How to Develop, Manage and Communicate Effective Schedules ... SessioCommunicate Effective Schedules Using Primavera P6 ... to Develop, Manage and Communicate Effective Schedules Using ... Activity type is set at ...

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    How to Develop, Manage and Communicate Effective Schedules Using Primavera P6 Professional


    Raquel Shohet, PSPVice PresidentHill International, Inc.

  • How to Develop, Manage and Communicate Effective Schedules Using Primavera P6 Professional

  • Bio of Raquel Shohet, PSP


  • Founded in 1976 Headcount Over 4,800 Hill is the largest independent PM/CM firm in the world Hill is the largest claims firm in the world

    Client base includes Owners, Contractors, Subcontractors, Architects, Engineers, Law Firms, Insurance and Surety Companies, Investment Banks and Commercial Banks

    Construction Claims Group Services include: Claims Analysis Litigation Support Cost and Damages Assessment Delay and Disruption Analysis Expert Witness Testimony Lender Advisory Services Risk Assessment Project Neutral Adjudication


  • Presentation Objectives

    This presentation will cover best practices for using Primavera P6 Professional to: Develop effective schedules Manage schedules Communicate schedules


  • Schedule Development


  • Planning Considerations

    Review Project, Contractual and Internal requirements for: Application Integration Global/Project Structures

    Project Definition and Coding Work Breakdown Structure and Coding Activity Code Structures (Global/Project) Activity Structures (IDs and Naming Conventions)

    Resource / Cost Requirements Durations and Global/Project Calendars Calculation and Float Rules Updating Reporting


  • Schedule Development Overview

    Steps for Schedule Planning and Development (AACE International)

    1. Plan for Schedule Planning and Development2. Identify Activities3. Develop Activity Logic4. Estimate Durations5. Establish Schedule Requirements6. Allocate Resources7. Optimize Schedule

  • Schedule Development

    Consistency is the key to battle inconsistent data Standards are fundamental to support the schedule

    data Standards in the contract requirements Standards in the review of the schedule Operating Procedures and Flow Diagrams


  • Schedule Development

    Project Management or P6 organizes project information based on hierarchical structures. Each structure consists of at least one root or base level and multiple sub or lower levels.

    At the highest level the projects are typically organized around an Enterprise Project Structure or grouping of the database of projects (i.e. type, clients, phasing, etc.). Projects are organized by common attributes based on the organizational requirements.


  • Schedule Development

    Enterprise Project Structure (EPS) Organizes projects in the database By Division , Location, Client, etc.


  • Schedule Development

    Add the Project Copy from Template Project or Create New

    Enter the Project Basics Project ID to identify the type of schedule (Current,

    Baseline, What-if, TIA) Planned Start Must Finish By (if required)

    Recommend leaving this blank


  • Schedule Development

    Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Project Specific

    Organizational breakdown of the project Used for earned value


  • Schedule Development

    Activity Codes Global EPS Project

    Use unique identifier to distinguish Global vs. Project codes


  • Schedule Development

    Calendars Calendar Types (Enterprise menu, Calendars)

    Global (templates) Resource Project (project specific)


  • Schedule Development

    Calendars Time Periods (Admin menu, Admin Preferences, Time Periods tab) Work Periods: System calendars are set to 8 hour

    work periods. Version 7 and above allows workday to be defined at

    calendar level Use assigned calendar to specify the number of work

    hours for each time period


  • Schedule Development

    Calendar issues Different Calendar Start/Finish times

    Affect Predecessor/Successor start times Affect Float calculations (even if same hours/day)


  • Schedule Development

    Calendars DONT:

    Use Primavera Global calendars for project specific activities

    Create different calendars using different work hours / day for project specific activities

    DO: Use Primavera Project calendars for project specific

    activities Standardize work week and time periods Keep it simple, a day is a day. It doesnt matter if it is

    an 8 hour, 10 hour, or 12 hour day, it is still a day.


  • Schedule Development

    Identify Activities Activity IDs

    Use Smart ID Limit to 10 characters if importing / exporting to


    Activity Names Be clear, concise, consistent Keyword as left-most word in name

    Helpful when sorting and searching in predecessor / successor windows and filters

    Limit to 48 characters if importing / exporting to P3/Suretrak


  • Schedule Development

    Activity Type Milestones Task Dependent and Resource Dependent Level of Effort and WBS Summary Default Activity type is set at Project Level (Project

    Details, Defaults tab)


  • Schedule Development

    Percent Complete Types Duration Percent Complete (default) Physical Percent Complete Units Percent Complete

    Default type defined at the Project Level (Projects Details, Defaults tab) and can be changed at the Activity Level (Activity Details, General Tab)

    Project Level defaults only apply to new activities.


