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ELSEVIER Forensic Science International 84 (1997) 7-16 Forensic Science Internatiial History of hair analysis Hans Sachs Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Munich, Frauenlobstr. 7a, 80337 Munich, Germany 1. General view of history The first case of the determination of poison in human hair was published in Caspers ‘Praktisches Handbuch der Gerichtlichen Medizin’ in English we would say ‘Practical Guide to Legal Medicine’ by Hoppe in 1858 [l]. He had determined arsenic in the hair of a body exhumed after 11 years. Nearly 100 years later, in 1954 Goldblum [2] determined amphetamine in the hair of a guinea-pig. But the publication that really changed the situation was the one of Baumgartner [3] (Fig. 1). He had extracted opiates with methanol by heating for 2 h, then evaporating and reconstituting in buffer and examining with Abuscreen RL4. That was the beginning of a story in which hair analysis was sometimes glorified, sometimes condemned, sometimes accepted, sometimes not accepted. In Germany this method was introduced by Arnold in 1980 [4]. A paper that is often ignored in review articles is the publication of Klug in 1980 [5] - ‘Zur Morphinbestimmung in Kopfhaaren’. He fulfilled the conditions of forensic toxicology for hair analysis, because he confirmed radioimmunological results by a chromatographic method. The hair was completely disintegrated with sodium hydroxide, the compounds hydrolysed with concentrated hydrochloric acid and extracted for morphine and codeine. The quantification was performed after thin-layer chromatography using fluorescence detection. He found morphine in the range of 0.1-10 ng/mg. The concept of this procedure was quite simple: the solid hair is transferred into a liquid phase and then examined like a urine sample. At that time nobody could imagine that one could be successful in looking for other compounds in hair than those usually found in urine. This way of thinking continued until the end of the 198Os,until the cocaine and benzoylecgonine were quantified and the cocaine concentration was always higher than that of benzoylecgonine. The first examinations of cocaine in human hair were performed by Valente in 1980 [61. He used radio-immunoassays for opiates and cocaine metabolites. He compared extraction procedures to optimize the method and decrease the detec- 0379-0738/97/$17.00 0 1997 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. Au rights reserved PZI SO379-0738(96)02043-9

History of hair analysis

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Page 1: History of hair analysis

ELSEVIER Forensic Science International

84 (1997) 7-16

Forensic Science

Internatiial

History of hair analysis

Hans Sachs

Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Munich, Frauenlobstr. 7a, 80337 Munich, Germany

1. General view of history

The first case of the determination of poison in human hair was published in Caspers ‘Praktisches Handbuch der Gerichtlichen Medizin’ in English we would say ‘Practical Guide to Legal Medicine’ by Hoppe in 1858 [l]. He had determined arsenic in the hair of a body exhumed after 11 years. Nearly 100 years later, in 1954 Goldblum [2] determined amphetamine in the hair of a guinea-pig. But the publication that really changed the situation was the one of Baumgartner [3] (Fig. 1). He had extracted opiates with methanol by heating for 2 h, then evaporating and reconstituting in buffer and examining with Abuscreen RL4. That was the beginning of a story in which hair analysis was sometimes glorified, sometimes condemned, sometimes accepted, sometimes not accepted. In Germany this method was introduced by Arnold in 1980 [4].

A paper that is often ignored in review articles is the publication of Klug in 1980 [5] - ‘Zur Morphinbestimmung in Kopfhaaren’. He fulfilled the conditions of forensic toxicology for hair analysis, because he confirmed radioimmunological results by a chromatographic method. The hair was completely disintegrated with sodium hydroxide, the compounds hydrolysed with concentrated hydrochloric acid and extracted for morphine and codeine. The quantification was performed after thin-layer chromatography using fluorescence detection. He found morphine in the range of 0.1-10 ng/mg.

The concept of this procedure was quite simple: the solid hair is transferred into a liquid phase and then examined like a urine sample. At that time nobody could imagine that one could be successful in looking for other compounds in hair than those usually found in urine. This way of thinking continued until the end of the 198Os, until the cocaine and benzoylecgonine were quantified and the cocaine concentration was always higher than that of benzoylecgonine.

