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to be desired that some more rational and more thoroughmethod will soon be devised for dealing with these feeble-minded criminals. The unsatisfactory state of the lawunder which they have at present to be treated is strikinglyillustrated by a case quoted in the report of a congenitaldefective who is known to have been in prison no less than113 times and who has served nine short sentences withinthe past 12 months. " With such cases before us," remarksDr. Herbert Smalley very justly, "is it any wonder that theprison authorities are looking out anxiously for the report ofthe Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Feeble-Minded in the hope that it may offer some remedy for
dealing with this and similar cases and in the event of suchrecommendation being made that legislation may quicklyfollow ? " .
In the convict prisons during the year the daily averagepopulation was 3032, made up of 2898 males and 134 females.There were 28 deaths, two of them being due to suicide.The death-rate from natural causes amounted to 8’ 2 per1000 of the daily average population, as against 9’ 5 per 1000which is the average figure for the last 27 years. Twodeaths were due to pulmonary tuberculosis and two prisonerswere released suffering from that disease. Assuming for themoment that these cases would otherwise have terminated
fatally within the year, this would give a death-rate frompulmonary tuberculosis of 1’ 38 per 1000 of the daily averagepopulation, which is a comparatively moderate figure. Onlyone case of infectious disease-namely, enteric fever-wasreported during the year; the patient had been recentlytransferred from a local prison where there had been animported case of the disease. Taken in conjunction with thevery low death-rate from tuberculosis, this practical immunityfrom infectious disease gives ample evidence of the satis-factory condition of our convict prisons from the hygienicpoint of view. 39 convicts, 38 males and one female, werecertified insane; this number is rather more than the averageof recent years, owing to the inclusion of several cases thecertification of which had been deferred pending the openingof the new asylum for criminal lunatics annexed to Park-hurst Prison, Isle of Wight. The inspector suggests that it
may be found possible to adopt a modified system of asylumtreatment for the weak-minded convicts who are now z,collected at that station. The connexion of the lunaticasylum with the prison proper would naturally facilitate suchan arrangement. The medical officer of Parkhurst in his
report gives some interesting particulars regarding the 107weak-minded prisoners under his care at the close of the year.It is specially noteworthy that no fewer than 81 of themwere recidivists with previous convictions ranging in numberfrom one to 78, and that in 34 cases the offences for whichthey had been sent to penal servitude were grave homicidalcrimes.
HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL SCHOOLDINNERS.
St. Bartholomew’s Hospital.-The annual dinner of old I’students was held in the Great Hall of the hospital on
Oct. 1st. There were present 178 old St. Bartholomew’smen and guests, and a most successful evening was spent.Mr. W. Harrison Cripps, senior surgeon to the hospital,presided, and among those present were Lord Ludlow,treasurer of the hospital; Sir William J. Collins, M.P.,Vice-Chancellor of the University of London; Sir Alfred
Keogh, K.C.B., Director-General of the medical depart-ment of the army ; Mr. E. Wilkes, Master of the Apothe-caries’ Company; Professor T. Clifford Allbutt ; ProfessorArthur Thomson ; Professor Howard Marsh ; ProfessorG. Sims Woodhead; Sir Ernest Flower; Sir William S.Church, Bart., K.C.B ; Sir Thomas Smith, Bart. ; Dr.E. Klein ; Colonel C. P. Lukis, principal of the MedicalCollege of Calcutta ; and many others. The chairmanproposed the loyal toasts and referred to the keen interestwhich His Majesty the King took in the affairs of thehospital when for many years as Prince of Wales he wasPresident. In proposing the toast of the evening, "TheHospital and Medical School," the chairman said that formany years old students of St. Bartholomew’s Hospital hadbeen in the habit of assembling in the Great Hall early inOctober to meet old friends and to make new ones andto do honour to the memory of those who had made St.Bartholomew’s Hospital what it was. In every part of
