History Critical Thinking Critical Thinking A Handbook for Using Historical Documents to Improve Students’ Thinking Skills in the Secondary Grades

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  • History&CriticalThinking

    AHandbookfor

    UsingHistoricalDocumentstoImproveStudentsThinkingSkills

    intheSecondaryGrades

    MichaelEdmondsJenniferA.HullErikaL.JanikKeliRylance

    Madison:

    WisconsinHistoricalSociety

    LibraryArchivesDivision

    2005

    www.wisconsinhistory.org

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    CopyrightWisconsinHistoricalSociety2005

    Anythinginthishandbookmaybefreelyreproducedforclassroomorothernonprofiteducationaluse.

    Nothinginitmaybecopiedforresaleorcommercialpurposes

    withoutpriorconsentfrom

    WisconsinHistoricalSociety816StateStreet

    MadisonWI53706

    TheentirecontentsofthishandbookarealsoavailableforfreeinPDFformatatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints

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    Contents

    I.WhyThisHandbook? 4

    II.TheElementsofCriticalThinking 610commonerrorsoflogicinargumentativewriting 14

    III.NurturingCriticalThinkingintheClassroom 2330classroomtechniquesthatencouragecriticalthinking

    IV.PrimarySourcesonWisconsinHistoryAvailableFreeOnline 291,000Wis.documentsatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints

    V.20ModelLessonsUsingPrimarySourcesfromWisconsinHistory 31 integratingtheseintoyourU.S.historytextbook 72

    VI.WisconsinHistoryPerformanceStandards 80

    VII.CriticalThinking:ASelectedBibliography 83

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    PartI

    WhyThisHandbook?

    ThishandbookisdesignedforusewithdigitalcollectionsofprimarysourcesavailableattheWisconsinHistoricalSocietysWebsite(www.wisconsinhistory.org).

    Itreproducesactivitiesfromworkshopsofferedtoteachersin2005bytheSociety.Itsfirsthalfreviewstheelementsofcriticalthinkingastheypertaintounderstandingandanalyzinghistoricalevidence.Thisincludes10handoutsthatcanbequicklyadaptedforusewithstudents,aswellasatoolkitofclassroomtechniquesforencouragingcriticalthinkingandaguidetoevaluatingit.Thehandbookssecondhalfoffers20modellessons,eachofwhichcentersonasingledocumentavailableonlineattheSocietysTurningPointsinWisconsinHistorycollection(www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints).TheselessonsspanallerastaughtinU.S.historyclasses,connectlocalWisconsinhistorytonationalthemesinstandardtextbooks,andwalkstudentsandteachersthroughtheanalysisofeyewitnessaccountswithspecificsuggestionsfordevelopingcriticalthinkingskills.

    Usingprimarysources,especiallytodevelopcriticalthinking,isanunfamiliarpracticeinmostsecondarylevelhistoryclasses.Historyhastraditionallybeentaughtnotasapracticeinwhichstudentsengagebutratherasacollectionofdatathattheymaster.Comeon,Bart,MargeSimpsonsaysinarecentepisodeofthewellknowncartoonseries,TheSimpsons.Historycanbefun.Itslikeanamusementparkexceptinsteadofrides,yougettomemorizedates.(MagicalHistoryTour,whichairedDec.22,2004).

    LikeMarge,wehatetoadmitthatmostkidsfindhistoryboringandwetrytopersuadethemthatitssomethingtheyshouldenjoy.But,lulledbyoversimplifiedgeneralizationsanddeadenedbyastreamofnamesanddatesunrelatedtotheirownlives,theyknowbetterthantobelieveus.Itsnowonderthattheycanbereluctanttoengageoriginalhistoricaldocuments.MyteachermadeususethisWebsite[AmericanJourneys],onestudenttoldusthroughourfeedbackbutton.Idratherhaveallthespinalfluiddrainedfrommybody.

    Itssadthatayoungpersonwithsomuchspunk,intelligence,andeloquenceasthatcorrespondentshouldmissthebenefitsthathistoryhastooffer,especiallyitspotentialtobeawhetstoneforsharpeningcriticalintelligence.

    Thepastisrarelysimple.Thereareusuallymorethantwosidestoaquestion:historicaleventsarenotneatlybalancedrectanglesbutirregularpolyhedronsthatshifttheirshapeasonechangesonesperspective.Whenstudentsengagetheirmindson

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    historicalevidence,theypracticeinquiry,evaluation,problemsolving,judgement,andsynthesistheveryskillsneededtobeausefulfriendandaneffectivecitizen.Historicaldocumentsareoneoftheeasiestandmostengagingwaystoteachyoungpeoplehowtothinkclearlyandmakesounddecisions.

    Butbecausestudentsdontusuallyseeprimarysourcesinhistoryclasses,theyreportinoverwhelmingnumbersthathistoryboresthem.Oneformerstudentcalledhishistoryclassesaboutasexcitingasaclamrace.Alltheywantedtotalkaboutwasnumbersanddates.Itceasedtobeaboutpeople.(RogerDaltryintheNewYorkPost,Oct4,2003).

    Usingprimarysourcesputsthepeoplebackin;realpeople,whoactuallyatebreakfast,wenttothebathroom,hadpassionateemotions,andwerecaughtinterribledilemmas.Theirownwordsabouttheirownliveswilloftenseizeastudentsattention.Andbyusingeyewitnessaccountsthatcomefromthestudentsowncityorcounty,orthatwerecreatedbysomeoneintheirownethnicgroup,orwerewrittenbyapersonoftheirowngenderandage,teacherscanquicklyengagestudentswiththeirpast.Thisopensthedoortohelpingthemlearntothinkcritically.

    NoteenagercaresaboutnamesanddatesfromtheCivilWar.Butgivehimorheramanuscriptletterwrittenbyan18yearoldfromthenexttownthatdescribeshislifeinaConfederateprison,andtheirinterestwillpickup.ShowthemtheironcollarthataWisconsinsoldierremovedfromanescapingslaveandletthemreadwhattheslavesaidaboutwhereitcamefrom,andtheirintelligence,imagination,andfeelingswillallshiftintogear.ManywilldisplayareactionliketheveryfirstwegottoourAmericanJourneysdigitalcollection,fromastudentinFlorida:Thisissoooocool!Thanks!

    CausingtheseemotionalreactionsisoneofthegoalsoftheWisconsinHistoricalSocietysdigitizationprogram.WhenastudentexperiencesthatWow!orAha!moment,theycanbeinspiredtoanalyze,evaluate,andthinkcriticallyskillsthatenrichthemforanentirelifetime.Aseducators,weveencouragedkidsforyearstomakesmartchoiceswithoutalwaysteachingthemtheskillstodoit.Bymiddleandhighschool,theyreabletolearntheelementsofcriticalthinking;usinghistoricaldocumentsthatengagetheirheartsaswellastheirheadsisaperfectmethodforteachingthem.

    Allthematerialshereeverypageofthehandbook,andeachofthe50essaysand900documentsontheTurningPointsWebsitemaybefreelycopied,downloaded,andreproducedfornonprofiteducationalusesuchasclassroomhandouts,homeworkassignments,andPowerPointpresentationstoteachersandstudents.Theymaynot,however,becopiedandresoldforcommercialpurposeswithoutpriorpermissionfromtheWisconsinHistoricalSociety,816StateSt.,Madison,WI53706.

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    PartII

    TheElementsofCriticalThinkingCriticalthinking:thementalprocessofactivelyandskillfully

    conceptualizing,applying,analyzing,synthesizing,andevaluating

    information toreachananswerorconclusion*

    10ElementsofCriticalThinking

    1.TheFiveWs p.72.IdentifyingCentralPropositions p.83.IdentifyingUnderlyingAssumptions p.94.IdentifyingPointofView p.115.EvaluatingReasoning p.13 10commonerrors p.146.EvaluatingInferences p.177.EvaluatingEvidence p.188.AssessingCompleteness p.209.ImaginingImplications p.2110.TakingaStand p.22

    *WebstersNewMillenniumDictionaryofEnglishviadictionary.com

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    STEPONE:TheFiveWs

    Thefivethingsthatanewreporterlearnstocoverineveryarticlearealsothethingsyouneedtoconsiderasyoulookatatextorapicture.Beforeyoustartlookingatitclosely,glanceoverthedocumentandtrytoanswerthesequestions.Youmaynotbeabletoanswerallfiveofthematfirst.

    1.Whocreatedit?Whositcreatedfor?Inmosttexts,anauthorsnameappearsnearthetop;sometimes,aswithletters,itwillbeatthebottominstead.Onpictures,thecreatorsnamemayappearinabottomcorner,inacaptionoutsidetheimage,ornowhereatall.Theaudienceusuallyhastobeinferredfromthedocumentscontent.Beforereadingclosely,justbrowsetheitemtoanswerquestionssuchas,wasthisaprivatecommunicationorapublishedone?Isitaimedatyoungpeopleoradults?Menorwomen?Thegeneralpublicorspecialists?Anyspecificethnic,cultural,orlanguagegroup?Anyspecificprofessionalgroup(suchasscientists,lawyers,orlegislators)?Peopleinanyspecificplace?

    2.Whatkindofdocumentisit?Publishedbook?Speech?Privatediary?Letter?Magazinearticle?Photograph?Map?Pamphlet?Advertisement?Politicalhandoutorflyer?Unpublishedmeetingminutes?Legalbrief?Scientificreport?Poster?

    3.Wherewasitmade,andwherewasitsupposedtobedistributed?Publishedworkswillusuallyhaveatitlepage,masthead,orbyline;letterswillusuallyhaveareturnaddress.

    4.Whenwasitmade?Doyouknowaboutanythingelsegoingonatthetime?Publishedworkswillusuallyhaveacleardatesomewherenearthebeginning;letterswillusuallybedatedatthetop.

    5.Whywasitmade?Whatdoyoususpectitscreatorwastryingtoaccomplish?Simplyinformasinglereader?Changepublicopinion?Persuadeinfluentialdecisionmakers?Createalastinghistoricalrecordforposterity?Winacontestsuchasacourtcaseorelection?Educateaparticularaudienceaboutnewfacts?

    Knowingthesethingsaboutthedocumentinadvancehelpsyouunderstandwhatitsaysandtobegintoreachconclusionsaboutitsaccuracy,completeness,biases,andpointofview.

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    STEPTWO:WhatsTheMainPoint(orPoints)?

    Peoplewritebecausetheyhavesomethingtosayandmakepicturesbecausetheyhavesomethingtoshow.Butthemainpointsofadocumentarenotalwayseasytospot.AfteraddressingtheFiveWs,examinethedocumentthisway:Texts

    1.Lookatthebeginning.Themainpointmaybeplainlystated,ortheauthormayposeaquestionheorsheintendstoanswer.

    2.Lookattheend.Theremaybeashortconclusionwheretheauthorsumseverythingup.

    3.Lookatthemiddle.Paragraphsmayopenwithatopicsentenceorendwithaconclusionreached.Chaptersmayhaveentireparagraphsthatdothis.

    4.Lookforwordsthatargue:should,must,ought,necessarily,surely.

    5.Lookforwordsthatexpresscausationorconclusion:because,andso,consequently,therefore,inshort,insum,thus,hence,asaresult,inthatcase,forthatreason,then,accordingly.

    6.Lookforwordsthatexpresspriorities:essential,important,crucial,fundamental,basic.Pictures

    1.Whatsthelargestobject?

    2.Whatdidthecreatorputdeadcenterinthemiddle?

    3.Whatspushedofftotheedgesorintothebackground?

    4.Payattentiontothewayyoureyewandersfromoneobjecttothenext.Doesthissequencemakeapointortellastory?

    5,Payattentiontoyourfeelingsasyoureyewandersaround.Whatobjectsinthepicturescausethemostpowerfulreactioninyou?Whenyouredone,completethesestatements:

    1.Themainthingtheauthororartististryingtosayorshowisthat...

    2.Twolessimportantpointsarethat...

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    STEPTHREE:IdentifyingUnderlyingAssumptions

    Anauthorsmainpointsarentusuallytoohardtofind,butunderlyingassumptionsareadifferentstory.Occasionallytheyreplainlystatedattheoutsetbutmoreoftentheyretakenforgranted;afterall,theyreunderlying,notonthesurface.Tofindthemrequiresyoutothinkandimaginemorethantoreadandexamine.Yourguidingquestionduringthisactivityis,Whatelsehastobetruebeforethemainpointscanbetrue?

    Forexample,ifaplanecrashsurvivorwritesamemoirclaimingthatGodsavedherlife,shehastofirstbelieveinGod.Ifthepersonintheseatnexttoherwasascientist,hiscentralpointmightbeaboutphysicsandhowtheaircraftdesignersforesightsparedtheirlives.ShedneversayIbelieveGodintervenesinhumanaffairs,therefore...orhesay,Ibelieveinthelawsofphysics,therefore...Theywouldbothjusttaketheirstartingassumptionsforgranted.Howdoyoudiscoverwhattheauthorofthedocumentinfrontofyoutakesforgranted?1.Writedownthemainpointsorcentralpropositionsyouidentifiedinsteptwo.Thenaskyourself,whatwouldapersonhavetobelievefirstinorderforthosestatementstobetrue?2.Considertheintendedaudience.Doesthatgroupholdanyvaluesincommonthattheauthorwouldtakeforgranted?SpeechesaboutabortiongivenatRightToLifeorReproductiveFreedomrallieswouldstartfromdifferentassumptionsbecausetheiraudiencesdo.Ifanauthorknowstheaudiencealreadysharesmanyvalues,beliefs,ordesires,thesemaynotbeplainlystatedinthedocument;theyllbetakenforgranted3.Lookfortheauthorsvalues:whatheorsheconsidersgoodandbad,desirableandundesirable.IfamainpointisDonttakedrugsthenoneoftheauthorsvaluesmustbethatdrugsarebad.4.Valuesarealwaysestablishedbysomestandards:somethingisthebest,somethingistheworst,andeverythingelsespreadsoutinbetween.Whatwordsareusedtodescribetheverybestoutcome,characteristic,orsituation?Whatisheldupasthebiggestobstacleorgreatestthreattothat?5.Lookfortheauthorsbiasesandprejudices:thevaluesthataresoimportantthattheauthordoesntevenexplainordefendthem.Thesearesometimeseasytospot,aswhenanauthorforcefullydenouncesanopposingpointofviewwithoutofferingmuch,orany,evidence.Strongstatementsthatarentbackedbyexplanationorevidenceareusuallybiases.

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    6.Lookfortheauthorsomissionsandsilences:aspectsoftheissuethatarentthereatall.Whatanauthorsaysisonlyhalfthestory;whatgoesunsaidcompletesthepicture.Thinkabouttheauthorscentralpropositionandconsiderwhichissuesareimportanttoanydiscussionofit.Didtheauthortakeallofthoseintoaccount,orignoreanyimportantones?Ifanauthorarguesthatwomenshouldnotbeallowedtoholdjobsoutsidethehome(whichistrueformillionsofwomenaroundtheworldtoday),heprobablyholdsstrongvaluesaboutgenderthatmaynotbestatedorexplainedanywhereinhistext.Whenyouredone,completethesestatements:

    1.Forthemainpointtobetrue,thesethingsmustbetruefirst:...2.Theauthorsmostimportantvaluesseemtobe...3.Theauthorsstandardsofbestandworstappeartobe4.Theauthormightbebiasedabout...

