Project. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR.Fayetteville, AR.

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    Section Objectives:Section Objectives:Know the different types and classes of Know the different types and classes of Pumps and the best applications of eachPumps and the best applications of eachUnderstand how to optimize the Pump Understand how to optimize the Pump Design Issues to maximize pump Design Issues to maximize pump effectivenesseffectivenessUse Affinity Law calculationsUse Affinity Law calculationsUnderstand main characteristics of pumps Understand main characteristics of pumps used in onsiteused in onsite

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    Classification of PumpsClassification of Pumps

    Among the many types of pumps available are:Among the many types of pumps available are:SpecialSpecial--Effect PumpsEffect Pumps Jet (Jet (EductorEductor))

    Gas LiftGas Lift RotaryRotaryElectromagneticElectromagnetic Hydraulic RamHydraulic RamGearGear ForceForce GrinderGrinder

    Positive Displacement PumpsPositive Displacement Pumps

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    Centrifugal PumpsCentrifugal PumpsCentrifugal pumps are the most widely used pumpCentrifugal pumps depend on centrifugal forcesThe advantages of the centrifugal pump are its simple

    construction and operation, space requirements and rotary action.

    Impeller DesignsCentrifugal Pump

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    Rotary PumpsRotary PumpsThe rotary pump continuously scoops water from the pump

    chamber. There are three classifications of a rotary pump, gear-type, vane-type and screw-type.

    Rotary Pump Section

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    Rotary Vane Type PumpRotary Vane Type Pump

    Operation is based on increasing the

    size of the cavity to form a vacuum and then forcing the fluid out under pressure by reducing the size

    of the cavity.

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    ScrewScrew--Type PumpType PumpLiquid is carried between screw threads on rotors and is

    displaced as the screws rotate and mesh.

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    Reciprocating PumpReciprocating Pump

    A piston or plunger differentiates the reciprocating pump from a centrifugal pump.

    Two types: the lift pump and the force pump.

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    Lift PumpLift Pump

    The force pump actually lifts and forces the water

    against an external pressure.

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    Pump Design IssuesPump Design IssuesEfficiency: Efficiency:

    The difference between the brake and hydraulic power is the The difference between the brake and hydraulic power is the friction power or friction horsepower and is accounted for by thfriction power or friction horsepower and is accounted for by the e

    pump efficiency. pump efficiency.

    Steep versus Shallow Performance Steep versus Shallow Performance CharacteristicsCharacteristics

    A steep pump curve will provide a stable flow over various A steep pump curve will provide a stable flow over various pressures. pressures.

    Shallow pump curves will provide a steady pressure with varying Shallow pump curves will provide a steady pressure with varying flows. flows.

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    Pump Design IssuesPump Design IssuesHorsepowerHorsepower

    When pushing water the pump performs work. The two basic When pushing water the pump performs work. The two basic terms for horsepower are Hydraulic Horsepower and brake terms for horsepower are Hydraulic Horsepower and brake

    horsepower. When pushing water two basic terms for horsepower. When pushing water two basic terms for horsepower are hydraulic horsepower (horsepower are hydraulic horsepower (whpwhp) and brake ) and brake

    horsepower (horsepower (bhpbhp). ).

    Affinity LawsAffinity LawsPump performance may be changed either by changing the Pump performance may be changed either by changing the impeller, motor or both. To change the pump performance impeller, motor or both. To change the pump performance characteristics certain basic laws are valid for all centrifugalcharacteristics certain basic laws are valid for all centrifugal

    pumps. These laws are called the affinity laws. pumps. These laws are called the affinity laws.

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    Pump Design IssuesPump Design IssuesMultiple PumpsMultiple Pumps

    Series pump operation is achieved by having one pump Series pump operation is achieved by having one pump discharge into the suction of the next.discharge into the suction of the next.

    Parallel operation is achieved by having two pumps discharge Parallel operation is achieved by having two pumps discharge into a common pipe.into a common pipe.

    Characteristics of Pumps used in Onsite Characteristics of Pumps used in Onsite a.a. Ability to pass solidsAbility to pass solidsb.b. Relatively flat head versus discharge curveRelatively flat head versus discharge curvec.c. Two Phase versus Three Phase PowerTwo Phase versus Three Phase Powerd.d. Impervious to Sewage CharacteristicsImpervious to Sewage Characteristicse.e. Easily Maintained and/or ReplacedEasily Maintained and/or Replacedf.f. High Head for systems using orificesHigh Head for systems using orifices

    Hydraulics Section III:PumpsNDWRCDP DisclaimerThis work was supported by the National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project (NDWRCDPCIDWT/University DisclaimerCitationSection Objectives:Centrifugal PumpsRotary PumpsRotary Vane Type PumpScrew-Type PumpReciprocating PumpLift Pump