h the civilised world there were old St. Bartholomew’s students1- who were carrying on the benefits of their hospital.v The chief event of the past year had been the completion ofy the new out-patient block and its formal opening in July last.,I by the Prince of Wales. Not only did this block provide un-11 surpassed accommodation for the ordinary medical and
11 surgical out-patients, but it gave also to each special depart-s ment a suite of rooms combining every detail and equipment3 which thought and modern scientific skill could suggest.f The staff of teachers also in the special departments had been- greatly extended. He insisted upon the advantages of the exist-r ence at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital of arrangements under ai single roof for the scientific and intermediate studies as welt7as the practical and clinical studies. Lord Ludlow replied
and referred to the great interest which the Prince of Wales! took in the hospital. The pathological block would, he, hoped, be completed by July next, and the governors would. then be able to proceed with the building of the new nurses’’ home. Mr. Anthony A. Bowlby, C.M.G., proposed the toast of, "The Navy, Army- and Auxiliary Forces," and referred toI the large number of St. Bartholomew’s men who belonged to-3the medical departments of the Services. Sir Alfred Keoghresponded. Dr. Norman Moore proposed " The Visitorsand Sir William J. Collins, M.P., and Sir Melvill Beachcroft,
chairman of the Metropolitan Water Board, replied.Dr. Francis H. Champneys proposed the toast of " The Chair-man," who responded, and Mr. W. Bruce Clarke that ofthe honorary secretary, Mr. H. J. Waring, to whose efforts.the success of the dinner was chiefly due. Afterwards thecompany adjourned to inspect the new oub-patient block andto exchange notes with old friends and fellow students.
Charing Cross Hospital.-The annual dinner of the pastand present students of the Charing Cross Hospital washeld in the Grand Hall of the Criterion Restaurant onOct. 1st, Mr. H. S. Clogg being in the chair. There-was a large gathering and the toast list was commendablyshort, consisting of "The King"; "The Hospital andMedical School," proposed by the Chairman and respondedto by Mr. F. C. Wallis, dean of the school ; " The Guests,"proposed by Dr. James Galloway and responded to by the-Right Hon. Earl of Kilmorey, K.P., the chairman of the hos-pital ; and " The Chairman," proposed by Mr. Stanley Bopd,the treasurer of the school. Dr. F. W. Mott enlivened thecompany by singing one of Browning’s Cavalier Songs andthe well-known" Father O’Flynn," in which his audiencejoined in the chorus. Mr. Berkeley Gammon gave a
delightful musical sketch and altogether a very pleasantdevening was spent.
St. George’s Hospital.-The opening of the new medicalyear was celebrated as is the custom at the hospitable’’corner," by an informal luncheon for old students, aninaugural address, and in the evening a dinner at which SirH. M. Ellis, K C.B., Director-General of the medical depart-ment of the navy, presided. The company numbered some 140*past and present members of the school. In proposing thetoast of " The Orator of the Day," Sir William H. BennEttexpressed the appreciation of all those who had listened in theafternoon to the eloquent and practical address which wasdelivered by Dr. William Ewart. The approaching severanceof Dr. Ewart from the hospital which he has served so longand with such untiring energy and devotion was naturallythe subj jet of sympathetic reference. Speeches, many andgood, were made upon which space forbids us to dwell.The entry of students this year, Dr. E. I. Spriggs.announced, is double that of last year. In addition toDr. Ewart’s address there took place in the after-noon the dedication of a new pathological laboratoryto the memory of the late Dr. Robert Barnes, anda tablet was unveiled with the inscription: "In recogni-tion of his great services as a lecturer and teacher andof his munificent support of the medical school this
laboratory is named after Robert Barnes, M.D., obstetricphysician to the hospital 1875-1885, consulting obstetric phy-ician 1885-1907." Dr. Arthur C. Latham, honorary treasurerof the endowment fund, referred in a few well-chosen sen-tences to the patriotism of Dr. Barnes and to the confirma-tion which his views and opinions, often in advance of thoseof his contemporaries, had received from the verdict of time.Dr. R. Salusbury Trevor, head of the pathological department,also made some remarks in taking formal charge of thelaboratory.