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    STEPFOUR:IdentifyingPointofView

    Almosteverycreatorofadocumentembracesaclusterofbeliefs,desires,andvaluesthatgotogether.Thisishisorherconceptualframework,orpointofview,whichisusuallysharedbyacommunityoflikemindedpeople.

    Weoftenhanglabelsontheseworldviewssuchasliberalorconservative,andwegrouppeoplewhosharethemunderheadingslikehippiesorIslamicFundamentalists.Theselabelsarealwaystoosimplistic;lifessimplymorecomplicatedthanthat.Butidentifyingadocumentsbasicpointofviewisneverthelessimportantbecauseitenablesyoutoconnectitwithestablishedpatternsofthinking.AnsweringthequestionWherearetheycomingfrom?permitsyoutounderstandadocumentbyputtingitinacontext.1.Lookattheaudienceyouidentifiedandthepurposeyoudiscoveredinstepone.Lookatthelistsofmainpointsandassumptionsyoudrewupinstepstwoandthree.Whatdotheyhaveincommon?Dotheymakeapatternthatyoucannameorrecognize?2.Lookatthedocumentagain,notinganybuzzwords,jargon,orkeyvocabularyrepeatedthroughoutit.Isthereaclusterofkeyconceptsinthoseoftenusedterms?3.Whatauthoritiesdoesthewriterappealtooruseasexamplesscientists,historicalfigures,religiousleaders,fictionalheroes,previouswriters?Whatdoyouknowabouttheirpointsofview?4.Whatdothemainpointsandunderlyingassumptionsseemtobeonthefollowingpairsofissues:

    freedomvs.authorityequalityvs.meritpersonallibertyvs.publicorderlocalregionvs.nationindividualrightsvs.commongood

    obeyingthelawvs.obeyingonesconsciencetolerancevs.imposedstandardscivicdutyvs.privategainobligationvs.pleasure

    5.Hundredsofwaysexisttoclassifyconceptualframeworksandworldviews.Trytoidentifytheauthorspointofviewusingawellknownlabellikeoneofthese(oranother).

    atheistChristianconservativefascistfeministFreudianhumanist

    liberallibertarianMarxistprogressivereactionaryscientificutopian

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    STEPFIVE:EvaluatingReasoningA.FindingtheArgument

    Mostdocumentstrytomakeapointorreachaconclusionbyofferingreasons.Theymakeanargument,aseriesofpointsthatadvocatesomething.Heresafamousexampleusedinphilosophyclassesfor2000years:

    Premise1: AllmenaremortalPremise2: SocratesisamanConclusion: Therefore,Socratesismortal

    Thisthreepartargumentiscalledasyllogism.

    Heresawellknowngraduationjoke:Ofcoursetheresalotofknowledgeinuniversities:thefreshmenbringalittlein;theseniorsdonttakemuchaway,soknowledgesortofaccumulates.(early20thc.HarvardPresidentAbbottLawrenceLowell):

    Premise1: Freshmenbringalittle(knowledge)inPremise2: SeniorstakenoneawayPremise3: KnowledgeaccumulatesConclusion: Theresalotofknowledgeinuniversities

    Lookbackoverthelistsofcentralpointsandassumptionsyouidentifiedearlier.

    Youllprobablyseesomeconclusionssupportedbysomepremises.Thepremisestrytoprovidejustification,evidence,orsupportfortheconclusion;theymaybeamongtheunderlyingassumptionsyoudiscovered.Answerthesequestions:

    1.Whatistheauthorsmostimportantpoint,centralproposition,ormainconclusionthebigonethatpromptedhimorhertocreatethetext?2.Whatpremisesdoesitreston?Whatreasonsdoestheauthorgivetopersuadeyouthatyoushouldagreewithit?3.Tryrestatingthepremisesandconclusionsasintheexamplesabove.

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    B.ExaminingtheArgumentsLogic

    Badargumentsdontmakesense.Makingsensemeansthatonepointfollowslogicallyfromanotherandthattheconclusionfollowsfromthepremises.IfIminWisconsinandtellyou,IhavetogotoChicagosoImheadingnorth,youllthinkImweird.Theconclusion(headnorth)doesntfollowlogicallyfromthepremise(gofromWisconsintoChicago).Badargumentsfallintowellknownpatternscalledfallaciesthataredescribedonthenextsheet,CommonErrorsofLogicinArgumentativeWriting.

    Soundorvalidarguments,ontheotherhand,arereasonable;theyfollowtherulesoflogic.Therearetwomainpatternsofvalidargument,deductiveandinductive.Inadeductiveargument,thepremisesinevitablyprovetheconclusion;logically,theycantleadanywhereelseandtheconclusionneedsnoothersupport(liketheSocratesexample,above).Incontrast,thepremisesofaninductiveargumentonlysuggestorpointtoaconclusionwithoutprovingitbeyondalldoubt;usuallytheyrelyonprobabilitytohelpthereaderinfermakealogicalleaptotheconclusion.Example:Imalmostneverlateforschool,soIwontbelatetoday.Infact,youmightenduplateeventhoughyouprobablywont;theresnocausalconnectionbetweenthepremise(almostnever)andtheconclusion(Iwontbelatetoday).Instead,youhavetomakealeapoffaithbetweenthetwo. Lookattheargumentthatyououtlinedaboveandtrytoanswerthesequestionsaboutit:

    1.Aretheauthorspremisesclear?Aretheytrue?Aretheysupportedbyanyevidence?2..Doestheconclusionfollowlogicallyfromthepremises?3.Howmanyofthelogicalerrorslistedonthenextsheetdoestheauthorcommit?

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    10CommonErrorsofLogicinArgumentativeWriting

    adaptedfromSteveMoiles,SouthernIllinoisUniversity(www.siue.edu/~smoiles/fallac.html)1.HastyGeneralization:basingconclusionsonirrelevant,incomplete,orinaccurateevidence:Myaccountcantbeoverdrawn;Istillhavechecksleft.2.FaultyCauseandEffect:assumingthatbecauseBfollowsAintime,AmustbethecauseofB:AfterthousandsofimmigrantscametotheU.S.,theCivilWarbrokeout.ImmigrationcausedtheCivilWar.3.ReductiveReasoning:reducingacomplexeffecttoasinglecause:Drugabusewouldntbeaproblemifkidswouldjustsayno.4.FalseAnalogies:comparingtwothingsthataremoredifferentthantheyaresimilar:WhydoIhavetotakecertaincoursesbeforeIcangraduate?NoonerequiresmetobuycertaingroceriesbeforeIcanleavethesupermarket.5.Circularreasoning:restatingtheconclusioninsteadofsupportingit:Hecantbemarried,hesabachelor.6.Equivocation:usingaterminacompletelydifferentwaythanonesopponentusesit:IshouldntbeprosecutedforstealingacopyoftheDetroitFreePress.WereguaranteedourrighttoafreepressbytheConstitution.7.AdHominemArgument:attackingtheopponentpersonallyratherthanhisorherargument:Thepresidentseconomicstimulusprogramshouldntbetakenseriously.HehadanaffairwithaWhiteHouseintern,afterall.8.FalseEither/OrArgument:assumingthatonlytwoalternativesexistinacomplexsituation:Eitherwesupportthedeathpenaltyorweallowcrimetorunrampant.9.BandwagonAppeal:arguingthatreadersshouldacceptsomethingbecauseitispopular:80%oftheAmericanpublicarepracticingChristians,soGodmustexist.10.BeggingtheQuestion:avoidingthepointtobeproven:Q:Whyareyoubangingonthatpansoloudly?A:Tokeepthewildtigersaway.Q:TherearentanywildtigersinWisconsin!Q:Worksreallywell,doesntit?

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    C.ExaminingtheArgumentsClarity Soundargumentsuseplainlanguageandareclearlyexpressed.Askhowwellyourdocumentmeetsthefollowingimportantcriteria:

    1.Definitionofterms.Doestheauthorclearlyexplainwhatheorshemeansbykeyvocabulary?Doestheauthorusetermsthatarevagueortermsthatareprecise(Christianvs.RomanCatholic;sciencevs.molecularbiology)?Termsthatcanmeandifferentthingstodifferentpeople(liberation,terrorist)?Emotionallychargedtermsthatrefertoambiguousgeneralities(freedom,theAmericanDream)?

    2.Precision:Doestheauthorusesentencesthathaveasingleplainmeaning(25ofthe37peoplepresentreportedthat...)orvagueandoversimplifiedones(Mostpeoplewouldsurelyagreethat...)?Arehisorherstatementsconfusedornonsensical(AlthoughImanonlychild,ifIhadasisterIknowshewouldlikecheese)?

    3.Logicalconsistency:Dopropositionscontradictoneanother?Doestheauthor

    makeaclaiminoneplace,andthenmakeanotherclaimelsewherethatcontradictsthefirstone?

    4.Relevance:Howcloselydotheexamplesgiven,authoritiescited,andevidenceofferedrelatetotheissueunderdiscussion?Isthedocumentpaddedwithpowerfullanguageoremotionalexamplesthatdontfocusonthecentralquestion?

    Unclearpremises,unsupportedconclusions,faultylogic,vagueorambiguousterminology,andemotionallycharged,unclear,orirrelevantstatementsarereasonstodoubtanauthorsconclusions.

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    D.Glossary

    Argument:Aseriesofpointsthatadvocatesomething.Point:Astatementoraproposition.Premise:Apreliminarypointthatjustifiesaconclusion;oftenthereareaseriesoftheseleadinglogicallyfromonetoanother.Conclusion:Thefinalpointthatclaimstobetruebecauseofthepremises.Deductive(tion):Anargumentwherethepremiseslogicallyprovetheconclusion.Tosaytheconclusiondidntfollowfromthepremiseswouldbenonsense.Entail(ment):PremisesinadeductiveargumentaresaidtoentailtheconclusionbecausetheconclusionisalogicalandnecessaryconsequenceofthepremisesInductive(tion):Anargumentwherethepremisesonlysuggestorsupporttheconclusionwithoutabsolutelyprovingit.Theconclusionmaybeverylikelybutisnotlogicallyinescapable.Infer(ence):Mentalactivityinwhichareaderextrapolatesfrompremisestoaconclusion,makingalogicalleap;usuallyinferencesarebasedonprobability:onlyoneairplanein10,000crashes,soitssafeformetoflytoday.Inferencescanbestrong(thatis,verylikely)orweak(notsolikely).Fallacy:Anillogicalorunreliableargument;see10CommonErrorsofLogicinArgumentativeWriting.Syllogism:A3partargumentwithamajorpremiseandaminorpremiseleadingtoaconclusion

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    STEPSIX:EvaluatingInferences

    Themostpersuasiveargumentsaredeductive,andcontainlogicalproofoftheirconclusion:If2+2=4,then2+2+2=6.Nootherconclusionislogicallypossibleandnootherproofisneeded.

    Butmostargumentsarenotsocertain:theirpremisesdontprovetheirconclusionthroughinescapablelogicbutonlyleadupto,orimply,it.Intheseargumentswehavetoinferaconclusionbyextrapolatingfromthepremises.Theseinductiveargumentscanbebasedonlimitedcausalreasonsoronanalogies,buttheyareusuallybasedonprobability:Onlyoneairplanein100,000crashes,soitssafeformetoflytoday.Thereisnoironcladlogicalproofbetweenthepremiseandtheconclusionhere.Myplanecould,infact,betheveryonein100,000thatcrashesnext.Butitsprobablysafeformetoflytodayanyway.

    Inferencescanbestrong(thatis,verylikely)orweak(notsolikely).Stronginferenceshavegoodevidenceoflikelihoodbehindthem,suchasresearch,statisticaltesting,orwideexperience.Weakinferencesshowlessevidenceandrelymoreonhope,faith,ortrustthanondemonstratedprobability.Whenajuryisinstructedtodecideadefendantsfatebeyondareasonabledoubt,thejudgeisaskingthemnottoconvictunlesstheyhavedeductiveprooforastronginferenceofguilt.

    Lookattheargumentsyouidentifiedinyourdocumentandanswerthesequestions:

    1.Doestheauthoreveruseadeductiveargument(oneinwhichtheconclusionislogicallyinescapableifthepremisesaretrue)?2.Doestheauthoreveruseaninductiveargument(oneinwhichtheconclusionmustbeinferredfromthepremises)?3.Istheauthorsinferenceastrongone?

    Relianceinferencesmoreoftenthanonproof,andrelyingonweakinferencesratherthanstrongones,arereasonstodoubtanauthorsconclusions.

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    STEPSEVEN:EvaluatingEvidence

    Theevidenceanauthoroffersthereadershouldanswerthequestion,Howdoyouknow?Documentscancontaintwotypesofevidence,personalexperienceandappealstoauthority.Throughdescriptionofhisorherownexperience,directquotations,orreferencestoothersources,anauthorestablisheshisorhercredibility.PersonalExperiences

    Eyewitnessaccountsandotherprimarysourcesareoftenfullofinterestandemotionallypowerful.Butthatdoesntmakethemtrue.Differentwitnessesoftenhavedifferentversionsofthesameevent.Toevaluatethereliabilityofafirsthandreport,assessthesecharacteristicsofit:

    Proximity:Wastheauthoractuallythere?washeorsheinapositiontoknow?Timeliness:Howsoonaftertheeventwastheevidencecreated?Breadth:Howmuchoftheeventcouldtheauthorhaveexperienced,thewholethingoronlyatinypart?Whatslikelytohavebeenignored,coveredup,highlighted,oroveremphasized?Clarity:Doestheauthorclearlyexplainwho,what,where,when,andwhy?PointofView:Whatmighttheauthorchoosetoomit(ornotevenhavenoticed)becauseofhisorherworldview?Bias:Whatbeliefs,desires,orvaluesmayhaveinfluencedtheauthorsperceptionsordescriptions?

    AppealtotheExperiencesofOthers

    Mosthistoricaldocumentsalsouseargumentsbasedontheexperiencesofpeopleotherthantheauthor.Toassesstheirreliability,applythequestionsabovetothesourcestheauthorquotes;howtrustworthyarethey?Thenevaluatehowtheauthorusesevidencefromexternalauthorities:

    Relevance:Arethesourcesquotedactuallyaboutthemaintopic,oraretheybroughtinfromsomeothercontext?Dotheystrengthentheargumentslogicorsimplydropnames?Breadth:Doestheauthorprovideawiderangeofauthoritiesoranarrowrange?

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    Completeness:Doestheauthoradmittheremaybeconflictingevidenceandexplainwhyheorsherejectsit,orarecontradictorysourcesjustsilentlyomitted?Documentation:Doestheauthoridentifysourcesofevidenceinfootnotesorothercitationsaccuratelyenoughforyoutolocateandexaminethemyourself?

