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HUMANITAS HOSPITAL: Oncology · PDF file Pancreatic cancer Symptoms abdomen or back pain, weight loss, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting and enlargement of the liver. Causes the cells

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  • What’s cancer?

    Is the name of a group of diseases in which we observe an

    uncontrolled process in the division of the cells in the human

    body. This cells make a tissue called neoplasia which is bigger

    than other normal tissues and it’s not coordinated with the

    rest of the body, it doesn’t have any role and it’s autonomous.

    It can be expanded to nearby tissues. In general ,cancer can

    kill people if they don’t receive the treatment they need.

    Cancer cells

    multiply in a

    disordered and

    uncontrolled way

    forming tumors

    that invade normal


  • The main reason why it is so dangerous is because of its

    capacity of expanding to some parts of the body like bones,

    tissues and organs through the blood.

    The process in which the cancer cells travel to other parts of

    the body is called metastasis.

    Bladder cancer starts when cells that make up the urinary

    bladder start to grow out of control. As more cancer cells

    develop, they can form a tumor and go to other parts of the


    Metastatic Bladder cancer

  • Types: Urothelial carcinoma; is the most common type of bladder

    cancer, about 90% of all that are diagnosed. It begins in the

    urothelial cells found in the urinary tract.

    Squamous cell carcinoma; Squamous cells develop in the

    bladder lining in response to irritation and inflammation. Over

    time, these cells may become cancerous. It is not very

    common, but it occupies a 4% of all the bladder cancers.

    Adenocarcinoma; only about 1% of bladder cancers are

    adenocarcinomas.This type develops from glandular cells and

    accounts for about 2% of all bladder cancers and

  • The first bladder cancers were found in 1854, through the

    years, new ways of treating and discovering the cancer were

    developed. Now, the technology helps the doctors to detect

    cancerous tumors in the bladder that are invisible to the

    naked eye.


  • The majority of the cases are registered in developed

    countries, especially in the South of Europe and North

    America. It is more common in men. Most of the cases are

    found in between 65 and 75 year old people. Maybe it can

    appear between the 40 and 45 years.


  • The most common symptoms are urinary problems, blood in

    the urine, pain or obstruction of urine.

    The cystoscopy is an exam that allows the inspection of the

    inside of the bladder and the urethra in order to detect the

    presence of the tumor. There are also specific tests like the

    Histopathologic exam in which tissue samples are subjected

    to an exam in the laboratory to know the characteristics of

    the tumor to determine the type of bladder cancer.

    Diagnosis and symptoms:

  • Treatment:

    Cystoscopy, transurethral resection (RTU)

    Chemotherapy or instalated immunotherapy directly in the


    If these treatments fail, the extirpation of the bladder

    (cistectomia) would be an option.

  • Prevention:

    The best way of preventing the appearance of the bladder

    cancer is by not smoking, controlling the occupational risk

    (limit the exposition to certain chemical substances at work),

    drink a lot of liquids, mainly water and eating lots of fruits and

    vegetables. This ways may work or not. Scientist can't prove

    these ways will prevent for sure the bladder cancer.

  • Transmission:

    Bladder cancer can't be transmitted, but we can influence in

    someone to smoke, which may cause him/her bladder cancer.

  • Colon cancer

    It takes place when colon cells start growing uncontrollably.

    Some main types: - Adenocarcinoma: Cancer of the cells that line the inside

    surface of the colon - Carcinoid Tumors: Develop in the neuroendocrine cells

    that form the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The tumors grow relatively slow

    - Lymphoma: Cancer of the immune system, more commonly starts in the lymph nodes but can start in the colon

  • Colon cancer

    It is one of the cancers with the highest incidences nowadays.

    It was in the 18th century when they started developing some treatments.

    The risk of suffering from this cancer is slightly low in women, it is more usual to develop this cancer during our 50’s, also if you drink alcohol in excess, if you eat a high-fat/low-fiber diet, if you smoke…

    This cancer can also be hereditary.

  • The most important step to prevent colon cancer is to talk to your doctor about getting screened.

    The tests used to screen the diagnosis of colon cancer include: colonoscopy, contrast radiography colon, blood and stool DNA test…..

    There are many symptoms of colon cancer, that vary depending on the person:

    - Bright red or dark red blood in your faeces. - Feeling like you cannot completely empty your insides. - Abdominal discomfort and muscular pain.

    Colon cancer: Prevention, diagnostic and symptoms

  • Depending on the development of the cancer you can remove it by different ways:

    Laparoscopic surgery: With this technique, several viewing scopes are passed into the abdomen while a patient is under anesthesia. The surgeon removes the cancer in that moment, without opening a wound.

    Colostomy for rectal cancer: Rectal cancer is less often, the person with rectal cancer may need to have a colostomy. This is a surgical opening through which the colon is connected to the abdominal surface and provides a path for waste to exit the body. This waste is collected in a pouch worn by the patient.

    There are lot of other ways, but this two ones are the most common ones.

    Colon cancer: Treatments


  • The prostate is a gland that is found under the bladder of

    men and produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is

    common in older men.

    This cancer is an illness where malignant cancerous cells are

    form in the tissues of the prostate.

    Prostate cancer


    ● Generic factors

    ● Hormonals factors

    ● Ambiental factors

    - High fat diet. - The pollution on the air. - The expansion to the smoke of the

    exhaust pipe In transports.

    ● Involuntary loss of urine

    ● Increased frequency of urination

    ● Pain and stinging during urination

    ● Feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder

    ● Urinary retention



    ● The antioxidant

    substances present in

    tomatoes and

    watermelons or the

    isoflavones found in


    ● There is currently no

    preventive medication.

    ● Prostate biopsy

    ● Digital rectal exam (rectal


    ● Urine test

    ● Blood test



    ● Hormonal therapy

    ● Surgery:

    - retropubic prostatectomy :

    abdomen incision

    - prostatectomy: incision

    included between the scrotum

    and the anus.

  • It’s ocasonated when cancerous cells growth without control

    and it affect the pancreas tissue developing a tumor.

    Pancreatic cancer

    Exocrine tumors: Most tumors affecting the exocrine

    gland are called adenocarcinomas. This type of

    cancer is form in the pancreas ducts.

    There are some types of cancerous cells:

  • Pancreatic cancer

    It is not known when the first case of pancreatic cancer

    occurred but it is the most deadly cancer, only 5% of

    patients survive more than five years after diagnosis

    and 75% do not exceed the first year. And the risk of pancreatic cancer increases as the person ages. Almost all patients are over 45 years of age. About two-thirds of patients are at least 65 years of age. The average age at the time of diagnosis is 71 years.

  • Pancreatic cancer


    The overall incidence of pancreatic cancer is 10 of 100,000 inhabitants in our country and occupies the sixth and ninth place of mortality in women and men, respectively. That is to say that they occur between 350 to 400 new cases a year of this type of tumors. 80% of these are acinar adenocarcinomas, most of cephalic location.

  • Pancreatic cancer

    Factors such as age, gender, race and family history can not be controlled. But if you do not smoke, maintain a healthy weight, limit alcohol consumption and exposures to certain chemicals you can prevent having this cancer.


  • Pancreatic cancer

    Symptoms abdomen or back pain, weight loss, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting and enlargement of the liver.


    the cells stop working for a change in the DNA and cause the formation of tumors.These tumors begin to expand and affect organs near the pancreas such as the gallbladder

  • Pancreatic cancer

    Diagnostic exams that create images of your internal organs (t

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