King’s ’College Hospital.-The old students’ dinner of thishospital was held at the Hotel Cecil on Oct. 1st, a companyof about 130 being present, and Dr. J. B. Bradbury, Downing
professor of medicine in the University of Cambridge, being comparatively recent improvements and additions to the hos-m the chair. The chairman was supported by the Rev. A. C. pital in the new operating theatres, the separate cancer wing,Headlam, Principal of King’s College and vice-chairman of the convalescent home at Clacton, and the several labora-the hospital; Dr. W. H. Allchin, consulting physician to tories for bacteriology, public health, and pathology, as wellthe Westminster Hospital, who had earlier in the day as for special research in connexion with cancer. Nothing,delivered the introductory address on the opening of the indeed, was lacking that could promote the study of medicinemedical session ; Dr. G. Amsden, and the following members either in the ordinary curriculum or the more advancedof the staff : Dr. D. Ferrier, Dr. N. I. C. Tirard, Dr. Norman spheres of research, and as practical proof of efficiency heDalton, Dr. J. Phillips, Sir Hugh Beevor, Bart., Dr. R. T, would only refer to the Presidents of the Roval CollegesHewlett, Dr. E. W. White, Dr. J. F. W. Silk, Dr. StC. of Physicians of London and Surgeons of England on
Thomson, Dr. R. H. P. Crawfurd, Dr. A. Whitfield, Dr. either side of him and the list of distinctions recorded
Hugh J. M. Playfair, Dr. G. F. Still, Dr. F. W. Tunnicliffe, by the dean. Mr. J. Bland-Sutton proposed the toastDr. G. B. Flux, Dr. W. Simpson, Dr. U. Pritchard, of "Past and Present Students," saying that thoughMr. W. Watson Cheyne, Mr. A. Carless, Mr. M. M. he had affinities with both, he was himself a perpetualMcHardy, Mr. F. F. Burghard, and the Dean, Mr. Peyton student, in accordance with a custom of former days, whichT. B. Beale. The secretary of the hospital, Captain had since been abolished as too costly. The toast was
Tucnard; the secretary of the removal fund, Mr. G. Heyer ; responded to by Mr. Arnold Lawson and Mr. C. F. Robertson,and Mr. Walter Smith, secretary of King’s College, were past and present Broderip scholars. The health of "Thealso present. The chairman having proposed the toast of Visitors " was proposed by the President of the Royal College"The King" gave that of ,. King’s College and its of Physicians of London and replied to by ChevalierMedical School," and passed in review its eminent teachers Wilhelm Ganz, who with the assistance of Mr. A. Bovett,when he was a student. He mentioned that "King’s men"
" Mr. Richard Green, and Mr. Georg Muller gave a
were to be found upon the staff of many other hospitals, and charming musical selection in the course of the evening.that they showed from the responsible positions which so At the conclusion the health of "The Chairman " wasmany of them held how sound their teaching had been. He proposed by the President of the Royal College ofshowed also how that reputation was being upheld at the Surgeons of England in an eloquent speech, in which hepresent time. The Rev. A. C. Headlam, in responding, stated referred to Mr. Clark’s long association with the Middlesexthat if the acquisition of gold medals and high honours at Hospital, his distinguished services to the British Medicalexaminations was a test of good teaching, the medical school Association, and his eminent position as a veteran Volunteerof King’s College Hospital was in the very first rank amongst surgeon. The chairman’s reply, involving, as it did, a
the schools of London and of the provinces. The toast of farewell on his retirement after so long an association with"The Visitors was proposed by Dr. Ferrier, the senior the staff and students of the hospital, for he was, so to speak,physician, and replied to by Dr. Allchin who touched upon the father of the house," held a note of pathos for allthe subject of Concentration of Early Medical Studies and present, and with this the proceedings closed at aboutshowed how this had already been accomplished in the case 11 P.M.- of his own hospital. Dr. Amsden proposed the health of St. Thomas’s Hospital.-The annual dinner of the old"The Chairman," and Dr. Bradbury replied. The success of students of this hospital took place on Oct. lst at the Hotelthe dinner was due to the energy displayed by the honorary Cecil. Dr. Theodore Dyke Acland was in the chair andsecretaries, Sir Hugh Beevor, Mr. Carless, Dr. Wedgwood, was supported by the treasurer of the hospital, Mr. J. G.Mr. P. Vosper, L.C.C., and Dr. J. C. Briscoe. Wainwright, Mr. Seth Taylor, Mr. C. T. Harris, Sir Thomas