The first examinations of cocaine in human hair were performed by Valente in 1980 [61. He used radio-immunoassays for opiates and cocaine metabolites. He compared extraction procedures to optimize the method and decrease the detec-

0379-0738/97/$17.00 0 1997 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. Au rights reserved PZI SO379-0738(96)02043-9

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H. Sachs /Forensic Science International 84 (1997) 7-16

1979

1980

1980

1981

Pre-MSD Period Baumgaftner Radioimmunoassay of hair for dermining opiate-abuse histories J. Nucl. Med.

Klug Zur Morphinbestimmung in Kopfhaaren Zeitschrift Rechtsmedizin

Arnold Experimental studies on hair as an indicator of past or present drug abuse J. Forensic Sci. Sot.

Valente Hair as the sample in assessing morphine and cocaine addiction Clin. Chem.

Fig. 1. Review of literature examining hair analysis.

tion limits. He compared acidic and alkaline media with water, methanol and buffer.

Smith and Pomposini [7] detected phenobarbital by RIA in 1981 after extraction with a solution of sodium dodecylsulfate and Arnold and Piischel [8] used RIA kits for methaqualone and barbiturates in 1983. That was the period which can be called the PRE-MSD period.

To describe the attitude of the police towards hair analysis and its acceptance, we have to refer to Arnold. He died in 1994 at the age of 75 and during his last 14 years he had been fighting for the reputation of hair analysis.

It is well known that Baumgartner had some difficulties in getting his method accepted by the society of forensic experts in America but, of course, I can only report the atmosphere in Germany because it is based on unpublished information.

Arnolds first speech about morphine in hair was held at the annual conference of Legal Medicine in 1980 in Heidelberg. He presented fatal cases of heroin fixers and showed the results of sectional examinations and referred them to the different consumption habits [9].

His paper did not lead to a widespread use of hair analysis in Germany at that time. But there were some detectives in the drug defence departments who were hunting for every trace of drugs in the cities. They were really keen on this method and sent the samples to Arnold and presented the results in court. From time to time other expert witnesses were asked to evaluate Arnolds data and often these

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H. Sachs /Forensic Science International 84 (1997) 7-16 9

1979-1986 Pre-MSD Period

1986-1992 “uncritical” use of MSD

1993-l 996 critical evaluation

1997- ?????????

Fig. 2. History of hair analysis.

data were rejected then. Later comparisons with GC/MS methods showed that the results had been qualitatively correct.

Arnold was discredited when he stated that a positive RIA result could only come from heroin consumption. As described in the manufacturers instructions, Abuscreen RIA has good cross reactions with codeine. He later changed to the morphine specific DPC kit and stated that positive results could only come from heroin abuse because one could not detect the traces of morphine in hair after codeine ingestion.

At the annual meeting in 1985 in Hamburg, just in the lions den, results of the examination of the hair of a patient after frequent codeine consumption were presented [lo]. These results showed morphine concentrations in a range where Arnold would have stated a heavy heroin consumption. But nevertheless, Arnolds results were useful tools to lead the police inquiries into the right direction.

After the introduction of the direct coupling of the quadrupole GC/MS leading to the mass selective detector, it was possible to detect the drugs specifically and sensitively with low costs. Now the number of papers and the number of newly detected compounds rapidly increased.

The term ‘uncritical’ in Fig. 2 is a little exaggerated. But indeed, in the heat of the moment and with the ambition of being the first to identify a certain substance in hair, even baselines have been published as positive results - and they have been accepted. The old Egyptians were also accused of having been a society of cocaine dependants.

After that period of gold rush we had the period of hang ouer. Papers concerning contamination and washing procedures, irregular hair growth, diffusion of drugs in hair, came up. It was found that drugs could partly be washed out by daily hair treatment and that the heavily drug contaminated hair cannot completely be freed of the drug. The incorporation mechanism is still unclear.

2. Extraction methods

In fact the history of hair analysis is the history of extraction procedures, because after the drug has been extracted once it can be handled as if it had been extracted from urine or blood samples.

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10 H. Sachs /Forensic Science International 84 (1997) 7-16

The fist four procedures of Fig. 3 have been described at the beginning. Haley and Hoffmann [ll] used acetone and ultrasonic bath to quantify nicotine and cotinine by RIA. The list of enzymatic procedures begins with Offidani’s [12] method using Pronase in a buffer solution at pH 8.25. She was looking for a less destructive extraction procedure for opiates and benzoylecgonine.