    Applythetestsdescribedabovetoamodernorahistoricaldocument,thenanswerthesequestions:

    1.Whattypesofevidencedoestheauthorgive?2.Istheevidencedirectlyrelevanttothecentralquestionormainpoint?3.Istheevidencefromknowledgeableandtrustworthysources?4.Howmuchdoestheevidencehelppersuadeyouthattheauthorsmainconclusionsarecorrect?

    Insufficient,untrustworthy,incomplete,orirrelevantevidenceandpoordocumentation(suchaslackoffootnotesorotherclearreferencestosourcesofinformation)arereasonstodoubtanauthorsconclusions.

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    STEPEIGHT:AssessingCompleteness

    Manydocumentspresentonlyonepointofview,andperhapsacknowledgeanopposingviewpointonlylongenoughtorejectit.Butmostimportantissueshavemorethantwosides:theyarenotlikesimplestraightlinesdemandingachoicebetweenblackandwhite,butratherlikeirregularpolyhedronswithmanydifferentsides,somemoreimportantandcomplicatedthanothers.

    Decidingwhichsideofanissuetotakeandwhichaspectstoleaveoutisajudgement,andinthatsimplechoiceliesmuchofadocumentsmeaning.Amerchantrecallingatripmightincludemanydetailsaboutgoodsandpriceswhileascientisttravelingbesidehimmainlydescribestheplantsandanimalstheyencountered.Whatisomittedtellsusaboutthecreatorsprioritiesandvalues.

    Inadocumentthatsmeanttopersuade,completenessisreflectedintheargumentsdepthandbreadth.Bydepthwemeanhowwellitaddressesthecomplexitiesofthetopic.Bybreadthwemeanhowwellitaddressesotherperspectivesorapproachestothetopic.

    Toassessthecompletenessofanydocument,youneedtorelyonyourownknowledgeandunderstandingofthesubjectaswellasyourcreativityandimagination.Locateashortessaysuchasanencyclopediaarticleonthetopicthatyourdocumentisabout.IfitisaboutWisconsinhistory,youllfindreliableshortsummariesofallimportanteventsatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints.YourU.S.historytextbookmayalsohaveafewpagesorparagraphsabouttheeventsthatproducedthedocument.Readthese,thenreviewthedocumentsmainpointsandtheaudienceandpointofviewyouidentified.Lookatthelistsofpremisesandconclusionsyoucompiled.Thenanswerthefollowingquestionsaboutthedocumentscompleteness:

    1.Omissions:Whathasbeenleftoutbytheauthorthatismentionedintheencyclopediaarticlesortextbook?Howimportantisthismissinginformation?Ifithadbeenincluded,howwouldtheargumentbedifferent?Woulditspremisesorconclusionchange?

    2.Depth:Doestheauthortakeintoaccountallthecomplexitiesofthemainissue,orsimplifyit?Howimportantaretheomissionstoanunderstandingoftheissue?Arethereimportantrelatedquestionsthattheauthordoesnttalkaboutatall?

    3.Breadth:Doestheauthortakeintoaccountotherpointsofview?Aretherealternativewaystounderstandtheproblem,ortotrytosolveit?Iftheauthordoestalkaboutsuchalternatives,aretheytreatedclearly,carefully,andindepth?Whatpointofvieworconclusionwoulddirectlyopposetheauthors?Doesheorshespecificallytalkaboutthatviewpointandexplaintoyoursatisfactionwhyithasbeenrejected?

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    STEPNINE:ImaginingImplications

    Theimplicationsofaconclusionarethethingsthatwouldfollowiftheconclusionistrue:Ifthiswereso,whatelsewouldhappen?Inotherwords,wheredoestheargumentlead?

    Ifmightmakesrightisatrueconclusionandthemostpowerfulpeopleinsocietyoughttocontrolsociallife,hereareafewimplications:

    societywillalwaysbeatwar,asforcescompeteforcontrol;weakornoncombativepeoplewillhavenosayinpublicaffairs;democraticelectionswillnotbeneeded.

    Ifthemainpointadvocatedinyourdocumentcametrue,thenwhatwould

    follow?Iftheauthorspreferredoutcomeisaccomplished,whatelsewillfollow?Howwilltheworldbedifferent?Takeafewminutestodothefollowing:

    1.Restatethemainpointinyourownwords2.Listseveralimplicationsofit.

    3.Dotheimplicationsproduceanunsupportableconclusionorundesirableoutcome?

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    STEPTEN:TakingaStand

    Analyzingandunderstandingotherpeoplestextsandpicturesisonlythefirsthalfofcriticalthinking.Theotherhalfisbeingabletopresentyourownthoughtsinawaythatisclear,accurate,thorough,andmakessense.Todothis,youneedtoturntheprecedingninestepsontheirhead:insteadofaskingquestionstoseeifadocumentembodiesgoodcriticalthinking,youneedtoexpressyourownideasthatway.

    Selectapropositionoraclaimadvancedinahistoricaldocument:slaveryshouldbeabolished,schoolsshouldteachclassesonlyinEnglish,governmentauthoritycomesfromtheconsentofthegovernment,womenshouldnotbeallowedtovote,etc.Ortakeacontroversialissueinthenewstoday:gaycouplesshouldbeallowedtomarry,abortionsshouldbeoutlawed,theU.S.shouldwithdrawfromIraq,smokingshouldbeprohibitedinpublicplaces,etc.

    Phraseyourclaimasasimplepropositionandthendothefollowing:

    1.Prepareashortparagraphthatputstheissueincontextexplainingwho,what,where,when,andwhyinaveryconciseway,notmorethanashortsentenceoneachofthefiveWs(allfivemaynotbeapplicable).

    2.Whatwillbethekeytermsandconceptsinyourdiscussionofthistopic?Writeaverybriefdefinitionofeach.

    3.Foryourconclusiontobetrue,whatpremisesmustbetrue?Listthepremises,includinganyunderlyingassumptions,beliefs,desires,andvaluesyouhaveabouttheissue(examples:abortionshouldbeoutlawedbecause:1,abortionismurder;2,murderbreaksoneoftheTenCommandments;3,ImaChristianwhobelievesinthose)

    4.Howdoyouknowyoureright?Whatevidencemightyouneedtocollectinordertodiscoverifyourpremisesaretrue?

    5.Howdoesyourconclusionfollowfromyourpremises?Dothepremises*logicallyprove*theconclusionisinescapable(deductions)?Ordothepremises*onlysuggest*theconclusionislikely(inferences)?

    6.Whatotherpointsofview,evidence,andconclusionsmightbepossibleonthistopic?Listthem.Whatwouldmakeyouchooseonepointofviewratherthananother?

    7.Ifyourconclusioniscorrect,whatwouldhappennext?Whatimplicationsdoesyourargumentsuggest?

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    PartIII

    NurturingCriticalThinkingintheClassroom

    30ClassroomTechniquesThatEncourageCriticalThinking p.24pedagogicaldevicesthatdemandthinkingfromstudents

    EncouragingCriticalThinkingduringDiscussions p.26

    gettingstudentstothinkontheirfeetEncouragingCriticalThinkingthroughAssignmentInstructions p.27

    gettingstudentstothinkatthekeyboardEvaluatingCriticalThought p.28

    gettingstudentstorecognizeclearthinking

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    1.30ClassroomTechniquesThatEncourageCriticalThinkingAdaptedfromTheMiniatureGuideforThoseWhoTeachonPracticalWaystoPromoteActive&CooperativeLearningbyWesleyHilerandRichardPaul(SonomaStateUniv.:FoundationforCriticalThinking,2002)andUsingInternetPrimarySourcestoTeachCriticalThinkingSkillsinHistorybyKathleenW.Craver(Westport,Conn.:Greenwood,1999)

    1.Startclasseswithaquestion:setupanticipationbeforeclassbegins.2.Assignquestionsforthemtoanswerabouttheirreading:explainwhyandhow...3.Givea5minutequizatthestartofclass(keepsstudentsengaged).4.Usechartsandgraphics(visuallearnersabound).5.Havethemplayroles:giveaspeechasiftheyweretheauthorofthedocument.6.Havethemidentifypremises,assumptionsandconclusionsintodaysnewspaper.7.Havethemevaluatereasoning,evidence,andcompletenessintodaysnewspaper.8.Useindexcardstocallonallstudentsrandomly.9.Makestudentsfigurethingsoutinclass(combinethemintosmallgroupstodiscusssolutions).10.Intervieweachotherandrestatetheotherpersonsviewstotheclass.11.Talkless;givethemtimetothinkaboutwhatyouvesaid.12.Modelcriticalthinking:thinkaloudonyourfeetinfrontofthem.13.UseSocraticquestioning:Whatpreciselydoyoumean?Howdoyouknow?Whatisyourreason?Whatelsehastobetrueforthattobeso?etc.14.Promotecollaboration:havesmallgroupssolveproblemsandadoptpositions.15.Usepyramidteaching:discussinpairs,thensmallgroups,thenlargergroups.

  • 25

    16.Useprewritingorfreewriting:startclassbyhavingthemwriteabouttodaystopicnonstopfor5minutes(cannotliftpenfrompaperorstopwritingfor5minutes).17.Usepeerrevieworsmallgroupstoevaluateeachothersinclasswork.18.Usecounterfactualquestions:Butwhatif...?Whynot?19.Requirealearninglog:havethemkeepatwocolumnnotebookinwhichthelefthandcolumncontainstopicsofreadingsandlecturesandtherighthandcontainswhattheythinkaboutthetopicsbeforeandaftercomingtoclass(handthisinperiodicallyforreview).20.Organizedebates:askthemtotakesidesonanissue,choosegroupsof2or3tobrainstorm,thenhavethempresenttheirpositionsinfrontoftheclass.21.Havethemwritedialoguesaroundanissue:forcesthemtotakebothsides.22.Havethemexplainthepurposeofanygivenassignmentintheirownwords.23.Havethemdocumenttheirprogress:

    atthestartofeachclass,theywritewhattheythinkaboutthetopic;attheendofclass,theyexplainhowtheirthinkingchanged.

    24.Breakassignmentsdownstepbystep:manylearnersrequiresmallbits.25.Encouragediscoveryratherthanmemorization:giveproblemsolvingassignments(canbedoneingroupsorpeerreviewedtosaveyougradingtime).26.Promoteselfassessment:spelloutgradingcriteriaandmakethemapplyittotheirownoreachotherswork.27.HavethemapplythecriteriaforEvaluatingCriticalThoughttoaneditorialintodaysnewspaper,ortotheirownoraclassmateswork.28.Havethemorganizeandclassifyagroupofshortdocumentsbypointsofview.29.Havethemparaphraseadocumentsargumentintheirownwords.30.Havethemrankagroupofshortdocumentsinorderbypersuasiveness,completeness,depth,breadth,andothercriteriaofgoodcriticalthinking.

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    2.EncouragingCriticalThinkingDuringDiscussionsKnowingthisrepertoireofopenendedquestionswillpushyourstudentstoexercisetheircriticalthinkingskillsduringclassdiscussions.GeneralClarificationQuestions

    Wouldyousayalittlemoreaboutthat?Whydidyousaythat?Whatdoyoumean?

    MainPointQuestions

    LetmeseeifIhavethisright.Isthisyourmainpoint?Itakeitthatyourmainpointis..Justwhatexactlyisyourthesis?

    ReasonSeekingQuestions

    Couldyousayalittlemoreaboutyourreasonsforbelievingthat?PerhapsyoucouldelaborateonyourreasoningWhydidyousaythat?Whydoyoubelievethat?Doyouhavereasonsforthat/thoseconclusion(s)?

    QuestionsSeekingRelevanceBetweentheReasonsandtheConclusions

    Iwanttounderstandyou.Couldyouelaborateontheconnectionbetweenthereasonandtheconclusion?Areyouassuming..?ImnotsureIseethebearingofthispointonyourconclusion.Wouldmoreevidencehelp?Howwouldyougetatit?Howdoesthissupporttheconclusion?Howisthatrelevant?

    QuestionsSeekingClarificationofMeaning

    Imnotsurehowyouareusingthisword.Couldyougiveanexampleof..?Couldyougiveanegativeexampleof.?Wouldthisbeanexampleof..?Perhapswearetalkingpasteachother.Areweusingthiswordinthesameway?Whatdoyoumeanby?By.doyoumean.?

    adaptedfromRobertH.Ennis,CriticalThinking(UpperSaddleRiver,NJ:PrenticeHall,1996).

  • 27

    3.EncouragingCriticalThinkingthroughAssignmentInstructionsAskingstudentstoperformthesespecificskillsonhomeworkassignments,quizzesandtestswillhonetheirthinkingskills.

    Explainhow.ExplainwhyHoware..and.similar?Howcould.beusedto?Howdoyouknowthat.?Howdoes..applytoeverydaylife?Howdoes.connectwithwhatwehavealreadylearnedfrom..?If.istrue,whatelseisalsoprobablytrue?Listsomereasons,instatementsbeginning,BecauseOutlinethereasoning(premisesandconclusions)in.Restateinyourownwords..Whataretheimplicationsof?Whatarethestrengthsandweaknessesof.?Whatdowealreadyknowabout?WhatdoyouthinkcausesWhy?Whatdoes..mean?Whatisacounterargumentfor?Whatisanewexampleof?Whatisanotherwaytolookat.?Whatisbeingsilentlytakenforgrantedhere?Whatissomedifferencesbetween..and?Whatisthenatureof?Whatwouldbetheoppositeviewpointof..?Whatwouldhappenif?Whydoyouthinkthat.?Whyis..important?

    ForexamplesofquestionssuchastheseappliedtohistoricaldocumentsseePartV,20ModelLessonsUsingPrimarySourcesfromWisconsinHistory

    adaptedfromComparisonofSelfQuestioning,SummarizingandNotetakingReviewasStrategiesforLearningfromLectures,byAlisonKing.AmericanEducationalResearchJournal29

    (1992).

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    4.EvaluatingCriticalThought

    Onascaleof1to5,pleasecharacterizehowwellthesestandardsofcriticalthoughtweremetinthedocumentunderreview

    clear 1 2 3 4 5 unclearprecise 1 2 3 4 5 imprecisespecific 1 2 3 4 5 vagueaccurate 1 2 3 4 5 inaccuraterelevant 1 2 3 4 5 irrelevantbelievable 1 2 3 4 5 implausibleconsistent 1 2 3 4 5 contradictoryfair 1 2 3 4 5 biasedlogical 1 2 3 4 5 illogicaldeep 1 2 3 4 5 superficialbroad 1 2 3 4 5 narrowcomplete 1 2 3 4 5 incomplete

    Whatisthesinglemostimportantthingthatcouldbedonetoimprovethisdocument?

    adaptedfromUsingInternetPrimarySourcestoTeachCriticalThinkingSkillsinHistorybyKathleenW.Craver(Westport,Conn.:Greenwood,1999)

  • 29

    PartIV

    PrimarySourcesonWisconsinHistoryAvailableFreeOnline

    Primarysourceishistoriansjargonfordocumentscreatedbyparticipantsinoreyewitnessestohistoricalevents.Thoughtheycantakemanydifferentforms,primarydocumentsallsharethecommoncharacteristicofbeingfirsthandevidence.Primarysourcesarecontrastedwithsecondarysources,orinformationproducedbypeoplewhowerenotparticipantsintheeventsdescribed,suchasclassroomtextbooksorscholarlyarticles.Examplesofprimarysourcesinclude:

    booksproducedatthetimepamphletsmagazinearticlesnewspaperstorieslettersdiariesgovernmentreportslawsspeeches

    interviewssongsphotographsengravingsmapscartoonsadvertisementspostersmuseumobjects

    Asthislistsuggests,primarysourcescomeinmanytypesprintedpublications,handwrittenmanuscripts,graphicalimages,museumartifacts,soundandvideorecordings,etc.

