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www.lophelia.org [email protected] [email protected] Contact For more information Cold-water corals reefs are among the most three- dimensionally complex deep-sea habitats known. Predicted rises in atmospheric CO2 concentration which result in a drop in ocean pH (Ocean Acidifi- cation), and predicted rises in sea temperature place these key ecosystems at considerable risk. These systems support a vast array of associated bio-diversity, so in order to predict their future fate, increased biological understanding has to be coupled with accurate in situ mapping and sensing. Acknowledgements Heriot-Watt University’s Environment and Climate Change theme. Heriot-Watt University FLEDGE III Programme The UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme. EPOCA HERMIONE Royal Society of Edinburgh Changing Oceans: Working in Deep Marine Environments Cold Water Coral Reefs Hennige SJ, Wicks LC , Henry L, Navas JM, Roberts JM Ecohydrodynamic modelling Sensing technology These coral ecosystems are between 40 and 3000m deep, and as such, specialist equipment is needed to inspect and sample from these habitats. This in- cludes submersibles, such as JAGO, or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs). These vehicles are equipped with multibeam echosounders, high defi- nition cameras and manipulator arms, to measure and collect samples on a broad or fine-scale. Accurate, quick and robust sensors are a key aspect of ongoing research in deep-sea habitats. However, commerically avavilable sensors are often not suitable for deployment in conjunction with an ROV due to their size, slow reaction times and sensor platform. A recent review by Heriot- Watt on current state of the art technology identi- fied Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) as a potential route to improve upon current tech- nologies to rapidly assess in situ carbonate chemis- try. Ecohydrodynamic approaches are being used to de- scribe the physical constraints which effect biologi- cal and chemical conditions over the Mingulay Coral Reef Complex, Outer Hebrides. Thse communities rely on the delivery of food from the sea surface, so a 3D ocean model coupled to a particle tracking model is being used to assess water exchange and renewal in this Reef complex. Mapping Biodiversity in Marine Protected Areas Accessing deep habitats Acoustic remote sensing technology is vital to cold-water coral biodiversity research at Heriot- Watt. Multibeam echosounder, sidescan sonar and seismic surveys provide information about seabed bathymetry, texture and composition, data which are then used to model relationships between biodiversity and environmental settings on estab- lished or proposed marine protected areas in areas including the Darwin Mounds, Hatton Bank and the Mingulay Reef Complex. The sophisticated vehicles needed to access and observe these deep ecosystems An ecohydrodynamic model of the Mingulay Reef Complex, Outer Hebrides Centre for Marine Biodiversity & Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, EH14 4AS T: +44 (0) 131 451 3463 F: +44 (0) 131 451 3009 Roberts et al. (2006) Reefs of the deep: the biology and geology of cold-water coral ecosystems. Science 312: 543 Roberts et al. (2009) Cold-water Corals: The Biology and Geology of Deep-sea Coral Habitats. Cambridge Uni. Press Lophelia pertusa polyps and reef forming colonies A multibeam scan showing a 3D image of coral mounds at Mingulay (left) and a picture of the typical diversity observed on such reefs (right)

HWU Industry day 2012

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Poster presented at 2011 Heriot-Watt University Industry Day

Text of HWU Industry day 2012

  • 1. Changing Oceans: Working in Deep Marine Environments Hennige SJ, Wicks LC , Henry L, Navas JM, Roberts JMCold Water Coral ReefsMapping Biodiversity in MarineProtected AreasCold-water corals reefs are among the most three-dimensionally complex deep-sea habitats known.Acoustic remote sensing technology is vital toPredicted rises in atmospheric CO2 concentrationcold-water coral biodiversity research at Heriot-which result in a drop in ocean pH (Ocean Acidifi-Watt. Multibeam echosounder, sidescan sonar andcation), and predicted rises in sea temperature seismic surveys provide information about seabedplace these key ecosystems at considerable risk.bathymetry, texture and composition, data whichThese systems support a vast array of associatedare then used to model relationships betweenbio-diversity, so in order to predict their future fate,biodiversity and environmental settings on estab-increased biological understanding has to belished or proposed marine protected areas incoupled with accurate in situ mapping and sensing.areas including the Darwin Mounds, Hatton Bankand the Mingulay Reef Complex. Lophelia pertusa polyps and reef forming coloniesA multibeam scan showing a 3D image of coral mounds at Mingulay (left) and a picture of the typical diversity observed on such reefs (right)Accessing deep habitatsThese coral ecosystems are between 40 and 3000mdeep, and as such, specialist equipment is neededto inspect and sample from these habitats. This in-cludes submersibles, such as JAGO, or RemotelyOperated Vehicles (ROVs). These vehicles areequipped with multibeam echosounders, high defi-nition cameras and manipulator arms, to measureand collect samples on a broad or fine-scale.Ecohydrodynamic modellingEcohydrodynamic approaches are being used to de-scribe the physical constraints which effect biologi-The sophisticated vehicles needed to access and observe these deep ecosystemscal and chemical conditions over the Mingulay CoralReef Complex, Outer Hebrides. Thse communities Sensing technologyrely on the delivery of food from the sea surface, so a3D ocean model coupled to a particle trackingAccurate, quick and robust sensors are a keymodel is being used to assess water exchange and aspect of ongoing research in deep-sea habitats.renewal in this Reef complex.However, commerically avavilable sensors are often not suitable for deployment in conjunction with an ROV due to their size, slow reaction times and sensor platform. A recent review by Heriot- Watt on current state of the art technology identi- fied Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) as a potential route to improve upon current tech-Contactnologies to rapidly assess in situ carbonate [email protected]@hw.ac.uk try.Centre for Marine Biodiversity &Biotechnology, School of Life An ecohydrodynamic model of the Mingulay Reef Complex, Outer HebridesSciences, Heriot-Watt University,For more information Acknowledgements Heriot-Watt Universitys Environment and Climate Change theme. Heriot-Watt University FLEDGE III ProgrammeEdinburgh, Scotland, EH14 4AS Roberts et al. (2006) Reefs of the deep: the biology and geology of cold-water coral ecosystems. Science 312: 543The UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme. EPOCARoberts et al. (2009) Cold-water Corals: The Biology and Geology of Deep-sea Coral Habitats. Cambridge Uni. PressHERMIONET: +44 (0) 131 451 3463 Royal Society of EdinburghF: +44 (0) 131 451 3009www.lophelia.org