The London Hospital.-The London Hospital old students’ Boor Orosby. Sir E. Hay Currie, Mr. T. Pridgin Teale, F.R.S.,- dinner was held on Oct. lst at the Savoy Hotel, Mr. F. S. Dr. J. F. Payne, Dr. L. W. Sedgwick, members of theEve being in the chair. Covers were laid for over 170 guests staff and lecturers, and a large body of the old studentsand the proceedings were marked with the utmost of the hospital, amongst whom were the Presidents of theenthusiasm. After the toast of " The King " had been duly Medical Society of London and of the West London Medico-honoured, the chairman, in proposing that of " Queen Chirurgical Society. After the usual loyal toasts theAlexandra," stated that the Queen had given her consent for chairman proposed the toast of " St. Thomas’s Hos-a statue of herself to be erected in the grounds of the hos- pital and Medical School." Referring to the historypital. Mr. Wade had been intrusted with the execution of of the hospital, he reminded his hearers that the originalthe work and the statue would probably be unveiled next St. Thomas from whom the hospital takes its name
spring. The chairman, in submitting the toast of " The was not the St. Thomas to whom the credit for itsLondon Hospital," dwelt on the continued growth of foundation is usually given at the present time. He brieflythat institution ; the trend of treatment in the future reviewed some of the changes which had taken placewas shown by the building of the opsonic depart- in medical prescribing since the days of the famous snailment, where 8000 investigations were made in 1906, broth of the hospital pharmacopoeia, but could not agreeHe referred with pride to the success of the school, and with the view of the medical enthusiast who thought that indeclared amid great cheering that the entry of 90 students time mankind would cease to take any medicine at all. Thiswas the highest on record. The difficulty in connexion view argued a lack of knowledge of human nature. Anotherwith the schools was in coping with the expenditure and to gentleman seemed to favour the strangulation of research andmeet it an endowment fund had been formed. He was glad looked forward to the time when the hospitals would beto report that an old student, Mr. Martin Luther, had handed over to the London County Council. Speaking morepromised 2000 to the fund out of an estate to which he seriously, he considered that the success of the London schoolswas trustee. The toast was replied to by Mr. W. Douro Hoare associated with our large hospitals was closely connected with(chairman of the college board), who said that during the the establishment of an efficient teaching University in London.rebuilding of the hospital they had not closed a single bed. Our medical students laboured under the disadvantage thatThis toast was also acknowledged by Mr. C. W. Mansell however successfully they might pass through their courseMoullin (senior surgeon of the hospital), and in response to the diplomas of the Conjoint Board did not carry theloud calls by Mr. J. Hutchinson. The chairman’s health degree of M.D. which in the popular mind was considered towas given by Dr. H. G. Lys, and great praise was accorded be the hall-mark of medical attainment. Throughout Englandto the dinner secretaries, Dr. H. Russell Andrews and Mr. universities were being established where diplomas carriedHunter F. Tod. this degree and if a proper teaching University were not
Tlte Middlesex Hospital.-The annual dinner of the past established in London the metropolis would be outstripped inand present students and friends of this hospital was held at the race of medical education. Why it was that the forces ofthe Trocadero Restaurant on Oct. lst. Mr. Andrew Clark disruption had so far overcome the forces of cohesion heoccupied the chair and 114 guests were present, being seated well knew, although he need not refer to them on thatin small groups at separate tables, this arrangement adding occasion; but if success was to be attained they mustboth to the conviviality of the gathering and the general subordinate individual interests to the general interests ofscenic effect. The loyal toasts having been duly honoured medical education. If they could not do that they wouldthe chairman proposed that of " The Middlesex Hospital and never succeed in obtaining a teaching University. At anyMedical School," reviewing the growth and progreos of the rate, the governors of St. Thomas’s Hospital would never beinstitution during the 38 years of his connexion with it, backward in taking whatever steps were necessary to accom-during 20 of which he had been dean of the school. Mr. plish the desired end. The treasurer, Mr. Wainwright, whoW. E. Gillett, chairman of the school council and deputy responded on behalf of the hospital, after referring to thechairman of the weekly board, responded, referring to the number of times that he had replied to that toast, briefly
reviewed the more important changes which had takenplace in the hospital. To the request of the chairman thatthe three wards which remain empty might be opened fOIthe reception of patients he pointed out that this would costanother L7500 a year and that the governors had not got themoney. When they appealed to the King’s Fund they werereferred to Sir Edward Fry’s report. The report said that ahospital had no right to assist out of its funds the medicalschool attached to it. He did not know how the medicalschools were to exist if that decision were to hold good.It was hard to draw the line between the hospital and schoolin expenditure. The school did much for the hospital. Forhis part he thought that it was the duty of the governors tostrengthen the school by every means in their power. Mr.Cuthbert S. Wallace, the dean, responded for the medicalschool and gave a résumé of its work during the year. Thechanges on the staff consisted in the appointment of Dr.H. G. Turney as physician, of Dr. A. E. Russell as
physician to out-patients, of Mr. H. B. Robinson as surgeon,and of Mr. Percy W. G. Sargent as surgeon to out-patients.The principal prizes gained during the year were mentionedbut special congratulation was due to the fact that the averageof marks at the final examinations of the Conjoint Boardobtained by the St. Thomas’s men was exceptionally high,showing the high standard of the work done all round.
Special mention was also made of the satisfaction which theschool felt in the prolongation of Dr. S. J. Sharkey’s term asphysician to the hospital. Dr. E. Hobhouse proposed the toastof "The Chairman" whose friendship he had enjoyed formany years. This was received enthusiastically with musicalhonours. Dr. Acland briefly replied. During the dinnerPitman’s Blue Viennese Orchestra played a selection ofmusic and after the toast-list had been completed a con-versazione was held in the large room attached to thebanqueting hall.
University College Hospital.-The past and presenstudents of University College Hospital to the number oover 160 dined together on Oct. 2nd in the library of th,new medical school. The chair was occupied by SiWilliam R. Gowers and among the company were SiRichard Douglas Powell (President of the Royal Collegeof Physicians of London), Sir Benjamin Franklin, DrGregory Foster (Provost of University College), Mr
Henry Lucas (chairman of the hospital committee), ancall the members of the hospital staff. After th<loyal toasts had been duly honoured, the chairman proposed "Success to University College Hospital Medica:School," and in a felicitous and amusing speeclreferred to many incidents of the past and wished ever3prosperity to the school in the future. The dean of thEschool, Dr. Sidney H. C. Martin, replied. The toast of " TheChairman," proposed by Mr. Rickman J. Godlee, was drunkwith great enthusiasm. Vocal music was provided by Dr.Frederick T. Roberts, Dr. W. H. B. Stoddart, and Dr. H. C. G.Semon, and Dr. W. F. Addey accompanied. Dr. Robertsreceived a great ovation and was twice encored. Theremainder of the evening was spent in an inspection of thenew medical school.
Westminster Hospital.-Under the chairmanship of Mr.A. H. Tubby the annual dinner of the past and presentstudents of the Westminster Hospital took place at theTrocadero Restaurant on Oct. 3rd. In proposing the toastof "The Westminster Hospital and Medical School," thechairman, after mentioning the successes of the students inexaminations, on the playing-fields, and in camp, took occa-sion to point out that the arrangement made with King’sCollege for the teaching of the preliminary subjects wasworking out very satisfactorily. He was glad to know thatthe Westminster men were winning for themselves a highreputation at King’s College. He said that the smallerschools were now finding it difficult to keep up their numbers,but so far as clinical work went they excelled in one
particular-namely, that it was in their power to offer to alarge proportion of their students the prize of residentappointments. Mr. Tubby then spoke of the advantages thataccrued to a hospital from its association with a medicalschool, an advantage of which there seemed to be somedanger that the general public might lose sight. Thedean, Mr. Edward P. Paton, in his reply, urged upon allWestminster men the necessity for individual effort insupport of the school, and especially in securing newstudents. The other toasts were those of "The Guests," "
proposed by Dr. William H. Allchin and responded to by IProfessor W. D. Halliburton and Dr. E. W. Ainley
Walker; the "Old Students," proposed by Dr. R. G.Hebb and acknowledged by Dr. Eric D. Macnamara; and" The Chairman," proposed by Colonel Sparks. During theevening a musical programme, highly appreciated by thelarge company assembled, was rendered by Captain Denniss,Mr. Hallenstein, Mr. Evans, Dr. Fleming, Dr. Dodd, andMr. Gandy. As for so many years past, Mr. R. NimmoWatson officiated at the piano.
THE LANCET, SATURDAY, Oct. 10th, 1829.
its ERGOT OF RYE.—"What do we owe to American phy-’ sicians and surgeons "-was the taunting and sarcastic
i language made use of, some time ago, in The Edinbu?’gkReview. It is now, however, no longer a matter of inquiry,
much less of surprise, to the rest of the world, whether theUnited States of America are possessed of physicians and
surgeons, whose talents and enterprise justly rank them with those of any country. I dislike to compare the capacities"
and capabilities of different individuals ; it is an invidious
task, and seldom, if ever, leads to anything definite or
r profitable, or I am sure it would not be difficult to mention1
the names of several American physicians and surgeons,viewed either as writers on, or as practitioners of, medicine,f at present in the full vigour and pursuit of their professional
avocations, whose researches and abilities would lose nothing: by being compared with those of the most distinguished of,
the faculty in any part of Europe..
The use of ergot, in hastening the process of labour, was: originally made known to the public by a citizen of New: York, Dr. Stearus. It was Dr. Hosack, my late preceptor, of
the same city, who first suggested its use, and gave the ergotto arrest uterine haemorrhage. It has been said, that the
, candle was originally lit in Italy, but if so, why was its
light kept under a bushel ? The value of this medicine isnow well known not to be confined to the influence which itis capable of exerting over the parturient uterus. Dr. Hosackanticipated this ; the writer has heard him, in his usualeloquent and energetic style, declare to his pupils, that ergot,at no distant period, would be considered a most importantarticle in the materia mediea. The pages of every medicaljournal now abound with testimony of the truth of what hethen said. In a letter, dated June 2, 1822, which headdressed to Dr. Hamilton, of Edinburgh, he says-" By itsactive operation upon the womb, it promises to be veryextensively useful in counteracting many morbid conditionsto which that viscus is liable, especially those proceding froman inactivity in the muscular powers of the uterus, or a laxstate of the vessels. Under the former head may benoticed the retention of the placenta, and the diseasecalled physometra. Under the latter are, excessive dischargesof the lochia, fluor albus, and those uterine haemorrhageswhich proceed from, and are continued by, general and localweakness." Again, in the same communication, he observes,-"Seeing these effects of the ergot in producing uterinecontraction, and in checking hæmorrhage, it has occurred tome, that it promises to become a valuable medicine in thosecases of uterine haemorrhage which proceed from an attach.ment of the placenta to the neck and orifice of the womb."Dr. H., in his letter, relates a case of uterine haemorrhage.The patient was a lady about fifty years of age ; he gave herthe ergot, in substance of ten-grain doses, with the mostdecided benefit, when other means had been tried in vain.Having thus been early impressed with the value of this
medicine, I did not hesitate to test its efficacy at the firstopportunity. I have given it in numerous instances duringthe last five years, not only with the view of assisting theprocess of labour, but also to arrest uterine heamorrhage,and have, almost uniformly, received from it the mostencouraging results. In two very recent cases of flooding,the consequence of a miscarriage of about two months, itproved to be of signal service. The patients, when I wasfirst called to them, were both in extreme danger ; I there-fore instantly decided upon giving the ergot, being per-suaded (transfusion apart) no other means would save them
1 Excerpt from " Observations on Iodine, Ergot of Rye, and Quinine,"by T. Wetherill, M.D., Liverpool.