    TheWisconsinHistoricalSocietyhasmadetensofthousandsofprimarysourcesavailableonitsWebsiteforfree.Themosthelpfulcollectionforusewiththishandbookis

    TurningPointsinWisconsinHistory

    locatedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints

    TurningPointscontainsdigitalreproductionsofroughly1,000primarysourcesonWisconsinevents,includingnearlyallthetypeslistedabove.YoucanbrowsethroughitusingDPIstenmainthemesforteachingWisconsinhistory,orsearchitbytyping

  • 30

    keywordsintosearchboxesorbyopeningdropdownmenus.ThereareeyewitnessaccountsfromallerasinU.S.andWisconsinhistory,anddocumentsormuseumartifactsfromeveryhistoricalperiodoverthelast5,000years.ThereareprimarysourcesfromnearlyeveryWisconsincounty(typethecountynameinthesearchbox),andalargenumberofdiaries,memoirsandothereyewitnessaccountswrittenbyyoungpeople.Youlldiscoverprimarysourcesfromeverymajorethnicgroup,andwrittenbywomen,children,andworkingclasspeoplewhosevoicesarenotoftenheardinthestandardtextbooks.

    Youllalsofindshortbackgroundessaysonmorethan50pivotaleventsinWisconsinhistory(who,what,where,when,why),annotationsexplainingeachprimarysource(whereitcamefromandwhyitsimportant),100modernreferencemaps,anonlineDictionaryofWisconsinHistory,dozensoflessonplans,andtheentirecontentsofthishandbook.

    AsetofpagesatTurningPointscalledUsingPrimarySourcesoffersmoreadvice

    onhowtoutilizethemintheclassroom,includingmastersofdocumentanalysisworksheetsthatyoucanprintoffandduplicate.

    OtheronlinecollectionsofWisconsinprimarysourcesavailableforfreeatthe

    SocietysWebsitearelistedathttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/collections.asp.Theseinclude15,000photographsandotherimagesfromtheSocietyArchives,hundredsofpaintingsandthousandsofpiecesofclothingfromtheSocietyMuseum,50,000pagesofWisconsinnewspaperstoriesfromtheSocietyLibrary,andhundredsofrarebooksandmanuscripts.

    Whenyouwanttoshowstudentshownationaleventsaffectedtheirown

    community,startatTurningPointsinWisconsinHistory.

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    PartV

    20ModelLessonsUsingPrimarySourcesonWisconsinHistory

    Onthefollowingpagesare20lessonsthatusespecificprimarysourcesfromWisconsinhistorytodevelopstudentscriticalthinkingskills.Eachlessonincludes:

    thetopicinU.S.orWisconsinhistorythatthelessondealswiththebasichistoricalfactsabouttheeventlinkstoshortbackgroundarticleswhereyoullfindthebasicfactslinkstospecificprimarysourcesforstudentstoexamineandanalyzebackgroundonthatdocument(who,what,where,when,why)linkstotworelateddocumentscreatedbythesamehistoricalevents8to12questionsthatfostercriticalthinkingaboutthedocumentWisconsin8thgradeand12thgradestandardsthatthelessonhelpstomeet

    Usethe30ClassroomTechniquesThatEncourageCriticalThinkingtoadaptthesemodelstoyourspecificclassroomsituation.

    The20Lessons(thetypeofdocumenttoanalyzeisgiveninparentheses):

    1.1673:MarquetteandJolietExploretheMississippi(travelnarrative)2.1702:TheEffectsoftheFurTrade(missionarysletter)3.1763:PontiacUrgesWisconsinIndianstoFight(speech)4.(1783)1846:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoOwnProperty?(lawyersspeech&

    womanslettertoeditor)5.1827:JosephStreetTriestoPreventtheBlackHawkWar(manuscriptreport)6.1850:TheU.S.GovernmentDeceivestheOjibwe(manuscriptpetitions&letters)7.1854:ARealLifeLittleHouseStory(pioneermemoir)8.1862:AWisconsinSoldierRefusestoGiveSlavesBacktoTheirOwners(military

    correspondence)9.1865:ShouldBlackCitizensBeAllowedtoVote?(newspaperarticle)10.1869:ShouldWisconsinsForestsBeSaved?(scientificreport)11.1881:WhoBuilttheEffigyMounds?(newspaperarticle)12.1886:ShouldGovernmentUseViolencetoSuppressDemonstrations?(memoirs)13.1890:EnglishonlyinWisconsinSchools?(politicalspeech)14.1910:ShouldNativeAmericanChildrenBeMainstreamed?(newspaperarticle)15.1911:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoVote?(politicalflyer)16.1918:GermanLanguageBooksBurnedintheStreet(photograph)17.1935:WhatShouldtheGovernmentDoaboutUnemploymentandPoverty?

    (governmentofficialsmemoir)18.1950:CommunistandAntiCommunistPropaganda(politicalcampaignliterature)19.19661984:DesegregatingWisconsinSchoolsandNeighborhoods(interviews).20.19751990:AccommodatingNewImmigrants(Hmongteenagersmemoir)

    SeveralpagesattheendofthissectionintegratetheselessonsintospecificunitswithinthemostpopularU.S.historytextbooks.

  • 32

    LESSONONE MarquetteandJolietExploretheMississippiin1673Introduction:Between1492and1580theSpanishinvadedCentralAmericainsearchofsilverandgold.Between1534and1673theFrenchinvadedNorthAmericainsearchoffursandsouls.Theiroccupationbeganatseaboardvillages,grewwiththefoundingofQuebecin1608,andrapidlyspreadtotheGreatLakes.By1622,whentheMayflowerPilgrimshadbarelymovedamileinlandfromPlymouthharbor,FrenchexplorerEtienneBrulewasskirtingtheWisconsinshoreofLakeSuperior.FrenchexplorationculminatedinthefamousvoyageofFatherJacquesMarquetteandLouisJolietdowntheMississippiin1673.Afterthat,ledbytheexplorerLaSalle,theFrenchbuiltagreatarcofmilitarycampsandtradingpoststhatstretchedfromNewfoundlandwestthroughtheGreatLakesandsouthtoNewOrleans.Downthatcurvetrickledfurtradersandmissionaries,andbackupitflowedthousandsofbeaver,marten,otter,andotherskins.Forthenextcenturyandahalf,FrenchcultureandcommercedominatedOuisconsin.BackgroundReading:ArrivaloftheFirstEuropeanshttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp006/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:TheMississippiVoyageofJollietandMarquette.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=370Who,What,Where,When,Why:FatherJacquesMarquettewrotethisdocumentasthecleancopyofajournalhekeptonthevoyage;itwasintendedforhissuperiorsintheJesuitOrder,andheexpectedittobepublished.Itbeganasajournalbutbecausethiscopywasdraftedafterwards,itattimesreadslikealetterorreport.Mostportionswerecomposedaroundthecampfireafterthedayseventsduringthesummerof1673,whileotherpartsaresummarieswrittenuptoayearlater.Itwascreatedtodescribenewthingsseenforthefirsttime,asadocumentaryrecordofthetrip.RelatedDocuments:Dablon,Claude.RelationofthediscoveryofmanycountriessituatedtothesouthofNewFrance,madein1673http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=14andThevenot,Malchisedec.Cartedeladcouvertefaitelan1673danslAmriqueseptentrionale.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=103Vocabulary:unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary

  • 33

    StudentActivities:1.LocateandnametheSt.LawrenceRiver,thefiveGreatLakes,andtheMississippiRiveronamodernmapsuchasthatathttp://www.americanjourneys.org/maps/aj051.pdf.FindQuebec,Machilimackinac,Wisconsin,andChicagoonthatmap.2.HowdidMarquettecrossWisconsin?Usethemapathttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/reference/maps/pdf/RM005a.pdf.Whereisyourschoolinrelationtohisroute?Findthesameplacesonthe1681map(www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=103).3.Nearthebeginningofthetrip,alongtheshoreofGreenBay,MarquetteandJolietarewarnedbyMenomineeeldersnottoattemptthevoyage(seepage231).WhatreasonsdotheMenomineegive?Marquettesayshesgoingtotryitanyway.Whatreasonsdoeshegive?Whodoyouthinkhasabetterargument?Why?4.IncontrasttoMarquette,whydidFrenchofficialswanttoundertakethisjourney(seethefirstpageofJolietsinterviewathttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=14;clickpage&texttoseeatypedEnglishtranslation)?HowisthatdifferentfromMarquettesreason?5.Marquettesaysitwouldallbeworthitifwhathappened(seepage257)?WhatotherthingsmustMarquettebelieve,ifhebelievesthat?6.WhydidMarquetteandJolietturnbackbeforereachingtheGulfofMexico(seepage256)?Listtheirreasonsinstatementsbeginning,Because...Didtheymaketherightchoice,orshouldtheyhavecontinuedon?Whydoyouthinkthat?7.IttookMarquetteandJoliet30daystogo1,273milesfromPrairieduChientoArkansas(June17toJuly17)butittookthemalmosttwiceaslong(54days)togoonly920milesbacktoChicago(July17toSept.13).Howfardidtheytraveleachday,onaverage,onthewaydown?Howmanyeachdayonthewayback?Whydidtheygomoreslowlyonthereturntrip?8.InChinapeoplespeakChinese;inSomalia,Somali;inGermany,German.ExplainwhywearentconductingthisclassinMenominee,HoChunk,orOjibwe.8thGradeStandardsAddressed: 8.1,8.2,8.3,8.7,8.1012thGradeStandardsAddressed: 12.1,12.2,12.6,12.8

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    LESSONTWO TheEffectsoftheFurTrade,16801700Introduction:Between1650and1850,lifeinWisconsincenteredaroundhuntingbeavers.IndianstradedtheirpeltstoFrenchCanadiansfortradegoodssuchasmetalknives,guns,bullets,andbrandy.Soldierswerequarteredheretokeepthepeace,andmissionariesweresenttoconverttheIndians.IndianswhohadlivedforcenturiesinstablecommunitiesscatteredthroughtheforestinpursuitoffurswhiletheirdependentsclusteredaroundFrenchfortswheretheyencounteredEuropeangerms,alcohol,andsexualexploitation.Whenawintersworthofbeaverskinsweretradedinthespring,Indianhuntersoftenfoundtheyonlypaidthepreviousyearsdebtsandhadtoborrowagaintoobtainammunitionandotherbasicnecessitiestolastthroughthenextwinter.BackgroundReading:TheFrenchFurTradehttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp007/?action=more_essayandColonialismTransformsIndianLifehttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp008/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:Carheil,Etiennede.Letter...toMonsieurLouisHectordeCallires,governor[onconditionsintheUpperLakesin1702].http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=16Who,What,Where,When,Why:FatherEtiennedeCarheil(16331726)cametoCanadain1666.Hemovedin1686tothewesternGreatLakesandhelpedbringpeacetotheregion.Frenchofficials,soldiers,andfurtradersallreapedhandsomeprofitsattheexpenseoftheIndians,andCarheilwasaleadingvoiceinthe1690sforreform.Hewasineffective,however,andleftthewestin1702tospendtherestofhislifeinQuebec.Inthislongletter,hetriestopersuadeofficialstocurbtheexcessesofsoldiersandtradersbygivinggraphicaccountsoftheirabuses.HeiswritingfromMackinaw,attheheadofLakeMichigan,butdescribingconditionsacrosstheregion;wecansafelyassumetheseabuseswerehappeningatGreenBay,LaPointe,andelsewhereinWisconsin.RelatedDocuments:Lahontan,Louis,baronde.NewVoyagestoNorthAmerica.(excerpt)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=15andHenry,Alexander.Excerptonhis17651766stayinWisconsin.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=21Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary

  • 35

    StudentActivities:1.Onpage191Fr.Carheilstateshismainpoints.Listthreehardshipshesaysthemissionariesareexperiencing.Whatdoeshethinktheymayleadt?2.Onpage193hesaystherearetwocausesforthepositionthemissionarieshavebeenputin.Whatarethose?Ifhethinksthosethingsarebad,whatmusthethinkisgood?3.Whydontthecommandersofthefrontiergarrisonsputastoptotheexcesses?Whatfourthingsdoeshesay(pp.195199)occupymostofthesoldierstimeandenergy?4.IsFr.Carheilsevidencecomplete?Doesheconsidertheviewsofotherpeoplewhomightdisagree?Whoseviewsofthesituationarenotrepresentedinhisletter?5.BaronLahontanwasasoldierwhovisitedWisconsininthe1680sandlivedclosetothefurtrade.Howdoeshisviewdifferfromthemissionarys(seepage46ofhisbook)?IfhethinkstheMontrealreligiousauthoritiesarebad,whatmusthethinkisgood?6.FromLahontansdescriptiononpp.5155,whodoyouthinkbenefitedmostfromthefurtrade?Indians?TradersinplaceslikeGreenBay?MerchantsinMontreal?ConsumersinParis?Listyourreasonsinstatementsbeginning,Because...7.AmericanbeaversflowedacrosstheAtlanticwheretheywereturnedintosturdyhatsworninEurope.Todaywhatanimals,minerals,orotherresourcesflowfromremoteareasoftheworldtobecomepartofdailylifeintheU.S.?[teachers:oilisthemostobvious;coffee,computerchips,clothing,andcheaplaborcouldbeotherexamples]8.Thinkabouttheresourceyouidentifiedinthepreviousquestion.WhoplaysaroleliketheIndianhunter,thesmallfurtrader,theMontrealorParismerchant,andthecustomerkeepingwarmundertheirbeaverhat?Makeasimplechartshowingtheparallelsbetweenthosepeopleandpeopletoday.9.SeeAlexanderHenrysdescriptionoftheconsequenceswhentheLakeSuperiortradecollapsed17601765.WhatmightcauseyourmodernsystemtosuddenlycollapseliketheFrenchfurtradedidinthe1760s?Whatmightbetheconsequencesofthatforeachofthepeopleonyourchart?8thGradeStandardsAddressed: 8.1,8.4,8.10,8.1112thGradeStandardsMet: 12.1,12.2,12.4,12.12,12.15