  • Schedule Development

    Develop Schedule Logic Four Relationship Types

    Finish to Start Start to Start Finish to Finish Start to Finish

    Lags and Leads Scheduling Option (Tools menu, Schedule, Options) to

    choose which calendar determines lags / leads


  • Schedule Development

    Assign Constraints (if required by Contract) Use for contract time requirements regarding

    start/finish dates (i.e. Notice to Proceed, Substantial Completion, Final Completion)

    Constraints (Activity Details, Status Tab) Primary Secondary



  • Schedule Development

    Resources Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS) and Cost

    Accounts GLOBAL

    Resources can be Labor, Non Labor, and Material Identify Project Resources vs. Global Resources

    (Example: Project ID + Name) using hierarchical structure


  • Schedule Development

    Resource Settings Resource and Activity Level Should be defined before adding activities Resource Details for Labor, Nonlabor, Material

    Auto Compute Actuals Calculate costs from units

    Activity Details Override Resource Details settings


  • Schedule Development

    Resource Settings - Project Level Project Details, Calculations tab

    Link Actual and Actual This Period Units and Costs (when using Financial Periods)

    Project Details, Resources tab Resources Drive activity dates by default


  • Schedule Development

    Resources are loaded based on the following: Budgeted Duration of the activity Budgeted Units (budgeted time or units of measure)

    of the resource Budgeted Units/Time (production rate) of the



  • Schedule Development

    Schedule Options General Relationships to and from other projects Open ends (critical or not critical) Schedule Calculation options

    Retained Logic Progress Override Actual Dates

    Calculate Start to Start lag Critical activity definition Float definition Calendar for scheduling relationship lag


  • Schedule Development

    Schedule Options Advanced Calculate multiple float paths by either Total Float or

    Free Float Pick activity to calculate float path to

    Helpful for multi-phased projects with different turnover dates


  • Schedule Analysis & Optimization

    Review and Analyze schedule using: Schedule Log Claim Digger Tabular Reports


  • Schedule Management


  • Schedule Management Overview

    Understand Contract and Specification Requirements

    Determine Update Frequency Establish Baseline / Contract Schedule Assign Responsibility to each activity Provide Training Gather Data Visit Job site, hold update meeting, and validate


  • Schedule Management

    Understand Contract and Specification Requirements Frequency of updates Procedures for updates versus revisions Earned Value requirements Cost and/or resource status requirements Change management procedures Software requirements


  • Schedule Management

    Determine Update Frequency Factors to consider:

    Contract Requirements Internal company policy Project budgeting Considerations

    Benefits to frequent updates: Greater accuracy of as-built documentation Promotes early identification of issues Promotes timely issue resolution / mitigation Enhances users skill in application & management of

    schedule Provides starting point to which user can return if errors

    are made in updating process


  • Schedule Management

    Establish Baseline / Contract Schedule Baseline is the accepted as-planned schedule

    (Contract Schedule) In Primavera Baseline is a snapshot of project plan

    (similar to Target in P3) Number of baselines (maximum number is set by

    Administrator) User can assign up to 3 baselines to current schedule

    for data comparisons Can copy baselines when copying project


  • Schedule Management

    Assign Responsibility to each activity Use Activity Code

    Global vs. Project Specific Group and Sort by Activity Code


  • Schedule Management

    Assign Responsibility to each activity Assign Resource / Role

    CAUTION: Resources and Roles are Global (use unique identifier)

    Group by resources in Assignments window


  • Schedule Management

    Provide training Gather Data Use Update Layout or Report Visit the jobsite, hold an update meeting, and

    validate data


  • Schedule Management

    Update the Schedule Open the file (Exclusive / Shared / Read Only) Importing and Configuring Outside Information Maintain Baseline Rename File Assign and Compare Baselines Enter Status (dates, percent complete, resources,

    costs) Enter Revisions / Forecast (activities, durations, logic) Review & Finalize Export File


  • Schedule Management

    Opening the file Exclusive

    only one user can change / modify the schedule Recommended to use when updating / statusing

    Shared multiple users can change / modify the schedule AT

    THE SAME TIME CAUTION: this is the default when selecting project

    from Project Window, right-click, select Open

    Read Only view only mode can not change / modify the schedule


  • Schedule Management

    Maintain Baseline (Activity window, Project, Maintain Baseline)

    Rename File to new version (i.e. EX00 to EX01) (Project Window)


  • Schedule Management

    Reflection P6 allows user to copy current schedule as a

    Reflection, make changes and merge back into current schedule

    CAUTION: The following data items when deleted in a Reflection copy WILL NOT be deleted in current schedule during the merge:

    Activities, Relationships Resource Assignments WBS elements Work Products and Documents Project Expenses Project Issues and Project Risks

    These would need to be manually deleted. (Oracle Knowledgebase ID 908732.1)


  • Schedule Management

    Assign and Compare Baselines Project: Standard baseline for comparison for all

    users (typically the Contract Baseline Schedule) User Baseline (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary)