As pronase cannot completely disintegrate the hair matrix, Raff [13] used performic acid to cut the S-S bonds before the enzymatic procedure. By this method he could dissolve the hair completely or at least with a residue of less than 5%.

Nakahara [14] quantified methamphetamine and amphetamine by GC/MS after extracting with methanol and 5 M hydrochloric acid in an ultrasonic bath for 1 h. He found up to 51 ng/mg methamphetamine. Another enzymatic digestion was used by Harkey [15]. The sample was dissolved by proteinase K and dithiothreitol to reduce the disulfates. The buffer extraction using P-glucuronidase, published by Moeller [16], has to be mentioned because it led to one of the screening proce- dures which is being used by many laboratories today. The modified method has also been used without P-glucuronidase for screening for compounds where no procedure had been published before, like clozapine or fentanyl [17]. Two other standardized extraction procedures should also be mentioned here. The liquid-liquid extraction after hydrochloric hydrolysation published by Kintz [ 181, which is obviously a standard procedure in French laboratories today. A simple screening method has been published by Kauert [19]. Methanol is used for extraction and the extract is directly injected after derivatisation. These two methods were demonstrated at the workshop in Abu Dhabi last year.

In 1992 some experiments were performed with supercritical carbon dioxide with ethyl acetate and methanol as modifiers to extract opiates from the hair sample

History of Hair Extraction

1979 1980

1981 1981 1985 1988 1990 1990 1991 1992

1992

Methanol 0,l M NaOH, 0,l M HCI, Methanol, Water, Buffer 1 M NaOH 0,l % Nadecadecylsulfate Acetone Pronase Performic Acid - Pronase Methanol/ 5M HCI Ultra Sound Proteinase K Dithiothreitol Phospate buffer 7,4 Bglucuronidasesrylsulfatase Supercritical fluid

Fig. 3. History of hair extraction.

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H. Sachs /Forensic Science International 84 (1997) 7-16 11

[20]. It cannot be shown whether the carbon dioxide extracts the hair itself or if it is only another medium for the extraction with ethyl acetate and methanol. The high cost of the equipment prevents the further use of this method. Today the supercrit- ical fluid extraction is combined with the name of Staub [21].

To summarize, drugs can be extracted from the hair matrix in many ways. Only few methods disintegrate the hair totally. But it is known from comparisons that it is not necessary to get a liquid phase. The detection limit lies mostly at about 0.1 Wmg.

2.1. Opiates

For many years only morphine and codeine had been detected. After Cone [22] had quantified the concentrations of cocaine and its metabolites, the question arose as to why acetylmorphine should not be incorporated in a detectable amount. In 1991 Goldberger [23] and Raff [24] published their results. Both authors showed that acetylmorphine is incorporated into the hair matrix in higher concentrations than morphine. They were not the first. In 1987 Tagliaro [25] had already detected 6-0-acetylmorphine and even heroin in hair by collisional spectroscopy (Fig. 4).

He has always preferred the unusual methods and also introduced capillary electrophoresis into hair analysis [26]. Acetylmorphine can also be detected and quantified by TIC using dansylchloride which was demonstrated in 1992 by Jeger [27]. Today the general consensus is that acetylmorphine, not morphine, has to be detected to prove heroin consumption.

2.2. Cocaine

The early publication of Valente [6] concerning cocaine has already been mentioned. In 1987 Balabanova and Homoki [28] identified cocaine by GC/MS. Cocaine, benzoylecgonine and ecgonine were identified by Kidwell in 1988 [29] using pyrolyse and CI/MS/MS. In 1991 cocaine and the metabolites benzoylecgo- nine, methylecgonine, norcocaine, cocaethylene and norcocaethylene were quanti- fied by Cone [30] (Fig. 5).

Opiates in Hair

1979 Opiate Abuscreen 1980 Morphine/Codeine TLC 1986 Morphine/Codeine GClMS 1987 Heroin - MAM MS/MS 1991 MAM GUMS 1992 Dihydrocodeine GC/MS

Fig. 4. Opiates in hair.

