Is the name of a group of diseases in which we observe an
uncontrolled process in the division of the cells in the human
body. This cells make a tissue called neoplasia which is bigger
than other normal tissues and it’s not coordinated with the
rest of the body, it doesn’t have any role and it’s autonomous.
It can be expanded to nearby tissues. In general ,cancer can
kill people if they don’t receive the treatment they need.
multiply in a
that invade normal
The main reason why it is so dangerous is because of its
capacity of expanding to some parts of the body like bones,
tissues and organs through the blood.
The process in which the cancer cells travel to other parts of
the body is called metastasis.
Bladder cancer starts when cells that make up the urinary
bladder start to grow out of control. As more cancer cells
develop, they can form a tumor and go to other parts of the
Metastatic Bladder cancer
Urothelial carcinoma; is the most common type of bladder
cancer, about 90% of all that are diagnosed. It begins in the
urothelial cells found in the urinary tract.
Squamous cell carcinoma; Squamous cells develop in the
bladder lining in response to irritation and inflammation. Over
time, these cells may become cancerous. It is not very
common, but it occupies a 4% of all the bladder cancers.
Adenocarcinoma; only about 1% of bladder cancers are
adenocarcinomas.This type develops from glandular cells and
accounts for about 2% of all bladder cancers and
The first bladder cancers were found in 1854, through the
years, new ways of treating and discovering the cancer were
developed. Now, the technology helps the doctors to detect
cancerous tumors in the bladder that are invisible to the
The majority of the cases are registered in developed
countries, especially in the South of Europe and North
America. It is more common in men. Most of the cases are
found in between 65 and 75 year old people. Maybe it can
appear between the 40 and 45 years.
The most common symptoms are urinary problems, blood in
the urine, pain or obstruction of urine.
The cystoscopy is an exam that allows the inspection of the
inside of the bladder and the urethra in order to detect the
presence of the tumor. There are also specific tests like the
Histopathologic exam in which tissue samples are subjected
to an exam in the laboratory to know the characteristics of
the tumor to determine the type of bladder cancer.
Diagnosis and symptoms:
Cystoscopy, transurethral resection (RTU)
Chemotherapy or instalated immunotherapy directly in the
If these treatments fail, the extirpation of the bladder
(cistectomia) would be an option.
The best way of preventing the appearance of the bladder
cancer is by not smoking, controlling the occupational risk
(limit the exposition to certain chemical substances at work),
drink a lot of liquids, mainly water and eating lots of fruits and
vegetables. This ways may work or not. Scientist can't prove
these ways will prevent for sure the bladder cancer.
Bladder cancer can't be transmitted, but we can influence in
someone to smoke, which may cause him/her bladder cancer.
It takes place when colon cells start growing uncontrollably.
Some main types:
- Adenocarcinoma: Cancer of the cells that line the inside
surface of the colon
- Carcinoid Tumors: Develop in the neuroendocrine cells
that form the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The
tumors grow relatively slow
- Lymphoma: Cancer of the immune system, more
commonly starts in the lymph nodes but can start in the
It is one of the cancers with the highest incidences nowadays.
It was in the 18th century when they started developing some
The risk of suffering from this cancer is slightly low in women,
it is more usual to develop this cancer during our 50’s, also if
you drink alcohol in excess, if you eat a high-fat/low-fiber diet,
if you smoke…
This cancer can also be hereditary.
The most important step to prevent colon cancer is to talk to
your doctor about getting screened.
The tests used to screen the diagnosis of colon cancer include:
colonoscopy, contrast radiography colon, blood and stool
There are many symptoms of colon cancer, that vary
depending on the person:
- Bright red or dark red blood in your faeces.
- Feeling like you cannot completely empty your insides.
- Abdominal discomfort and muscular pain.
Colon cancer: Prevention, diagnostic and symptoms
Depending on the development of the cancer you can remove it by different ways:
Laparoscopic surgery: With this technique, several viewing scopes are passed
into the abdomen while a patient is under anesthesia. The surgeon removes
the cancer in that moment, without opening a wound.
Colostomy for rectal cancer: Rectal cancer is less often, the person with rectal
cancer may need to have a colostomy. This is a surgical opening through
which the colon is connected to the abdominal surface and provides a path
for waste to exit the body. This waste is collected in a pouch worn by the
There are lot of other ways, but this two ones are the most common ones.
Colon cancer: Treatments
The prostate is a gland that is found under the bladder of
men and produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is
common in older men.
This cancer is an illness where malignant cancerous cells are
form in the tissues of the prostate.
● Generic factors
● Hormonals factors
● Ambiental factors
- High fat diet.
- The pollution on the air.
- The expansion to the smoke of the
exhaust pipe In transports.
● Involuntary loss of urine
● Increased frequency of urination
● Pain and stinging during urination
● Feeling of incomplete emptying of
● Urinary retention
● The antioxidant
substances present in
watermelons or the
isoflavones found in
● There is currently no
● Prostate biopsy
● Digital rectal exam (rectal
● Urine test
● Blood test
● Hormonal therapy
- retropubic prostatectomy :
- prostatectomy: incision
included between the scrotum
and the anus.
It’s ocasonated when cancerous cells growth without control
and it affect the pancreas tissue developing a tumor.
Exocrine tumors: Most tumors affecting the exocrine
gland are called adenocarcinomas. This type of
cancer is form in the pancreas ducts.
There are some types of cancerous cells:
It is not known when the first case of pancreatic cancer
occurred but it is the most deadly cancer, only 5% of
patients survive more than five years after diagnosis
and 75% do not exceed the first year. And the risk of
pancreatic cancer increases as the person ages. Almost all
patients are over 45 years of age. About two-thirds of
patients are at least 65 years of age. The average age at the
time of diagnosis is 71 years.
The overall incidence of pancreatic cancer is
10 of 100,000 inhabitants in our country and occupies the
sixth and ninth place of mortality in women and men,
respectively. That is to say that they occur between 350 to
400 new cases a year of this type of tumors. 80%
of these are acinar adenocarcinomas, most of
Factors such as age, gender, race and family history
can not be controlled.
But if you do not smoke, maintain a healthy weight,
limit alcohol consumption and exposures to certain
chemicals you can prevent having this cancer.
abdomen or back pain, weight loss, lack of appetite,
nausea, vomiting and enlargement of the liver.
the cells stop working for a change in the DNA
and cause the formation of tumors.These tumors
begin to expand and affect organs near the
pancreas such as the gallbladder
exams that create images of your internal organs (t