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    LESSONTHREE PontiacUrgesWisconsinIndianstoFight,1763Introduction:BythetimeOttawachiefPontiacgavethespeechcitedbelow,EnglishsettlershadbeencrowdingIndiansofftheirancestrallandsandFrenchtradershadbeenexploitingthemeconomicallyfor150years.DuringthebriefwindowaftertheFrenchsurrenderedin1760butbeforetheEnglishcouldestablishcontrol,PontiacsawachanceforalltheoppressedtribestoriseuptogetheranddrivetheEuropeansintothesea.Intheearly1760shetraveledeverywherefromKentuckytoCanadaenlistingsupportforhisvision.Inthesummerof1763simultaneousattacksacrossthewestdid,infact,driveEnglishtroopsfromoutpostssuchasGreenBayandMackinaw,butasiegeofthemainBritishgarrisonatDetroitwasunsuccessfulandPontiacscampaignultimatelyfailed.BackgroundReading:ColonialismTransformsIndianLifehttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp008/?action=more_essayandBackgroundEssayontheJournalofPontiacsConspiracy,1763http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj135/summary/index.aspDocumenttoAnalyze:PontiacsSpeechtoIndiansatMilwaukee,1763,in:Porlier,LouisB.CaptureofMackinaw,1763.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=47Who,What,Where,When,Why:PontiacwasborninacommunityofOttawaIndiansbetween1712and1725,probablynearDetroit,andfoughtwiththeFrenchduringtheFrenchandIndianWar(17551763).AftertheEnglishwonthatwar,agroupofOttawa,Ojibwa,Huron,Potawatomi,andotherchiefsfromLakeSuperiormetsecretlyin1762toconsiderhowtoousttheEnglish;overthenextyeartheyreachedouttosympathetictribesintheregion.DuringthisperiodPontiacvisitedMilwaukee(astrongholdknowntotheEnglishasthoserenegatesofMilwaukeeahorridsetofrefractoryIndians)anddeliveredthespeechrelatedhere.ItwasheardbyMenomineeIndians,passedorallytoSouligny(17851864),whospokeitin1848inthepresenceoffurtraderLouisPorlier.BythetimePorlierwroteitdown,Pontiachadbeendeadformorethanacenturyand30yearshadelapsedsincePorlierhadheardSoulignydeliverit.Intoneandsubstance,however,itisverymuchlikethecontemporarytranscriptionmadeofanotherPontiacspeechintheJournalofPontiacsConspiracylinkedbelow.RelatedDocuments:Gorrell,James.Lieut.JamesGorrellsjournal[17611763](pp.3648)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=20andGrignon,Augustin.SeventytwoyearsrecollectionsofWisconsin.(pp.224228)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=28

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    andJournalofPontiacsConspiracy1763.(pages38and40)http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj135/Vocabulary:unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionaryStudentActivities:1.HowdoweknowwhatPontiacsaidinMilwaukee?Whatistheevidence?Howtrustworthyisthisevidence?2.Inyourownlife,whatinformationissoimportantthatyouvememorizeditanddontneedtowriteitdown?[teachers:birthdays,SocialSecuritynumber,pledgeofallegiance,LordsPrayer?]Whatimportanttextscamedowntousforcenturiesthroughoraltradition?[Homer,OldTestament,nurseryrhymes]Howreliablearethese?3.WhatarePontiacsmainpointsinthisspeech?4.WhatreasonsdoeshegiveforWisconsinIndianstojoinhiscampaign?Inyouropinion,aretheygoodreasons?Wouldyouriskyourownlifeforanyofthem?5.HowdoesPontiacsargumentrelatetomodernideassuchasfreedom,liberty,nationalidentity,individualconscience,orcivicduty?Wouldyouriskyourownlifeforanyoftheseideas?6.Inanotherspeech,givenlaterin1763whenhiscampaignhadlostmomentumduringthesiegeofDetroit(seepages38and40ofJournalofPontiacsConspiracy),hemadeadifferentargument.Whatarehismainpointsthere?HowdotheydifferfromthoseintheMilwaukeespeech?7.IntextbooksthiswarisoftencalledPontiacsConspiracyorPontiacsRebellion.Whatdothosenamestellyouaboutwhowrotethetextbooks?Abouttheaudiencesforwhomtheywerewritten?Makeuptwonewnamesfortheseeventsthatexpresstwodifferentviewpoints,neitherofwhichrepeatsthevaluesofthetraditionalnames.8thGradeStandardsAddressed: 8.1,8.4,8.5,8.6,8.11,8.1212thGradeStandardsAddressed: 12.2,12.4,12.5,12.12,12.13

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    LESSONFOUR 1846:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoOwnProperty?

    Introduction:In1787,theFoundingFatherscreatedtheU.S.Constitution,thefirstrulebookfororganizingpowernotfromthetopdownbutfromthebottomup,throughthewillofthepeople.Everynewstatealsoneededaconstitution,andin1846Wisconsinsleaderstriedtodecidefundamentallawsforthenewregion.Atthetime,womenhadnolegalrightsundermostgovernments.Aslongasawomanlivedathome,allherpossessionsandanymoneysheearnedbelongedtoherfather;aftermarriage,theybelongedtoherhusband.SomepeopledraftingWisconsinsconstitutiontriedtoinsertanarticleallowingmarriedwomentoowntheirownproperty,suchasmoneyearnedorinherited.Votersrejectedthedraftconstitutioncontainingthiscontroversialprovisionbutsimilarlegalprotectionsweresoonpassedbythestatelegislature.

    BackgroundReading:TheNorthwestOrdinance,1787http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp009/?action=more_essayandTheStateConstitutionsof1846and1848http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp015/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:Strong,MarshallM.SpeechFebruary5,1847.(pp.235243)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=59Who,What,Where,When,Why:ThisspeechwasgivenbyMarshallM.Strong,adelegatetothe1846constitutionalconventionfromRacine,whobelievedthatawomansproperplacewasinthecareofherhusband.Earlyinthelegislativesessionof1847,Strongmadethisspeecharguingthatwomenspropertyrightswerenotonlyunrepresentativeofmajorityopinion,butsuretoproduceonlyevil.Strongresignedfromtheconventionbeforeitsclosewhenhisobjectionswerenotheeded

    RelatedDocuments:Agricola.AgricolasViewsonRightsofMarriedWomen[February27,1847].http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=56andWisconsin.ConstitutionalConvention(1846).RejectedConstitution,1846.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=54Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary

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    StudentActivities:1.WhatareStrongsmainpointsabouttheneedforasecondconvention,shouldtheconstitutionfailtoberatified?Whydidheresignfromtheconstitutionalconvention?2.WhatareStrongsobjectionstogivingmarriedwomenpropertyrights?Listthreethingshethinkscouldhappenifwomenweregrantedthoserights.3.Ifhebelievesthatwomenshouldnotownproperty,whatshoulddoeshethinktheybedoing?WhatassumptionsdoesStronghaveaboutwomenandtheircapabilities?4.IsStrongsevidencecomplete?Doesheconsiderotherviews?Doesheexplainwhyhehasthisparticularconceptualframework?6.AgricolawasananonymouswritertotheeditoroftheWisconsinDemocrat.HowdoesthiswritersviewdifferfromStrong?Whatevidencedoess/heprovide?7.WhatdoesAgricolasayaboutStrongsevidenceforhisviews(pp.361362)?Whatisimpliedinhercriticismofhisevidence?8.WhydoesAgricolabelievethatgivingahusbandlegalcontroloverhiswifesmoneyisabadthing?Whatharmdoess/heseecomingfromit?9.Whodoyouthinkhadthemosttobenefitfromeithergrantingordenyingawomansrighttoownproperty?Men?Women?Both?Listreasonsbothforandagainstpropertyrightsfromtheperspectiveofamanandthenofamarriedwoman.10.BothStrongandAgricoladescribewomenasvirtuousandmoral,yetarriveatdifferentconclusionsabouttheeffectsofallowingwomentoownproperty.Whydoyouthinkthisis?Whymightpeopleatthistimehavefoundappealstowomensvirtuecompelling?ListyourreasonsinstatementsbeginningBecause11.Arethereanygoodreasonsfortreatingmenandwomendifferentlyunderthelaw?Why?Giveatleastoneexampleofasituationinwhichmenandwomenoughtnotbetreatedexactlythesameway.8thGradeStandardsAddressed:

    8.1,8.2,8.4,8.5,8.10,8.12

    12thGradeStandardsAddressed:12.1,12.2,12.4,12.6,12.8,12.15

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    LESSONFIVE 1828:JosephStreetTriestoPreventtheBlackHawkIntroduction:Intheearly19thcentury,Wisconsinleadminingwasmoreattractivetosettlersthaneitherthefurtradeorfarming.By1827someoftheLeadRegionhadbeengrantedtotheU.S.butmostofitstillbelongedtotheHoChunk.Thisdidntstoptheminersfrominvadingthearea,includingfuturegovernorHenryDodge.Promptedbywavesofillegalsquattersandbelieving(incorrectly)thatU.S.soldiershadhelpedmurderHoChunkprisoners,inlateJune1827awarriornamedRedBirdattackedfarmsandboatsnearPrairieduChien,killingsixsettlers.ThatwasthesituationwhenJosephStreetarrivedinPrairieduChienlatein1827asthenewIndianagent.Streetwasimmediatelyworriedaboutafullscalewar,andinaletterwrittenonJan.28,1828,tohissuperiorsintheU.S.WarDept.,hedescribesthetensionscausedbywhitesquattersandhisfearsthatthesituationwillgrowviolent.Openwarfarefinallybrokeoutfouryearslater,andStreetwasstillatthecenteroftheaction.BackgroundReading:LeadMininginSouthwesternWisconsinhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp026/?action=more_essayandTheBlackHawkWarhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp012/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:JosephStreetsJan.28,1828,LettertotheSecretaryofWar.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=265Who,What,Where,When,Why:InthisletterStreetiswritingfromPrairieduChientotellhissuperiorsinWashingtonabouttensionsonthefrontier.TheoriginalhandwrittenletterisintheNationalArchives;theimagesyouseearefromamicrofilmcopy.Toviewatypedversionofanypage,clickPage&Textattheupperrightwhilereadingit.HoChunkeldersarequotedatlength(especiallyintheopeningpages)andthesocalledWinnebagoWarof1827isreviewedindetail,includingaHoChunkchiefsexplanationofRedBirdsbehavior(page2).NeartheendoftheletterStreeturgesthegovernmenttostopwidespreadsexualexploitationofIndianwomen,andrevealshoweconomics,race,andgenderrelationswereallwoventogetherontheWisconsinfrontier(pages1012).RelatedDocuments:Meeker,Moses,17901865.EarlyhistoryoftheLeadRegionofWisconsin.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=895andChandler,R.W.MapoftheLeadMinesontheUpperMississippiRiver.(1829).http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=106Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary

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    StudentActivities:1.Onpageone,howdoesaHoChunkchiefdescribehisnationsorganizationandgovernment?Listsomegoodandbadthingsaboutacommunityorganizedthatway.2.Onpages23,WhiteHeadedDecorahconfrontstwoIndiansandurgesthemnottodrinkalcohol.Whataresomeofhisreasonsforclaimingalcoholisbad?Howdoeshisargumentcomparetothatoftodaysgovernment,whichsimplyurgesustoJustsayno?Whichkindofargumentdoyouthinkworksbetter?3.Atthetopofpagethree,whatreasonsdoestheHoChunkspeakergiveforclaimingwhitesettlersshouldnottakeHoChunklands?Whatisheafraidwillhappen?WhatdoeshewanttheGreatFatherinWashingtontodotopreservepeace?4.AtthetopofpagefourStreetdescribestherecentactionsoffuturegovernorHenryDodge.GiveonereasonwhyStreetsaysitswrongforDodgetodothat,andonereasonwhyitsalright.WhatdoyouthinkareDodgesactionsjustified?5.Onpages56StreetexplainsthattheHoChunkdontunderstandtheU.S.legalsystem.WhatistheIndiansystemofjusticehedescribes?Listsomegoodthingsandsomebadthingsabouteachwayofsettlingdisputes(theHoChunkandtheU.S.).6.WhatdoesStreetgetsoangryaboutonpages912ofthisletter?7.WhatareStreetsreasonsfordenouncingcommonlawrelationsbetweenIndianwomenandwhitemen?Canyouthinkofothers?Whichreasonisthemostpowerful?8.Lookatthe1829Chandlermapalongsideamodernmap.FindthreeplacesonthemodernmapthatarealsoontheChandler1829map(lookforlakesandriversratherthanfornames).OutlinetheareacoveredbytheChandlermaponthemodernone.9.TheChandlermapincludeslotsoftext.Howmanyminescanyoucount?Howmanytaverns?Howmanychurchesorschools?Whatdoesthatmakeyouthink?8thGradeStandardsAddressed: 8.1,8.3,8.4,8.5,8.10,8.1112thGradeStandardsAddressed: 12.1,12.2,12.4,12.5,12.9,12.11,12.12,12.13,12.16

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    LESSONSIX 1850:Indians&WhitesRespondtotheSandyLakeTragedyIntroduction:Startinginthe1830s,U.S.officialstriedtoremovealleasternIndiannationsontolandswestoftheMississippi.In1850,thegovernmentdecidedtoapplythispolicytotheLakeSuperiorOjibwe.ToinducethemtoleavetheirWisconsinhomeland,agentJ.S.Watrousandotherofficialsmovedthe1850Ojibweannuitypayment,requiredbytheTreatyof1842,toSandyLake,Minn.,ratherthanholdingitatLaPointe,Wisconsin,asusual.InlateNovember,about3,000Ojibwetraveledthe500milestoSandyLakeonlytofindnopaymentandnoprovisions:thegovernmenthadhopedtostrandthemwestoftheMississippi.Bythetimetheywereabletomakeithome,about400peoplehaddiedofhunger,disease,orexposure(morethan10%ofthenation).ThesegovernmentactionssettheOjibweandmanynonnativecitizensfirmlyagainstthepolicyofremoval.Followingtheuproar,agedOjibweChiefBuffalotraveledtoWashingtoninJuneof1852,metwithPresidentMillardFillmore,andpersuadedhimtodroptheremovalorder.Thesubsequent1854ReservationTreatyofLaPointeguaranteedtheOjibwehomelandsandhuntingandfishingrightsinWisconsinforever.Tenyearslater,whentheU.S.wantedmorelands,theOjibwesubmittedalengthybilingualdocumenttoWashingtondetailingtheirmistreatmentbygovernmentrepresentativesfrom1826on.BackgroundReading:TreatyCouncils,fromPrairieduChientoMadelineIslandhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp013/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:Letters&ManuscriptsRelatedtoSandyLake,1850,fromtherecordsoftheBureauofIndianAffairshttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=380Who,What,Where,When,Why:ThesecontemporaryhandwrittenmanuscriptsrelatingtotheSandyLakeTragedyincludeprotestsagainstremovalbyOjibweleadersandsympatheticwhiteneighbors,descriptionsofthejourneyandconditionsatSandyLakebyOjibwechiefs,andpetitionsinwhichOjibweleadersrequestthereassignmentofIndianagentJ.W.Watrous.WearegratefultotheLacCourteOreillesHistoricPreservationOfficeforhelpingusmaketranscriptsofthesedocumentsavailable.RelatedDocuments:JuliaSpearsmemoirofSandyLake,onpages114122ofBartlett,WilliamW.History,TraditionandAdventureintheChippewaValley.(EauClaire,Wis.:Theauthor,1929).http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1030andChiefBuffalosPetitiontothePresidenthttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=75and

