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HÓA HỌC NÂNG CAO LỚP 10 - NGÔ NGỌC AN

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    N G N G C A N

    l ,I: 1%, ' L3 1 1 I

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    ifiShsr jjjPk

    L PB i diiSng I Glinh gi i in luyn Hii vo i hc w Cao ng

    NH XU T B N GIO D C

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    G i s 21o000

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    Ch ng I

    ' / ..C U T O NGUY N T

    I. S tm ra e lectronII. S tm ra pro ton (1906 - 1916)III. S p h n g x t n h i nIV; Th nghi m c a Ru therford

    (1911)

    V. S tm ra n tron (1932)VI. Tm t t v c\i t liguyn tVII. Ngruyn t ha h c - n g vVII. P h n n g h t n h nIX. M t s lo i b i t p

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    I. s TM RA e l e c t r o n .

    Nm 1897 Thomson lm mt

    th nghim nghin cu y .dngin trong p sut thp (Thnghim -c lp t nh hnh

    bn).

    Th nghim ny pht hin ra mt chm t bn ra tm C C v t tn l tia m c c.

    Tia m cc lm quay mt chong chng nh t trnng i ca n v tia m cc lch hng v phi intrng dng (ca mt in trng khc) nh hEti v sau:

    H nh 2 Hnh 3

    T hai k t qu th nghim trn , cc nh bc hc r t rakt iun: T a m cc gm cc ht nang ' in teh m , .ccht ny c khi lng.

    T suy ra nguyn t c cu to phc tp m trong c thnh phn mang in tch m. Nguyn t li trung hav in, vy bn cnh thnh phn m ang in m, phi cthnh phn m ng i h d ng. Cc h t mang in m tl electron, k hiu; '

    6

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    L S TM RA PROTON(1906 - 1916).

    Tng t nh th nghiim pht m inh ra tia m cc ch

    thay th khng kh long bng cc n cht kh khc, ccnh bc hc ph t minh, ra li h t c in tch b ng (hayln hn mt s' nguvn ln) in tch ca electron nhngmang in tri du. Ngi ta t tn cho ht mang indng c in tch nh nht l proton. Vy l nguyn t ccu to phc tp gm cc ht proton v electron.

    Gc h t c sp xp rh 'th ro e to th nhnguyn t, cu hi c Rutherford (hc tr ca Thomson)tr li trong th nghim phng chm ht a qa l kim laidt mng.

    r a . s PHNG X T NHIN. . , ~

    Nm 1896 Henri Beequerel pht hin t hp cht muikp ca tirani v kali, pht ra cc tia khng nhn thynhng li tc dng ln knh nh v xuyn qua c cc lkim loi mng. Vi nm sau, Pie v Mari Curie pht hinra hi nguyn t khc cng c tnh cht nh mui ca urarinhng mnh .gp ba triu ln. Hai ng b Crie t tn* chohai iguun t" l rai v poloni. B Marie curie t tn

    cho cc tia l tia phng x!

    M arie Cu rie-Sk lodo w ska sinh Vacsava ng y 7 thng 11 nm 1867. Th i n in thi u b tham gia t ch c c trong phong' tro cch m ng, lm vi c trong nhm 'o h c s inh c a cha b (gio v in to n h c v v t l h c c a tr ng tru ng h c) t ch c. Sau khi t t n g h i p d i h c t n g h p Par is, Sk lo do wsk a cu n g v i P ier re Curie

    n g h i n c u hi n t ig p h iig x . D o p h t inin h x u t s c tro ng nh v c n y , b c tra t n g h c v ti n s k ho a h c v t .

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    Sau kh ch ng m t (hm 1906),Cu rie-S klodowsk a ti p t e h o t ng khoa h c , nghi n c u ' ccnguyn t phng x . Nm 1910 l n u ti n b u ch c rakim lo i. Curie-Sk adowska hail n c t n g g i i tK &g Nob el(v h a h c v v v t h c). T Am 1926 b l v i n s danh d c a Vi n h n lm k h oa h c L inb an g C ig h a x h i ch n gh a

    X vi t . (Nay l Vi n hn lm khoah c .Lin bang Nga)

    ie C urie-S klodo w ska (1867 - 1934)

    Tia phng x gm ba dng tia:

    - Tia a (anpha) gm cc ht (X c khi lng 4 v.c v intch gp i in tch proton, tc ca tia l 20.000km/s.

    - Tia p (bta) gm cc electron t do, tng t tei m cc

    nhlfng c phng ra vi vn tc ln hn riKu, khong100:000km/s. , .