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H. Sachs /Forensic Science International 84 (1997) 7-16

Cocaine in Hair

1980 CocainelBZE RIA 1987 Cocaine GCMS qualitatively 1988 Cocaine, BZE, Ecgonine Cl/MS/MS 1991 Methylecgonine GClMS

Norcocaine, Cocathylene Norcocaethylene

I

Fig. 5. Cocaine in hair.

Kintz [18] recently reported a method to distinguish between crack smoking and other cocaine applications. Henderson [31] has shown this year that cocaine in hair does not provide an accurate record of either the amount, time, or duration of drug use.

2.3. Amphetamines

The identification of amphetamine and methamphetamine has always been a Japanese domain. Already in 1983 Ishiyama [32] used GC/MS to identity metham- phetamine, nicotine, amitriptyline and imipramine. In 1984 Suzuki [33] published a method to detect amphetamine in a single hair. Even the stereoisomers of amphetamine and methamphetamine were determined in 1989 [34]. The am- phetamine-like designer-drugs can easily be identified by standard screenings. The first case was reported here in Genoa in 1993 [35]. A good survey was published by Nakahara 1361 (Fig. 6).

2.4. Cannabinoids

The detection of cannabinoids led to a difficult situation. While Kintz and Moeller report relatively high levels of carboxy-THC, in the range of 0.1-l ng/mg,

Amphetamines in Hair

1983 Methamphetamin GUMS 1984 AmphetaminlMethamph. GClMS 1992 MDMA GUMS

Fig. 6. Amphetamines in hair.

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H. Sachs /Forensic Science International 84 (1997) 7-16 13

Cannabinoids in Hair 1989 THC/TCA RIA

THCITCA GCIMS? 1995 THC/TCA GUMS-NCI 1998 CBN CBD GCIMS

Fig. 7. Cannabinoids in hair.

Kippenberger and Uhl found concentrations of less than 0.1 ng/mg 1371. The highest THC-concentrations were reported by Kauert [38] at the last Genoa conference (up to 10 ng/mg). Even cannabinol and cannabidiol were recently detected by Cirimele [39] (Fig. 7).

2.5. Other drugs

Detection of clozapine, fentanyl and fenetylline have already been mentioned. In the chapter Unusual Drugs by Tracqui [40] a list of all the compounds that have been detected in hair can be found. In the list of references the name of Kintz is found in 20 papers since 1991.

Nearly every drug can be found in hair samples. But while it was obviously easy to detect barbiturates in hair, for example phenobarbital was one of the first drugs detected and Baumgartner [411 identified phencyclidine at the beginning of the 1980s - we still have lots of problems detecting benzodiazepines.

In 1990 Scheller [42] reported bromazepam in hair of a patient who had consumed 20 tablets of Lexotanil daily during a longer period. Diazepam and its metabolites have also been identified by several authors but obviously are benzodi- azepine substances which are not incorporated in high concentrations into the hair. The very important flunitrazepam was not detected until the beginning of 1996. In different regional meetings Kintz demonstrated his results using GC/MS with negative chemical ionization and von Meyer described simpler methods using MSD and HPLC with diode array detection.

3. Quality assurance

Contrary to urine and blood analysis efforts in quality control were started very early. The National Institute of Standards and Technology performed inter-labora- tory comparisons since 1990 [43]. While opiates and cocaine including their derivatives and metabolites led to similar results in inter-laboratory studies with experienced laboratories cannabinoids show varying results as was mentioned before. Amphetamines are obviously not under control by many laboratories.

4. Conferences and meetings

Already five international meetings (Fig. 8) have been organised dealing with the

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14 H. Sachs /Forensic Science International 84 (1997) 7-16

ht. Conferences on Hair Analysis

1992 Hair Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool for Drugs of Abuse Investigation. Genoa

1994 Workshop on Hair Analysis in Forensic Toxicology. Strasbourg

1994 Hair Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool for Drugs of Abuse Investigation. Genoa

1994 TlAFTlSOFT Joint Congress on Hair Analysis Tampa

1995 Int. Conf. and Workshop - Hair Analysis in Forensic Toxicology. Abu Dhabi

Fig. 8. International conferences on hair analysis.

subject of hair analysis besides some national meetings in America, Germany and France, perhaps even more in other countries. This underlines the importance of the subject in forensic sciences.

5. Review articles and books

Besides the already mentioned review of Nakahara several surveys can give you rapid and fundamental information. All important details are published in the following books Proceeding of the Meeting in Abu Dhabi, Drug Testing in Hair edited by Pascal Kintz and the shown volumes of Forensic Science International edited by Tagliaro and Kintz, respectively.

In this survey the difficulties of the evaluation which had come up in the last 3-5 years are excluded because they cannot be described in a few words - they have to be discussed. Before we can answer these questions we have to perform a lot of experiments. Baumgartner, Kidwell, Blank, Poetsch, Skopp and others have already started with these experiments.

References

[l] J.L. C&per, Praktisches Handbuch der Gerichtlichen Medizin (2 ~01s). A. Hirschwald, Berlin, 1857-1858.

[2] R.W. Goldblum, R.L. Goldbaum and W.N. Piper, J. Inuest. Dermatol., 22 (1954) 121. [3] A.M. Baumgartner, P.F. Jones, W.A. Baumgartner and C.T. Black, Radioimmunoassay of hair for

determining opiate abuse histories. J. Nucl. Med., 20 (1979) 748-752. [4] W. Arnold, The Estimation of Medicaments in Human Hair. Satellite Conference to the 8th

International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. Umea, Sweden. [5] E. Khrg, Zur Morphinbestimmung in Kopfhaaren. Z. Rechtsmed., 84 (1980) 189-193. [6] D. Valente, M. Cassani, M. Pigliapochi and G. Vansetti, Hair as the sample in assessing morphine

and cocaine addiction. Clin. Chem., 27 (1981) 1952-1953.

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F.P. Smith and A. Pomposini, Detection of phenobarbital in bloodstains, semen, seminal stains, saliva, saliva stains, perspiration stains and hair. J. Forensic Sci., 26 (1981) 582-586. W. Arnold and K. Piischel, Experimental studies on hair as an indicator of past or present drug use. J. Forensic Sci. Sot., 21 (1983) 83. W. Arnold, Besondere Aspekte radioimmunologischer Untersuchungsbetimde bei Rausch- gifttodesf%Uen. Z. Rechtsmed., 20 (1980) 13. H. Sachs and H. Brunner, Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of morphine and codeine in vitreous humour and hair. Beitr. Gerichfl. Med., 44 (1986) 281-286. N.J. Haley and D. Hoffmann, Analysis for nicotine and cotinine in hair to determine cigarette smoker status. Clin. Chem., 31 (1985) 1598-1600. C. Offidani, A. Camevale and M. Chiarotti, Drugs in hair: a new extraction procedure. Forensic Sci. Int., 41 (1989) 35-39. I. Raff and H. Sachs, Enzymatische Autbereitung von Haaren zum Nachweis eines BetlubungsmitteIkonsums. Z. Rechtsmed., 34 (1990) 424. Y. Nakahara, K. Takahashie, Y. Takeda, K. Konuma, S. Fukui and T. Tokui, Hair analysis for drugs of abuse, part II. Hair analysis for monitoring of methamphetamine abuse by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forensic Sci. hat., 46 (1990) 243-254. M.R. Harkey, G. L. Henderson and C. Zhou, Simultaneous quantitation of cocaine and its major metabolites in human hair by gas chromatography/chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Anal. Toxicol., 15 (1991) 260-266. M.R. Moeller, P. Fey and R. Wennig, Screening procedure for drugs in hair and its application to a methadone treatment program. Forensic Sci. Int., 63 (1993) 185-206. H. Sachs, CC/MS and CC/MS/MS techniques in hair analysis. In R.A. de Zeeuw et al. (eds.), Hair Analysis in Forensic Toxicology, Abu Dhabi, 1995, pp. 273-281. P. Kintz, B. Ludes and P. Mangin, Detection of drugs in human hair using Abbott ADx, with confirmation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (CC/MS). J. Forensic Sci., 37 (1992) 328-331. G. Kauert, L. von Meyer and I. Herrle, Drogen- und Medikamentennachweis im Kopfhaar ohne Extraktion des Haaraufschlusses mittels CC/MS. Z. Rechtsmed., 38 (1992) 33. H. Sachs and M. Uhl, Opiatnachweis in Haarextrakten mit Hilfe von CC/MS/MS und Supercritical Fluid Extraction WE). Toxichem. Krimtech., 59 (1992) 144. C. Staub, P. Edder and J.-L. Veuthey, Importance of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) in hair analysis. In P. Kintz fed.) Drug Testing in Hair, CRC-Press, Boca Raton, 1996. E.J. Cone, Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. J. Anal. Toxicol., 14 (1990) l-7. B.A. Goldberger, Y.H. Caplan, T. Maguire and E. Cone, Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. III. Identification of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine as indicators of heroin use. J. Anal. Toxicol., 5 (1991) 226-231. I. Raff, R. Denk and H. Sachs, Monoacetylmorphin in Haaren. Z. Rechtsmed., 36 (1991) 479. F. Tagliaro, P. Traldi, B. Pelli, S. Maschio, C. Neri and M. Marigo, Determination of morphine and other opiods in the hair of heroin addicts by RIA, HPLC, and collisional spectroscopy. In B. Piemonte fed.), Deu. Anal. Methoak Pharm. Biomed. Forensic Sci., Plenum, New York, 1987. F. Tagliaro, C. Poiesi, R. Aiello, R. Dorizzi, S. Ghielmi and M. Marigo, Capillary electrophoresis for the investigation of illicit drugs in hair: determination of cocaine and morphine. J. Chromatogr., 638 (1993) 303-309. A.N. Jeger, R.E. Raas, C. Hamberg and Th. Briellmann, Camag Bibliogr. Serv., 68 (1992) 7. S. Balabanova and J. Homoki, Determination of cocaine in human hair by CC/MS. Z. Rechtsmed., 98 (1987) 235-240. D.A. Kidwell and D.A. Blank, Analysis of drugs of abuse in hair by tandem mass spectrometry. 36th ASMS Conference on mass spectrometry and allied topics, June 5-10, 1988, San Francisco. E.J. Cone, D. Yousefnejad, W.D. Darwin and T. Maguire, Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. II. Identification of unique cocaine metabolites in hair of drug abusers and evaluation of decontamination procedures. J. Anal. Toxicol., 16 (1991) 250-255.