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    StatementmadebytheIndians,abilingualpetitionoftheChippewas,1864,http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=40Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionaryStudentActivities:1.ThethreepagePetitionfromWhiteResidentsResidingontheSouthCoastofLakeSuperior...claimsthattheremovalpolicyisfraughtwithsomanyevilconsequencesthatitshouldnotbepursued.Listinyourownwordsthepremisestheygiveforreachingthatconclusion.2.Onpages119120ofBartlettsHistory,TraditionandAdventureintheChippewaValleyisaletterbyanOjibwewomannamedJuliaSpears,recallingtheSandyLaketrekandaspeechbychiefKichiMakigan.WhydoesKichiMakiganrejecttheU.S.offertomovetheOjibwewestoftheMississippi?3.IntheUndatedLetterfromSandyLakefromEightOjibweChiefs...,whatisthemainthingthattheywanttheSuperintendantofIndianAffairstodo?4.WhydidtheauthorsofthatlettersignitwithXs?Whatwasthepurposeofthesixwitnesses,insigningit?5.IntheUndatedCopyofaLetterfrom13ChiefsandHeadmen...,whatreasonsaregivenforwantingtheIndianagentremoved?Restatetheminyourownwords.Whichoneisthemostpersuasive,inyouropinion?6.ComparetheactionsofIndianagentWatrouswiththoseofIndianagentStreetinlesson5.Listthewaysthatthetwomenaredifferentfromoneanotherinattitudesandactions.7.Morethan10%oftheLakeSuperiorOjibwediedasaresultofIndianAgentWatrousactionsyethesufferednopunishment.Howcouldthathappen?Ifanyfederalorstateofficialcausedthedeathsofhundredsofpeopletoday,wouldnttherebeconsequences?Whywerentthesamestandardsappliedthen?8thGradeStandardsAddressed: 8.1,8.4,8.5,8.6,8.1112thGradeStandardsAddressed: 12.5,12.12

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    LESSONEIGHT 1854:ARealLifeLittleHouseStory

    Introduction:LauraIngallsWildersnovel,LittleHouseintheBigWoods,madelifeontheWisconsinfrontierrealtothousandsofyoungreaders.Hereisa5pagememoirofapioneergirlhoodinWisconsinthatsasvividasWilders.AngelaHastewas5whenshetraveledbycoveredwagontoWisconsinin1856.Writingforherchildrenandgrandchildren,80yearslater,shedescribedherclothes,games,food,holidays,school,anddailychoresasherfamilycreatedahomesteadinthewildernessofWaupacaCounty.ShealsorecountshomelifeduringtheCivilWarwhenallthemenandolderboyswentawayandmany,likeherbigbrother,neverreturned.TwootherdocumentslistedbelowshowpioneersettlementfromslightlydifferentperspectivesthanAngelaHasteFavells.EmmanuelPhilippwrotehisreminiscenceofSaukCountyattherequestoftheWisconsinConservationCommission,providingalookatfrontierlifeforboys.TheseconddocumentisajournalkeptbyteenagerSarahFooteasherfamilytraveledtoWisconsinfromOhioin1846.

    BackgroundReading:19thCenturyImmigrationhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp018/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:Favell,AngelaHaste.AGirlPioneerintheWisconsinWilderness.MilwaukeeJournal,Aug.7,1932http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=954Who,What,Where,When,Why:ThisdocumentwaswrittenbyAngelaHasteFavellwhosefamilysettledinWaupacaCountyin1856.Heraudiencewasoriginallyhertwochildrenandfourgrandchildren,butherstorywasthenprintedinthenewspaperasanexampleofpioneerlifeinWisconsin.Favellwrotethisaccountwhenshewas80yearsoldandlivinginSuperior.Likemanygrandparents,Favellprobablysoughttosharehermemorieswithherfamilybeforeheruniqueexperienceswerelosttohistory.

    RelatedDocuments:Philipp,Emmanuel.Gov.Philippwritesstoryofhisboyhood.WisconsinStateJournal,21March1920.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1387andFoote,Sarah.AJournalKeptbyMissSarahFooteApril15toMay10,1846.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=32Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary

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    StudentActivities:1.WhatareFavellsmainpoints?Namethreeaspectsoffrontierlifeshehighlights.WhydoesFavellchoosetohighlightthese?Whatelsecouldshehaveemphasized?2.WhatdoyouthinkisFavellsgoalinwritingthisstory?3.EmmanuelPhilippgrewupinSaukCounty,andeventuallybecamegovernorofWisconsin.HowdoeshisdescriptionofhischildhooddifferfromFavells?WhatarePhilippsmainpointsandwhatmessagedoeshehopetoimparttohisreaders?4.WhataretheassumptionsbehindtheselectionandframingofbothFavellandPhilippsreminiscences?Aretheydifferent?Thesame?Why?5.BothFavellandPhilippwroteforaspecificaudience.Howdoesthatdetermineand/orlimitthepointofview?6.Listseveraldifferencesbetweenthelivesofgirlsandboysonthefrontier.7.UnlikeFavellandPhilippwhowrotefrommemory,SarahFootewroteaboutheryouthassheexperienceditinadailyjournal.Howisherexperiencedifferentfromtheothers?Whatarehergoalsandhowdotheyshapetheoutcome?Inwhatwaysdothetimeandtheplaceinwhichadocumentwaswrittenaffecttheendresult?8.Doyoulearnanythingdifferentfromadiarythanfromamemoir?Listfourdifferencesbetweenthetwoformsofwriting.9.Whatwouldyouchosetoemphasizeinamemoirofyourownearlychildhood?Whatwouldyouleaveout?Why?10.Inthatmemoirofyourearlychildhood,whatactivitieswouldbeincludedthatarealsoinFavellsandPhillips(thoughyouprobablydidtheminadifferentway)?Makealist.Whatchoicesdidtheyhavetofacethatyou,too,hadtoface?Makeanotherlist.8thGradeStandardsAddressed:8.1,8.4,8.1212thGradeStandardsAddressed:12.1,12.2,12.3,12.4

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    LESSONEIGHT AWisconsinSoldierRefusestoReturnSlavestoTheirOwnersin1862

    Introduction:OneJunedayin1862,Sgt.JohnPerrywasinBatonRouge,Louisiana,whentwoescapingslavesappearedathisregimentscampwearingironshackles.AfricanAmericanrefugeeswhodescapedfromtheirownersswarmedaroundeveryUnionArmycampatthetime,sometimesoutnumberingthetroops2to1.ThishadledGeneralThomasWilliamstoissueGeneralOrder46onJune5,1862,requiringallU.S.troopstoreturnescapedslavestotheirowners.Perryscolonel,HalbertE.Paine,orderedtheshacklesandironcollarsremovedfromthesetwoslaves,andrefusedtoreturnthemintoslavery.Inthecorrespondencecitedbelow,heexplainshisreasonsforthisdirectdisobedienceofordersinletterstohiscommandingofficer.Gen.WilliamswasnotimpressedbyPainesargument,andstrippedhimofhiscommandandhisweapons.AfewmonthslaterGen.Williamswasrelievedofhisowncommand,PainewasraisedtotherankofBrigadierGeneral,andthemorememorableofthetwoslaveslefttoenlistinaUnionregimentofAfricanAmericanvolunteers.ThenextyearPainelostalegandPerrywaswoundedinthestomachattheBattleofPortHudson,wherethefirstAfricanAmericanregimentsfoughtalongsidetheWisconsin4thInfantry.BackgroundReading:AbolitionandOtherReformshttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp021/andTheIronBrigade,OldAbeandMilitaryAffairshttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp023/DocumentstoAnalyze:Newsfromthe4thRegimentCol.PaineUnderArresthttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1362andAShamefulHistoryhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1363Who,What,Where,When,Why:ThesetwonewspaperarticlesappearedintheWisconsinpressinthesummerof1862.ThefirstprintslettersbetweenCol.PaineandGenWilliamsstaff.ThesecondprovidesfurtherdetailsfromRev.A.C.Barry,chaplaintothe4thInfantry,whohadjustreturnedfromthefront.RelatedDocuments:Perry,JohnT.PrizeStory[hisaccountoftherefugeeslaves,referredtoabove]http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1352and

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    TheironcollarremovedfromafugitiveslavebyWisconsinsoldiersin1862http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1366Vocabulary:unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionaryStudentActivities:1.ListseveralreasonswhyGen.WilliamsmayhavethoughtrefusingtoletslavesstayinUnioncampswasagoodidea.2.Inthefirstarticle,whatreasonsdoesCol.Painegiveforrefusingtosendawayescapingslaves?Onwhatpremisesishisconclusiontodisobeyadirectorderbased?3.DoyouthinkCol.Painemadetherightchoice?Why?Whatisitthatmakesanychoicerightorwrong?4.WasitrightforGen.WilliamstopunishCol.Paine?Listseveralreasonswhydisciplinedchainofcommandshouldbemaintainedduringwartime.5.Mostpeoplehavesometimesexceededthespeedlimit,toldalittlelie,ordownloadedmusic.Howdoyoudecidewhenitisbesttoobeyandwhenitisbesttodisobeyarule?Ifrulesarentyourauthority,whatis?6.Ifyourconscienceisyourguide,howdoyouknowitsnotmistaken?Werentthe9/11hijackersprobablyfollowingtheirconsciences?7.ReadRev.BarrysdescriptionoftwoslavesinAShamefulHistoryandthenreadPerrysPrizeStory.Doyouthinktheydescribethesameincidentinvolvingthesametwoescapingslaves?Whatevidencemakesyoususpecttheyarethesame,ordifferent?9.WeknowexactlywhathappenedtoCol.PainefortherestofhislifebutwecannotdiscoverwhathappenedtoOldSteve,thecentralfigureinPerrysaccount.Why?Whyistheresomuchmorehistoricalinformationavailableaboutonethantheother?Inoursocietytoday,whatkindsofpeoplearelikelytogoundocumented?10.LookattheironcollarremovedfromOldStevesneck.Howdoyoureactasyouexamineit?Howisthatdifferentfromhowyoureactedtothenewspaperarticles?8thGradeStandardsAddressed 8.1,8.3,8.4,8.5,8.612thGradeStandardsAddressed 12.1,12.2,12.5,12.15,12.18

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    LESSONNINE 1865:ShouldBlackCitizensBeAllowedtoVote?Introduction:TheWisconsinconstitutionallowedblackcitizenstovote,providedthattheideawassubmittedtothevoteofthepeopleatageneralelection,andapprovedbyamajorityofallthevotescastatsuchelection.Whenin1849Wisconsinresidentsvotedonthatquestion,AfricanAmericanvotingrightswereapproved5,265to4,075.Buttherewereseveralissuesontheballotthatdayandlessthanhalfofallpeoplewhowenttothepollsvotedontheblacksuffragequestion.Becauseamajorityofallthevotescastthatdaydidnotapproveblacksuffrage(themajorityhadnotvotedonitatall),mostobserversbelievedthatAfricanAmericanswerenotpermittedtovoteinWisconsin.Insubsequentreferendumsin1857andin1865,votersrejectedblacksuffrageoutright.Whenduringthe1865referendum,EzekielGillespie,aleaderofMilwaukeesblackcommunity,wasnotallowedtoregistertovote,hesuedtheelectionofficials.HissuitimmediatelyadvancedtotheWisconsinsupremecourt,wherehisattorneyclaimedthatthephraseinthe1848constitution(quotedabove)meantthatonlyamajorityofvotesonthesuffrageissuehadtoprevail,notamajorityofallvotescastonallissuesthatday.ThesupremecourtagreedwithhimandruledthatblackcitizenshadbeenentitledtovoteinWisconsinsince1849.Atthetime,suffrageappliedonlytomen;itwouldbemorethanhalfacenturybeforewomen,blackorwhite,wouldbeallowedtovote(in1920).BackgroundReading:BlackHistoryinWisconsinhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/blackhistory/DocumenttoAnalyze:NegroSuffrageinWisconsin.DailyMilwaukeeNews,Nov.12,1865.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1384Who,What,Where,When,Why:ThisshortnewspaperarticleappearedinMilwaukeeimmediatelyafterthe1865popularreferendumonwhetherAfricanAmericansshouldbeallowedtovoteinWisconsin.Itsauthorisnotidentified,butitspointofviewisveryclearlyagainstpermittingblacksuffrage.TheradicalleaderstowhomitreferswereabolitionistRepublicanssuchasByronPaineandShermanBooth.RelatedDocuments:FirstColoredVoter.TheEveningWisconsin,June12,1897.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1385andHuber,HenryA.CitizenshipofWisconsin.SomeHistoryofitsProgress.RacineTimesCall,June18,1929.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=986Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary

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    StudentActivities:1.Lookatthe1865NegroSuffrageinWisconsinarticle.ExaminethetitlesoftheotherarticlesthatappearedinthatdaysDailyMilwaukeeNews(listedintheleftcolumn).Canyoudeduceanythingaboutthenewspaperspointofviewonraceissues,oraboutitssympathiesduringtheCivilWar,withoutevenreadinganyofthosearticles?2.Whatdoesthearticlesayhasjusthappenedinthereferendum?Whowon?3.WhydoestheauthorobjecttotheGillespielawsuitinthefinalparagraph?Whatpremisesleaduptohisconclusion?4.Ifthemajorityofvotersinacommunitychoosesomething,shouldnttheirdecisionberespected?Whatifthemajoritywantthedrinkingagetobe30?Whatiftheywantredhairedpeoplenottovote,orpeoplewhodontspeakEnglish,orwomen,orpeoplewhohaveannualincomeslessthan$50,000?Shouldthewillofthemajorityalwaysberespected?Ifnot,listthreereasonswhyitshouldnot.5.IsthereanythingintheDeclarationofIndependenceortheBillofRightsthatsupportsyouranswertoquestionnumber4?Youcanseetheseatwww.ourdocuments.gov6.TheGillespiedecisionreliedoninterpretationofthestateconstitutionslanguage.The1865NegroSuffrageinWisconsinarticleinterpretsthelanguageoneway.ThedecisionoftheSupremeCourtquotedinthelastparagraphsofthe1897FirstColoredVoterarticleinterpreteditdifferently.Restateinyourownwordsthemainpointsofeachoftheseopposingarguments.Whichonedoyoufindmorepersuasive?7.Howdothoseargumentapply,iftheydo,tothequestionofwomenssuffrage?Takeastandfororagainstwomensrighttovotethatusessomeofthesamepremises.8thGradeStandardsAddressed 8.1,8.4,8.5,8.612thGradeStandardsAddressed 12.1,12.2,12.4,12.6,12.18

