How brain damage affects memory processing

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How brain damage affects memory processing. Refers to the learning outcome : Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process. What is amnesia ?. Memory loss ( inability to learn new information or retrieve information) Two types - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Clive Wearing how brain damage affects memory processing

How brain damage affects memory processingRefers to the learning outcome: Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive processWhat is amnesia?Memory loss (inability to learn new information or retrieve information)Two typesI.Retrograde Memory loss of events BEFORE brain damageII. AnterogradeMemory loss of events AFTER brain damage


Famous case: Clive WearingSuffers both anterograde and retrogradeMRI scan shows damage to the hippocampus and some of the frontal regionsEpisodic memory and some semantic memory are lost cannot put new information in long term memoryImplicit memory and emotional memory still intactMemory span: few seconds

How Clive Wearing percieves itNot able to remember anything for more than a blinkKept a journalI am awake This time finally awakeI was fully conscious at 10.35p.mForever today Deborah 2005

How it happened?In March 1985In his forties Brain Infection (Herpes encephalitis)Injured hippocampusHippocampus - center for long term memoryPerception was unimpaired but he could almost not remember anythingThe most devastating case of amnesia ever recorded


Case study: HManterograde amnesiaFirst studied by Milner & Scoville 1957Head injury when he was 9Epileptic seizuresNo drug treatment surgey 27 years oldRemoved tissue from the temporal lobe, including hippocampus, the amygdalaH.M.'s Brain and the History of Memory by Brian Newhouse:

HM after the surgery

Cured his seizures, gave him amnesia (anterogade)Able to: Carry on a conversationNot able to: Recognize people and also rereads magazines.Can remember if rehearsed

Answer ethics in research on p. 79 and understanding research

SummaryYou can use Clive and H.M as support (how biological factors may affect one cognitive process: brain damage on memory)H.M and Clive W can also be used as support for the multi-store model of memory (since they show that our memory consists of different memory systems)Both can be used as support in LO about ethical considerations

Since you need two biological factors: you can use the study by Martinez and Kesner (1991) Ach in memory formation

You can also (great isnt it?) use H.M and Clive for the LO in the cognitive level of analysis: Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour