Honors Biology Ch. 11 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity.

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<ul><li><p>Honors BiologyCh. 11Complex Inheritanceand Human Heredity</p></li><li><p>I.Human Inheritance- heredity in humans is the same as in other organisms- most genetic diseases are recessive and rare</p></li><li><p>A.Recessive Traits-diseases caused by a single defective gene/protein1.Cystic Fibrosis (CF)2.Tay-Sachs Disease3.Albinism4.Phenylketonuria (PKU)5.Sickle-Cell Anemia</p></li><li><p>DISORDEROCCURRENCE IN THE U.S.CAUSEEFFECTCURE-TREATMENTCystic Fibrosis1 : 3500(Mainly people of northern European descent)The gene that codes for a membrane protein is defective.*Excessive Mucus Production*Digestive and Respiratory Failure*No Cure*Daily Cleaning of Mucus from Lungs*Mucus-thinning DrugsAlbinism1 : 17,000Genes do not produce melanin.*No Color in Skin, Eyes &amp; Hair*Prone to Skin Cancer and Cataracts*No Cure*Protect Skin from the SunTay-Sachs Disease1 : 2500 (Affects People of Jewish descent)Absence of a necessary enzyme that breaks down fatty substances*Buildup of Fatty Deposits in The Brain*Mental Disabilities*No Cure or Treatment*Death Occurs by Age 5</p></li><li><p>B.Dominant Traits 1.Huntingtons Disease-rare, degenerative nervous system disorder</p></li><li><p>2.Achondroplasia-a disorder of bone growth-homozygous dominant condition is fatal</p></li><li><p>3.Polydactyly</p></li><li><p>II.Other Inheritance PatternsA.Sex Chromosomes:- pair of chromosomes that determine an individuals sex XX - female XY - male</p><p>Autosomes: the other chromosome pairs except the sex chromosomes </p></li><li><p>Human Chromosomes:44 Autosomes</p></li><li><p>Human Chromosomes:2 Sex Chromosomes</p></li><li><p>B.Sex-Linked Traits: -trait controlled by a recessive allele on the "X" sex chromosome-more common in males-Ex. Red-green color-blindness,hemophilia</p></li><li><p>Can you see a number?</p></li><li><p>Queen Victorias Family</p></li><li><p>Pedigree of Europes Royal Families</p></li><li><p>C.Sex-Influenced Traits: -trait controlled by an allele that is recessive in females and dominant in males-Ex. Male-pattern Baldness</p></li><li><p>D.Incomplete Dominance:-a trait in which the heterozygote shows a blending of traits-Ex. Carnations and Snap dragons: R - red, W - white, RW - pink</p></li><li><p>RRIncomplete Dominance: PHomozygous Red ParentHomozygous White ParentRWRWRWRWPinkPinkPinkPinkWW</p></li><li><p>RWIncomplete Dominance: F1Heterozygous Pink ParentHeterozygous Pink ParentRWRWRRWWRedPinkPinkWhiteWR</p></li><li><p>E.Codominance:-a trait in which the heterozygote shows both alleles equally-Ex. Horses: R - red, W - white, RW - roan-Ex. ABO Blood GroupsA B AB</p></li><li><p>E.Codominance:Roan Horses</p></li><li><p>E.Codominance:ABO Blood Groups</p></li><li><p>F.Polygenic Inheritance:-traits controlled by more than one pair of genes-Ex. hair, skin, and eye color</p></li><li><p>ABAbaBabABAbaBabHuman Eye ColorEGGSSPERMMotherAaBbFatherAaBbAABBAABbAaBBAaBbblackdark browndark brownlight brown</p></li><li><p>Human Skin Color</p></li><li><p>G.Epistasis -A gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus.- Example: black, brown, and white coat in mice</p></li><li><p>Epistasis: Black, Brown, and White Coat in Mice</p></li><li><p>H.Multiple Alleles:1.ABO Blood Groups: - 4 blood types: A, B, AB, O- caused by a protein in the membranes of red blood cells- 3 alleles for this protein: IA, IB, i</p></li><li><p>-Genotypes for the 4 blood types:Type A:IA IA, IAiType B:IB IB, IBiType AB:IA IBUniversal RecipientType O:iiUniversal Donor</p></li><li><p>2.Rh Blood Groups:-an example of multiple alleles-there are about 8 dominant alleles (+)-one recessive allele (-)</p></li><li><p>III.Nondisjunction:-homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis</p></li><li><p>III.Nondisjunction:-Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)-Klinefelters Syndrome (XXY)- XYY Syndrome-Turners Syndrome (Monosomy X) (X)-Trisomy X (XXX)</p></li><li><p>Down syndrome(Trisomy 21)</p></li><li><p>Incidence of Down Syndrome</p></li><li><p>Turners Syndrome (Monosomy X)</p></li><li><p>XYY Syndrome</p></li><li><p>Trisomy X (XXX)</p></li><li><p>Klinefelters Syndrome (XXY)</p></li><li><p>Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)</p></li><li><p>Normal Female</p></li><li><p>Edwards Syndrome (Trisomy 18)</p></li><li><p>IV. Fetal Testing:- Amniocentesis-Chorionic Villus Sampling- Ultrasound</p></li><li><p>Amniocentesis</p></li><li><p>Ultrasound image</p></li><li><p>Ultrasound Of Fetus</p></li><li><p>TheEnd</p></li><li><p>Human Chromosomes(23 homologous pairs)</p></li></ul>

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