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    LESSONTEN 1867:ShouldWisconsinsForestsBeSaved?Introduction:Bythe1850sWisconsinslumberindustryhadpenetratedfarintothenorthwoods.Althoughtheforestsseemedlimitlesstomostpeople,MilwaukeescientistIncreaseLaphamfearedthatthepursuitofprofitsbylumberbaronswouldharmtheenvironment.In1867thestatelegislatureauthorizedaninvestigationofwhatactions,ifany,thegovernmentoughttotaketopreventthis.Laphamchairedthatinvestigationandthereportlinkedbelowistheresultofhisteamsefforts.Unfortunately,legislators,manyofwhomwereindebtedtolumberinterestsforsupportorwereinvestorsinlumbercompaniesthemselves,ignoredboththeproblemandthereport.But25yearslater,asLaphamspredictionsbegantocometrue,theneedtosaveWisconsinforestsledtothefirststateparks.WhentheProgressiveMovementbrokecontrolofgovernmentbycorporationsintheearly20thcentury,environmentalissuesfinallybegantobeaddressed.In1907thestatehiredJohnNolen,anotedlandscapearchitect,todraftafeasibilityplanforaStateParkSystem,andhisreportledtoourstateparksystem.BackgroundReading:LumberingandForestProductshttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp027/?action=more_essayandTheConservationMovementhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp033/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:Lapham,IncreaseAllen.Reportonthedisastrouseffectsofthedestructionofforesttrees(Madison,1867).http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1271Who,What,Where,When,Why:IncreaseLapham(18111875)wasthemostimportantWisconsinscientistoftheday.Hewasappointedtoheadthecommitteetoinvestigatethequestionofforestpreservation;thelegislaturealsoappointedtwononscientiststothecommitteebuttheresearchandtheconclusionswerealmostcertainlyallLaphams.Thereportwaswrittentoadviselegislatorswhatlawstowriteandwheretoinvesttaxdollarstoaddressthethreatofdeforestation,buttheydidnothingsignificantafterreceivingit.Tomostobserverstheforestsseemedunlimited,andjobsandfortunescouldbemadebymakingthemintowoodenhouses,furnitureandpaper.RelatedDocuments:Photographsofcutoverlandshttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1376andNolen,John.StateParksforWisconsin.(StateParkBoard,1909)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1188

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    Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionaryStudentActivities:1.Whatdidthelegislatureaskthecommitteetoinvestigate?Restatetheirinstructionsonpagethreeinsimplerwords.2.Onpages37Laphamclaimsseveralbadthingsresultedfromthedestructionofforestsinothercountries.Whatarethoseharmfuleffects?3.WhatstatedoesLaphamfearWisconsinwillsoonresemble(page9),ifnothingsdonetohaltthedestructionofforests?Arehisevidenceandreasoningsound?4.Whattwothingsshouldbedonetosolvetheproblem(page40)?5.Laphamarguesthatgovernmentshouldgetinvolvedinthisissue.Whatanalogydoesheuseonpage35,inaninductiveargument,totrytoinferthatitsproperforthestategovernmenttoact?6.Whatlogicdoesheuseonpage36,inadeductiveargument,totrytoprovethatitsproperforthestategovernmenttoact?7.Doyouthinkgovernmentshouldtakeactionstopreservetheenvironment?ListyourreasonsinstatementsbeginningwiththewordBecause...8.Arethereanylimitsthatshouldbeplacedonthegovernmentsauthority?Forexample,shoulditbeabletooutlawtimberharvesting,builddamsthatfloodvalleys,prohibitbuildingonwetlands,seizeprivatepropertyfromitsowners,orjailviolatorsofitslaws?Wherewouldyoudrawtheline?Whythere?9.Whatactionsdoesthecommitteeurgelegislatorstotake(page40)?Restatethoseinyourownwords.10.Whydidlegislatorsrefusetodoanything(seeintroductionabove).Whatimportantproposalsmeetthesamefatetodayforthesamereason?[teachers:Sen.Feingoldscampaignfinancereformsareagoodexample]8thGradeStandardsAddressed: 8.912thGradeStandardsAddressed 12.9,12.10

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    LESSONELEVEN WhoBuilttheEffigyMounds?Introduction:BetweenAD600andAD900nativepeoplesbuiltdistinctivepictorialmoundsacrossthesoutherntwothirdsofourstateintheshapeofbirds,bear,deer,spiritanimalsandpeople.Theseeffigymoundsmayhavesymbolizedspiritsofthesky,earth,andwater,eachmoundgroupbeingapictureofthespiritualuniversesculptedoutofearth.Manyoftheanimalsdepictedwereassociatedwithimportantclans,orgroupsofrelatedfamilies,inmoderntribes,andifthesesamegroupingshadexistedathousandyearsago,buildingthemoundstogetherwouldhavereinforcedclanties.Themoundspuzzledearlywhitesettlers,whowerereluctanttoacceptthatAmericanIndiansweretheircreators.Formostofthe19thcenturythequestionofwhobuiltthemoundswasdebatedinthepresswithmoreenergythancriticaljudgment.Avanishedraceofmoundbuilders,earlyEuropeanvisitors,andevenoneofthetenlosttribesofIsraelwereallsaidtohavebuiltthemounds.Inthelate1840sscientistIncreaseLaphamspentseveralyearsinvestigatingtheeffigymoundsandhypothesizedthatancestorsofmodernIndiansprobablybuiltthem,atheorysupportedin1885byfellowscientistR.P.Hoy.Finally,in1894,anexhaustivesurveybyCyrusThomasprovedbeyondreasonabledoubtthatNativeAmericanswerethemoundbuilders.BackgroundReading:EffigyMoundsCulturehttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp004/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:WhobuilttheWisconsinmounds?MadisonDemocrat,March25,1906http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1381Who,What,Where,When,Why:ThecarefulworkofLaphamandThomasdidnotconvinceeveryone.Theauthorofthisshortarticlepublishedin1906intheMadisonDemocratistypicalofmanypeoplewholookedforotherexplanations.Theanonymousauthorwasprobablynotascientistorarchaeologist.Thepurposeofthepiecewastoamuseandperhapseducatethegeneralpublicaboutthemoundsthatsurroundedthem.RelatedDocuments:Lapham,IncreaseAllen.TheAntiquitiesofWisconsin(Washington:SmithsonianInstitution,1855).http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=216andHoy,P.R.Whobuiltthemounds?TransactionsoftheWisconsinAcademyofSciences,ArtsandLetters,vol.VI(1885):84100http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1383Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary

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    StudentActivities:1.AttheendtheauthorclaimsthatNosuchIndiansettlementsaswehaveknowledgeofcouldhavebuiltthem.Whatevidencedoesheorshegivetosupportthisclaim?2.Whatreasonsdoestheauthorgiveforthemoundsoriginallybeingtwiceastall?3.OnpageonetheauthorcorrectlysaysthatmodernIndiansclaimedtoknownothingoftheirbuildingnoroftheirbuilders.FromthisfactheorsheinfersthatancestorsofmodernIndianswerenotthemoundbuilders.Whatiswrongwiththislogic?WhatexplanationsforIndianssilenceonthistopicdoesitoverlook?4.Eventoday,somepeopleclaimthattheWisconsinmoundswerebuiltbyVikingexplorersorbyalienvisitorsfromspace(really).Whatkindsofevidencewouldyouwanttoseebeforebelievingthoseclaims?Makealistoftypesofevidence.5.IncreaseLaphamsconclusionin1855wasthatitisnotunlikelythatancestorsofcontemporaryIndiansbuiltthemounds(p.89ofhisbookcitedabove).Whatreasonsdoeshegivetosupportthisconclusion?Restatetheminyourownwords.6.Theauthorofthe1906articlementionsseveraltimesthatmoundsarebeingdestroyedbyfarmersplowsandothermoderndevelopments.Shouldtheybepreserved?Whydoyouthinkthat?ListyourreasonsinstatementsbeginningwiththewordBecause...7.Arethereanylimitsthatshouldbeplacedonthegovernmentspowertopreservearchaeologicalsites?Forexample,shoulditbeabletoseizeprivatepropertyfromownerstoprotectthem,orjailviolatorsofmoundpreservationlaws?Whyorwhynot?9.Inthe19thc.,archaeologiststhoughtitwasappropriatetoopenupthemounds.Todaywethinkthatsdisrespectfulorevensacrilegious.WhatassumptionsmusttheyhavemadeaboutIndians,graves,science,andreligion,tothinkitwasacceptabletodigupmounds?10.Whenscientificresearchcollideswithmoralvaluesorreligiousbeliefs,asinhumancloningorstemcellresearch,howdoyouthinktheconflictshouldberesolved?Why?8thGradeStandardsAddressed: 8.1,8.9,8.10,8.1112thGradeStandardsAddressed: 12.1,12.2,12.9,12.12

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    LESSONTWELVE TheBayViewTragedyof1886Introduction:Inthe1880s,workersinMilwaukeebegantoagitatefortheeighthourworkdaythatwetakeforgranted;untilthen,workersgenerallyputinmuchlongerdays.Atwoyear,nationwidecampaigntogetallemployerstoadoptastandardeighthourdayculminatedonMay1st,1886,whenunionsurgedallAmericanworkersnotyetonthesystemtostopworkinguntiltheiremployersmetthedemand.InMilwaukee,peacefulparadesanddemonstrationsprevailedasstrikingworkersshutdownfactorieswithoutviolenceduringthefirstfivedaysofMay1886.ThencamewordthatinChicagosHaymarketSquarethepolicehadkilleddemonstrators;manyofMilwaukeesworkersandbusinessmenbegantoprepareforarmedconfrontation.ThelastimportantfactorythatremainedopenwastheNorthChicagoRailroadRollingMillsSteelFoundryinBayView.OnMay5,acrowdofdemonstratorswhowenttheretocallouttheworkersstillinsidewasattackedbytroops.Fivepeoplewerekilledandfourwounded.WhilethemassacreatBayViewdidnotendtheagitation,theshotsfireddampenedmomentumforthemovementandGovernorJeremiahRuskbecamecelebratedasanationalhero,assumedtohavesavedMilwaukeefromanarchy.BackgroundReading:TheBirthoftheLaborMovementhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp030/?action=more_essayDocumentstoAnalyze:Stephen,Jessie.TheUnionBadge:StoryofaWorkersFamily.MilwaukeeLeader,May24,1930.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=941andWallber,Emil.RecollectionsgiveninBayViewLaborRiotof1886.MilwaukeeFreePress,July3,1910.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=933Who,What,Where,When,Why:Twomemoirsoftheeventshouldbecomparedforthislesson.ThefirstisbyworkerJessieStephen,whowasinthefrontlineofdemonstratorsandwatchedacompanionbeshotdownnexttohim.ThesecondisareminiscencebyEmilWallber,whowasmayorofMilwaukeeatthetimeandsupervisedthepolice;thisarticlealsoshowsphotographstakenthatday.BothmemoirswerewrittenmanyyearsaftertheeventstheydescribeandwereintendedforageneralaudienceofMilwaukeeareanewspaperreaders.Theofficialreportofthestatemilitia(whoactuallyfiredtheguns),createdduringandsoonaftertheevents,islinkedbelow.RelatedDocument:MilwaukeeRiots.inBiennialreportoftheadjutantgeneral(Madison,1887):1326.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=934

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    Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionaryStudentActivities:1.WhatisthebasicpointofviewofJessieStephensrecollectionsinTheUnionBadge?Whoarethegoodguysandwhoarethebadguys?2.Howcompleteishisviewoftheevents?Whatdetailsishelikelytoemphasizeandwhichonesishelikelytooverlookoromit?3.WhatisthebasicpointofviewofEmilWalbersrecollectionsinBayViewLaborRiotof1886?Whoarethegoodguysandwhoarethebadguys?4.Howcompleteishisviewoftheevents?Whatdetailsishelikelytoemphasizeandwhichonesishelikelytooverlookoromit?5.BothmemoirsdescribewhathappenedattheBayViewMills.Listtwoimportantfactsonwhichtheyagree.Listtwoonwhichtheydisagree.6.Whensourcesofhistoricalevidencedisagree,whatcanyoudotodiscoverthetruth?Doestheofficialreportoftheadjutantgeneralfillintheblankswellenoughforyou?7.Afterreadingallthreedocuments,whodoyouthinkwasmostresponsiblefortheviolencethatday?Quoteevidencefromthedocumentsthatsupportsyourview.8.Whenworkersjoinedtogetherandactedinunity,theycouldclosedowntheiremployersbusinessanddemandasaferworkplace,morepay,orotherbenefits.Wasthisfairtothepersonwhoownedthebusiness?Whydoyouthinkthat?ListyourreasonsinstatementsbeginningwiththewordBecause...9.Insomeworkplaces,everyemployeeisrequiredtojointheunionandpaymembershipdues(thisiscalledaclosedshop).Isthisfairtonewemployees?SupportyouranswerwithstatementsbeginningwiththewordBecause...8thGradeStandardsAddressed: 8.1,8.4,8.1012thGradeStandardsAddressed: 12.1,12.2,12.4,12.5,12.9

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    LESSONTHIRTEEN 1890:EnglishonlyinWisconsinSchools?Introduction:Bythe1880s,manyimmigrants,especiallyGermans,hadestablishedtheirownschoolsintheirownneighborhoodsasawaytopreservetheircultures.YankeesoftensawtheseschoolsasaformofunpatrioticresistancetoAmericanculture,andbegantocallforlawstoholdparochialschoolsmoreaccountableandtorequirethattheirclassesbeconductedinEnglish.WhenWilliamD.HoardofFortAtkinsonranforgovernorin1888,hemadetheseschoolreformsacentralthemeofhiscampaign.Rep.MichaelBennettofDodgevillepromptlyintroducedabillthatrequiredstricterenforcementofattendance,specifiedthatchildrencouldonlygotoparochialschoolsintheirpublicschooldistrict,andrequiredeveryschool,publicandprivate,toconductitsclassesinEnglish.EnglishspeakingYankeesthoughtthiswouldsolvetheproblemofforeigndegradationoftraditionalAmericanculture.GermanAmericans,however,denouncedtheBennettLawasanassaultontheirculturebyYankeeswhosoughttoforcetheirownvaluesoneveryoneelse.InthemiddlewasarangeofmoderatevoicesarguingfortheinevitabilityofassimilationandclaimingthatlearningEnglishwouldnotdestroyGermanculture.OppositiontotheBennettLawwasloud,persistent,andwidespread,andafteronlyasingletermtheRepublicansandGovernorHoardwerevotedoutofofficein1890.TheBennettLawwasrepealedthefollowinglegislativesession.