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1311

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G.L. Henderson, M.R. Harkey, C. Zhou, R.T. Jones and P. Jacob III, Incorporation of isotopically labeled cocaine and metabolites into human hair: I. Dose-response relationships. .I. Anal. Toxicol., 20 (1996) l-12. I. Ishiyama, T. Nagai and S. Toshida, Detection of basic drugs (methamphetamine, antidepressants, and nicotine) from human hair. J. Forensic Sci., 28 (1983) 380-385. 0. Suzuki, H. Hattori and M. Asano, Detection of methamphetamine and amphetamine in a single human hair by gas chromatograpy chemical ionization mass spectrometry, J. Forensic Sci., 29 (1984) 611-617. Stereo isomer. M.R. Moeller, F. Fey and H. Sachs, Hair analysis as evidence in forensic cases. Forensic Sci. Int., 63 (1993) 43-53. Y. Nakahara, Detection and diagnostic interpretation of amphetamines in hair. Forensic Sci. Int., 70 (1995) 135-153. Personal communication. G. Kauert and J. Rohrich, Concentrations of A9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine and 6- monoacetylmorphine in hair of drug abusers. Int. J. Legal Med., 108 (1996) 294-299. V. Cirimele, H. Sachs, P. Kintz and P. Mangin, Testing human hair for cannabis. III. Rapid screening for the simultaneous identification of A9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol, and cannabidiol. J. Anal. Toxicol., 20 (1996) 13-16. A. Tracqui, Unusual drugs in hair. In P. Kintz (ed.) Drug Testing in Hair, CRC-Press, Boca Raton, 1996 A.M Baumgartner, P. F. Jones and C.T. Black, Detection of phencyclidin in hair. J. Forensic Sci., 26 (1981) 576-581. M. Scheller and H. Sachs, Nachweis von CodeinmiRbrauch durch Haaranalysen. Deutsche Med. Wochenschrifi, 115 (1990) 1313-1315. M.J. Welch, L.T. Sniegoski, and C. Ahgood, Inter-laboratory comparison studies on the analysis of hair for drugs of abuse. Forensic Sci. Znt., 63 (1993) 295-303.