    - Tia y (gamma) khng mang in c bn cht gn gingnh sng nhng bc sng nh hn.

    Hin tng phng x cho th nguyn t c th phn rv sau qu trn h bin ha th nguyn | c kh i lng viix tc h d n g n h i.

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    IV. TH NGHI M C A RUTHERFORD (1911).

    Nm 1911 Rutherford v cccng tc vin chiu chm tia vomt l kim li mng (1 micromet)

    v dng hai mn hunh qng quan st ng i ca tia a. Khi Hnh 4ht a p vo mn Hunh quangs le ln mt chm sng.

    Ernest Rutherford, m t trong nh ng rih bc h c l n nh V trong

    lnh v c ph ng & v c u t o nguyn t , sinh ngy 30 th ng 8 nm 1871 Neisn (Niu Zil n). n g l g ip s v t l tr ng i h c t ng h pMontreal (Canada), sau t nm 1907 Manchester, v t nm 1919 Cambrige va London.

    T nm 1900 Rutherford

    nghin c u h i n t ng p h ng x .Ong pht hi n ra ba d ng t a ph t

    Ernest Rutherford ra t cc ch t ph ng x . ng (c ng(1871 - 1937) v i Soddy) a ra'thuy t ph n r

    ^ ph ng x ; ch n g m inh s t othnhHl i ong nhi u qu trnh phng x , pht minh .ra h tnhn nguynt v ngh in c u m h nh h t nhn c a nguy n- t , t c s cho h th iiy t h i n i v c u t lig iy ii t . N m

    1919, l n u t in ng d th c hi n s chuy n hoa nhn t o m t s' nguyn t b n b ng cch dng cc h t (Xb n ph vo chng.N m 1908 n g c t n g g i i th ng N b el. ng c b u l m v x . s l d n d c a Vi n hn lm khu JLh c. Li n x (Ny l ^vi nhn lm khoa h c C ng ha lin bang Nga) i

    Kt qu cho thy a s ht a i qua l kin li lim

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    ng gp PDF bi Nguyn Thanh T

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    .khcng- b lch hng. Mt s h?t (1/8000 s vi h t ithrig) b lch hng v mt s r t t b bt ngc tr li.

    Kt qa ny cho php c kt lun nh sau:- Nguyn t c cu to rng ' trn l kim l c c ph n

    t tch in dng, phn b rt tha tht v th cc ht a iqua l kim loi d dng. Mt s ht lch hng v i gncc ht tch in dng v cc ht ny tch n ln rii yht a i lch hng ban u hoc ngc hng ban u.

    Rutherford a ra mu cu to ngun t nh su:+ Ht nhn nguyn t tch in dng.+ Electron quay qunh nguyn t vi vn tc lir to

    khng gan bao bc ht nh n .

    V. m Tt^RA N M 0 N (1932).

    Khi tm ra proton v electron ngi ta x nh ekhi lng cua chng. Proton c khi lng 1 v.G velectron c kHl lng 1/1840 v.c. Nh vy ly khi lngca cc riguyn t tr i khi lng ca proton v electronth. phn khi lng cn li do u m c. Cu hi ny cChatvich tr li: bng th nghm su:

    Cho ht a i qua l kim loi berli mng, th y xut hinmt loi .ht mi, khi lng tng ng lv.c v khngmrig in. ' ng gi> l h t ntron.

    * y ' . -

    Tm l, bng thc nghim cc nh bc hc chngmnh c rng: nguyn t c cu to phc tp. Thnh phn

    ca n gti: , s + Htrkh^git proton, ntron.

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    VI. TM T T V G U T O NGUYN T .

    1. K ch th c ng uy n t

    - Nguyn t ca cc nguyn t khc nhau c kch thckhc nhau, nhiig ni chung, u rt nh v nh nhat lnguyn t c nguyn t hidro. Nu coi nh nguyn t H c

    hnh c th ng knh ngyn t 1 A (A = 10 '10m).

    ng knh h t nhn khog 10-4A , ng knh e = 1CT7A .

    2. H t nh n nguy n t :

    - Mi nguyn t u eu to t ba loi h t: proton,n tron v electron.

    + Ht nhn nguyn t gm c ht proton mang indong (1+) v ntron khng mang in, hai loi ht ny ckhi lng gn bng nhau v xp x} ng lv.c.

    + Hu ht khi lng nguyn t u tp trung nhn

    mc d h t nhn ch chim mt phn rt nh th tch cuanguyn t.