    Primary Baseline allows for dates, resource, etc. comparisons

    Secondary and Tertiary compare date information only


  • Schedule Management

    Check earned value settings (Admin, Earned Value, Earned Value Calculation) These settings determine which baseline dates will be

    used for comparison. Recommendation: use Budgeted values with current

    dates CAUTION: Setting is global, not project specific,

    affects all projects in the database


  • Schedule Management

    Prior to statusing, make sure time is shown to alleviate non-standard start/finish times (Edit, User Preferences)


  • Schedule Management

    Enter Status Actual Start dates Actual Finish dates Percent complete Remaining duration Resources and/or Costs

    Enter Manually Or use Update Progress (Tools menu, Update Progress)

    CAUTION: Apply Actuals and Update Progress use PLANNED Dates versus Scheduled Dates or Early Dates which may be different

    Calculate the schedule (Tools, Schedule) with new Data Date Recommendation: To improve speed and efficiency of the program,

    turn off option to Schedule automatically when a change affects dates

    Review data entered Maintain Baseline (with Status only in title) Export the file Review compared to previous update and Baseline schedule


  • Schedule Management

    Enter Revisions / Forecast New Activities Delete Activities (Do not reuse Activity IDs) Revise Logic Revise Durations

    Calculate the schedule (Tools, Schedule) with new Data Date Recommendation: To improve speed and efficiency of

    the program, turn off option to Schedule automatically when a change affects dates

    Review data entered Maintain Baseline (with Revision added to title) Export the file Review compared to status only update as well as

    previous update and Baseline schedule


  • Schedule Management

    Compare to previous update and Contract schedule Create comparison layouts

    Assign appropriate baseline (Project menu, Assign Baseline)

    Select baseline bars (View, Bars) and baseline data columns

    Note: varying baseline types (Project vs. User Baselines Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) allow for different levels of data for comparison.

    Check earned value settings (Admin Preferences, Earned Value)

    Determines what dates will be used for comparison Planned or Start/Finish

    Recommendation: use Budgeted values with current dates

    CAUTION: Setting is global, not project specific, affects all projects in the database


  • Schedule Communication


  • Schedule Communication

    Good communication is key to project success The schedule must be communicated in the appropriate

    format to each of the various stakeholders Primavera P6 (version 8.2) tools available to produce:

    Graphical reports (layouts) Time scaled logic diagrams Tabular reports specific focus on the Report Editor

    A narrative is a significantly more effective tool for communicating the status of the schedule than any report we can generate in P6

    The content of any report is the key to effective reporting.


  • Schedule Communication

    Layouts are developed by modifying data within Oracle Primavera P6 windows


  • Schedule Communication

    Layout Types: User

    Available to a single user, for all accessible projects in the database

    Global Available to all users, for all projects in the database

    Project Linked to a single project, for project specific reporting

    requirements Can export the layout with project file when using XML

    export option


  • Schedule Communication

    Graphical Layout Examples: Gantt Chart typical standard schedule hard-copy submittal Lookaheads useful for forecasting or short-interval reporting Baseline Comparison Reports analyses of schedule versions Analysis Reports

    Critical path activities based on Total Float or Longest Path Milestones focus on project or contractual level events Missing Logic review of potential errors in schedule logic Remaining Activities analysis of remaining project scope Start Week Groups activity organization by start (weekly,

    monthly, etc.) WBS All Activities

    Resource Loading and Profile review of resource allocations Cost Loading and Cost Curves review of project costs based

    on activity assignments


  • Schedule Communication

    Tabular Reports Report Scope

    Global - available to all projects Current Project - specific to one project


  • Schedule Communication

    Standard Reports Schedule Resource Cost

    Customize Reports using Report Editor or Report Wizard


  • Schedule Communication

    Tabular Report Examples: Schedule reports Activity reports Logic reports Total float reports Earnings reports


  • Schedule Communication

    Narratives: Discuss what was executed on the project Discuss what was not executed and why Review Milestones (Completion and Interim) Specifically discuss:

    Longest Critical Path Delay in delivery of critical items Potential issues and what they will impact

    Discuss the paths leading to any contractual Interim Milestones

    Discuss what is to be expected during the next reporting period


  • Schedule Communication

    Depending on what the report is trying to convey, a simple explanation along with an excerpt fro the schedule can say so much more than 100 pages of schedule printouts. As seen in this snapshot from the schedule, the Longest

    Critical Path slipped 13 days in a 20 day reporting period due to a delay in the delivery of special insulation.


  • Summary

    Start with a Plan & Standards Setup Structures (EPS, WBS, Codes, Resources) Maintain Consistency (IDs, Calendars, Activity Names) Verify Start/Finish Times to Avoid Calendar Errors Use Caution in Modifying or Applying

    Global/Enterprise/Admin to a project schedule Set Resources options/defaults correctly from the start Understand Schedule Calculation options Use the Tools provided to optimize the schedule (i.e.

    Schedule Log, Layouts, Reports, etc.) Update Frequently Save copies of the schedule Communicate the schedule in appropriate format to each



  • Questions ?

    Contact Information:Raquel



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