    BackgroundReading:AmericanizationandtheBennettLawhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp031/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:Hoard,WilliamD.StatementinSupportoftheBennettLaw.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=969Who,What,Where,When,Why:Inthisshortpiece,HoardexplainshissupportforthelawandhisbeliefthatGermanAmericanswillsoonrealizethebenefitofitsprovisions.Thissinglesheetfoundamonghismanuscriptsmayhavebeennotesforaspeech,alettertotheeditor,orapoliticalflyer.ClickZoom&Pantofocusinonitmoreclosely;scrolldowntoseeatranscriptionofthetext.RelatedDocuments:Koerner,Christian.TheBennettLawandtheGermanProtestantParochialSchoolsofWisconsin.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=746andExcerptsfromascrapbookwiththetitle,BennettLaw,Wisconsin,18891890http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=727Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary

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    StudentActivities:1.WhatproblemdoesGov.Hoardidentifyinthisspeech?Whatishismainpoint?2.Whatevidencedoesheusetosupporthisclaim?3.Whatsolutiondoesheproposeforthisproblem?4.WhatobjectionstohispositiondoesHoardanticipate?Howdoesheseektodiffusetheseobjections?5.Canyoufindunspokenassumptionsinthissourceaboutimmigrants,Americanvalues,thepowerofstategovernment,orotherimportantsubjects?Whatarethey?6.ThespeakerpresentshimselfasafriendtoGermanAmericans.Whatwordsandphrasesdoesheusetosupporthisclaimoffriendship?Doyoufindanyevidencetocontradicthisclaim?7.Doesthespeakeralsoattempttopresenthimselfasafriendtothereader?How?8.Whatargument(positionorside)ismissingfromthisdocument?ListfouropposingpointsthatyoufindinthetwoRelatedDocumentscitedabove.9.Today,theEnglishonlyissueisstillhotlydebated.DoyouthinkEnglishonlyisagoodpolicyforUnitedStatesschools?Whyorwhynot?Whomightagreewithyourposition?Whomightdisagree?10.IsitbetterforyoungpeopletolearnhowtowriteandspeakmainstreamEnglishsotheycansucceedinmainstreamAmerica,ortopreserveandcherishtheirownlanguageandethnicvaluessothosearentlost?Takeastand;listyourreasonsforbelievinginit.8thGradeStandardsAddressed:8.1,8.4,8.5,8.1012thGradeStandardsAddressed:12.1,12.2

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    LESSONFOURTEEN 1910:ShouldIndianChildrenBeMainstreamed?

    Introduction:Untilthe1920s,federalIndianeducationprogramstriedtoassimilateNativeAmericansbyplacingthemininstitutionsthatreplacedtraditionalwayswiththoseapprovedbythegovernment.MostwhiteobserverssawthisasanactofkindnessthathelpedIndiansrealizetheAmericanDream.ManyIndians,however,sawitasanactofaggression.Childrenwereoftenremovedfromtheirfamiliesandsenttodistantboardingschoolstoabsorbthevalues,knowledge,andpracticalskillsofmainstreamAmerica.Indianchildrenwereprohibitedfromspeakingtheirnativelanguages;thosecaughtbreakingthisrulewereoftenphysicallypunished.Investigationseventuallyrevealedpoordiet,overcrowding,excessivelabor,andsubstandardteaching,andtheBureauofIndianAffairsofficiallyabandoneditspolicyofassimilationinthe1930s.

    BackgroundReading:AmericanizationandtheBennettLawhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp031/?action=more_essayandAmericanIndianSovereigntyhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp050/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:Woodruff,C.D.TomahIndianSchool:Amodelinstitutionhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=722Who,What,Where,When,Why:Dr.C.D.WoodruffspenttwodaysobservingstudentsandstaffattheTomahIndustrialSchoolforthisarticle,hopingtopersuademorepeopletosupporttheseinstitutions.Hispraiseofthestaff,cleanlinessofthebuilding,andqualityofinstructionmayhavebeen,inpart,aresponsetocriticismsoftheboardingschoolsystemthatwereemergingatthetime.RelatedDocuments:OfficeofIndianAffairs.Somethingsthatgirlsshouldknowhowtodoandhenceshouldlearnhowtodowheninschool.(1911)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=749SewingClassatSchoolforIndianChildren.(photograph)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=816andOfficeofIndianAffairs.RulesforIndianSchools,withcourseofstudy,listoftextbooks,andcivilservicerules.(1892)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=747

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    Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionaryStudentActivities:1.WhatareWoodruffsmainpoints?Namefourgoodthingsheseesintheschool.2.IfWoodruffseesthesethingsasgood,whatmusthethinkisbad?WhatassumptionsdoeshehaveaboutIndians?3.WhatproblemorissuedoesWoodruffseebeingsolvedbytheseschools?Howdoesheknowthatthisisaproblem?4.Whoseviewsofthesituationarenotrepresentedinhisarticle?5.Woodruffstatesthatorderisthefirstlawofcivilization(p.1).Whatdoeshemean?HowdoesWoodruffmeasureorderatTomah?6.WhatinferencesaremadeaboutIndians?Aboutwhites?Whyishisdescriptionoforderdifferentforgirlsthanforboys?7.OnepurposeofIndianeducationprogramswastobetterprepareIndianchildrenfortheduties,privileges,andresponsibilitiesofAmericancitizenship.WhatarethedutiesandresponsibilitiesofAmericancitizenship?Whatdopeopleneedtoknowordotobecitizens?Howdidyoulearnthesethingsinyourownlife?8.Thinkaboutthequalitiesofcitizenshipyouidentifiedinthepreviousquestion.WouldtheeducationdescribedbyWoodruffpreparesomeonetobeanAmericancitizen?Whyorwhynot?9.WhogetstodecidewhatqualitiesandactivitiesareappropriateandconsideredAmerican?10.BrowsethroughtheregulationsintheRulesforIndianSchoolsdocument.WhatassumptionsmusttheauthorofthoseregulationshavemadeaboutIndianchildren?11.Isitbettertopreserveonesowncultureandliveoutsidemainstreamsociety,ortogiveuponeslanguageandwaysoflifetobeassimilated?Isthereamiddlepathbetweenthesetwo?SupportyourconclusionwithalistofBecausestatements.8thGradeStandardsAddressed:8.1,8.2,8.3,8.4,8.5,8.6,8.10,8.11,8.1212thGradeStandardsAddressed:12.1,12.2,12.3,12.9,12.12,12.13,12.18

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    LESSONFIFTEEN 1911:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoVote?Introduction:WhenWisconsingainedstatehoodin1848,therewaslittlepopularsupportforwomensrighttovote.Onlyafewreformers,suchasWarrenChase,spokeoutforsuffrageatthetwoconstitutionalconventions,anditwasneverseriouslyconsidered.Billstograntwomenfullsuffragewereintroducedin1855and1867butbothfailed.TheWisconsinWomensSuffrageAssociation(WWSA)wasformedin1869tobeginanorganizedsuffragecampaign,andinthesameyearthestatelegislaturepassedalawallowingwomentorunforschoolboardsandotherschooloffices.Followingthispartialsuccess,theWWSAbegananalloutsuffragecampaigninthelegislaturein1884.Electedofficials,however,repeatedlyrefusedtoletvotersconsiderthequestion.In1911,astatewidereferendumonsuffragewasfinallyheld,andWisconsinvotersallmen,ofcoursevoteditdownbyamarginof63to37percent.In1913,thelegislatureauthorizedanotherreferendumbutGovernorFrancisMcGovernvetoedthebill,andtwoyearslateramoreconservativelegislaturerejectedyetanotherbillthatwouldhaveletpeoplevoteontheissueinareferendum.ConcludingthatthestatelegislaturewasnevergoingtohelpthesuffragecauseinWisconsin,WWSAleadersdevotedtheirtimeandenergytothenationalcampaign.MostofWisconsinscongressmenweresympathetictoafederalwomenssuffrageamendmenttotheU.S.Constitution,whichfinallypassedin1919.Bowingtowhatitnowregardedasinevitable,theWisconsinlegislatureratifiedtheU.S.constitutionalamendmentgivingwomentherighttovoteinfederalelections.Butanefforttoextendsuffragetostateelectionsfailed,andWisconsinwomendidnotgaintherighttovoteinstateelectionsuntilthestateconstitutionwasfinallyamendedin1934.BackgroundReading:TheWomansSuffrageMovementhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp032/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze: Danger!WomensSuffragewoulddoubletheirresponsiblevote!http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1087Who,What,Where,When,Why:ThisposterwasprintedinWatertown,inJeffersonCounty,duringthe1911referendumonwomenssufrage.Althoughtheprintersnameisonit,wedonotknowwhichorganizationorpoliticalparty,ifany,mayhavecreatedit,howmanycopieswereprinted,orhowwidelyitmayhavebeendistributed.RelatedDocuments:Dudley,MarionViennaChurchill.Suffrageforwoman:apleainitsbehalfhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1052andYoumans,Theodora.PresidentsAddress.(Wis.WomansSuffrageAssociation,1917)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1045

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    Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionaryStudentActivities:1.Whoisthispoliticalflyersintendedaudience?2.Whatactiondoestheflyeraskthereadertotake?3.Whatprincipalclaim(mainpoint)doestheflyermake?4.Whatdangermightwomenssuffragebetothethreeareastheflyermentions(home,mensemployment,andbusiness)?Whatassumptionsaboutwomendoesthatimply?4.Doestheflyerrelymoreheavilyonlogicoremotiontomakeitspoint?Findspecificwordstosupportyouranswer.5.Theflyerstates,Womanssuffragewoulddoubletheirresponsiblevote.Whatdoesthismean?Whatevidenceisofferedforthisclaim?6.Whydidsomemenopposewomengainingtherighttovote?Mightsomewomenthemselvesalsohaveopposedwomensrighttovote?Why?Listatleastthreereasonswhymenorwomenmayhaveopposedsuffrage,instatementsbeginningBecause7.ThetwoRelatedDocumentsgiveprosuffragearguments.Restateanyoneargumentcontainedineitheroftheminyourownwords.Listitspremisesandconclusion.8.Howdoesthenatureoftheobjectaffecthowpersuasiveitis?Dotheflyerandthepamphletsoperateonyourmindindifferentways?Listsomeofthewayseachworks.9.Manypeoplefeltuneasyandanxiousaboutchangesingenderrolesintheearly20thcentury.WhyweresomeAmericansthreatenedbyexpandedwomensrightsingeneral?Doyouseesimilaranxietyaboutchangingsocialrolesintheworldaroundyoutoday?Whydoeschangesooftenfeeldisruptiveandupsetting?8thGradeStandardsAddressed:8.1,8.4,8.5,8.612thGradeStandardsAddressed:12.1,12.2,12.4,12.5

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    LESSONSIXTEEN 1918:GermanTextbooksBurnedintheStreetIntroduction:Theyears19141918wereatimeofunusualtensioninWisconsin,asthenationsinEuropesquaredoffagainstoneanother.ThesizableGermanAmericanpopulation,aswellasthepoliticallydominantProgressiveandSocialistparties,generallyopposedAmericanentryintothewarinEurope.WhentheU.S.officiallyenteredthewaronApril6,1917,9ofWisconsinselevenCongressmen,plusSenatorLaFollette,votedagainstthedeclarationofwar.Butdespitemanysourcesofoutspokenopposition,themajorityofWisconsincitizenssupportedthewar,andover118,000citizenswentintomilitaryservice.Duringthewar,ashappenedinotherpartsofthenation,antiGermansentimentwasunleashedincommunitiesthathadpreviouslybeenmoretolerantofethnicdifferences.AnyonewithaGermannamewasatargetforharassment;awidelypublicizednoticefromtheAmericanDefenseSocietystatedthataGermanAmerican,unlessknownbyyearsofassociationtobeabsolutelyloyal,shouldbetreatedasapotentialspy.GermanAmericansreactedvariouslytothevigilantismdirectedtowardthem.BackgroundReading:WorldWarOneAtHome&IntheTrencheshttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp037/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze: BurningofGermantextbooks.(photograph) http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=817Who,What,Where,When,Why:ThisphotoshowsthecharredremainsofGermanlanguagetextbooksburnedinthestreetinBarabooonJune13,1918,afterthetownrefusedtoteachtheGermanlanguageinitshighschool.Onthepavementiswritten,HereliestheremainsofGermaninB.H.S.ThephotographwastakenalocalmerchantandamateurphotographernamedEdwinB.Trimpey,whodonatedmorethan1,000photographstotheWisconsinHistoricalSociety.ThetworelateddocumentsbelowrelateincidentsontheWisconsinhomefrontandonthebattlefield.RelatedDocuments:ProfessorofNorthlandTarredandFeathered.AshlandDailyPress(1April1918)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1160andLettersfromtheBoys.NeenahDailyTimes.(8January1919http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=782Vocabulary:unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary

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    StudentActivities:1.WhatwastheUnitedStatesrelationshipwithGermanyin1918?2.WhydidtheperpetratorswanttheBarabooHighSchoolGermantextbooksburned?Whatmighttheyhavefeared?Whatmighttheyhavehopedtoachieve?3.ThebookburnerswroteHereliestheremainsofGermaninB.H.S.inthestreetnexttothebooksashes.Whatisthesymbolismoftheopeningphrase?Whymightthebookburnershaveleftamessageinthestreet?4.Doescensorshipweaken,strengthen,orhavenoeffectontheappealoftheideascontainedinthebooksthatarecensored?JustifyyourconclusionwithBecausestatements.5.TheU.S.Constitutionguaranteesfreedomofspeech.Arethereanycircumstancesinwhichcensorshipofspeech,suchasbookburning,arejustified?Why?6.WhywasProf.Schimlerkidnapped,tarred,andfeathered?Whatevidenceisgiveninthearticletosupportyourexplanation?7.Theprofessorwasabductedinthenightbyagroupofmaskedmen.WhereelseintheU.S.wereothertypesofindividualsabductedandtorturedbygroupsofmaskedmenintheperiod18901920?[teachers:lynchingsofAfricanAmericans]Whatarethesimilaritieswiththiscase?Whatarethedifferences?8.IdentifythepointofviewintheAshlandDailyPressarticle.CanyoudetectexplicitorimplicitbiasfororagainstProf.Schimler?Canyoudetectbiasfororagainstthevigilantegroup?Supportyouranswerwithwordsandphrasesfromthearticle.9.ThearticlespenultimateparagraphisheadedAnAmericanCitizenandendswiththesentence,ThecollegeauthoritiessaythatProfessorSchimlerhasbeenaveryefficientteacherandthatthereisabsolutelynoevidencethathewasdisloyalinwordsoractions.Whatimplicitassumptionsdothesestatementsaddress?DoyouthinkthemaskedmensactsmighthavebeenjustifiedifhewerenotaU.S.citizenorhadindeedbeendisloyal?8thGradeStandardsAddressed: 8.1,8.2,8.3,8.4,8.5,8.6,8.1012thGradeStandardsAddressed:

    12.1,12.4,12.5

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    LESSONSEVENTEEN 1935:WhatShouldtheGovernmentDoaboutUnemploymentandPoverty?

    Introduction:ThestockmarketcrashofOctober1929cameasasurprise,puttingandtolivelyeconomicgrowththroughoutthenation.Milwaukeewasespeciallyhithardbythedepression:between1929and1933,thenumberofpeoplewhohadjobsinthecityfellby75%,and20%ofpeoplebegantoreceivedirectrelieffromMilwaukeeCounty.Addinginsulttoinjury,aseveredroughtsettledontotheMidwestintheearly1930s,cripplingWisconsinagriculture.Whileearlyreliefeffortssucceededinhelpingmanyurbanworkers,NewDealprogramsforfarmerswerelargelyineffective.Inthespringof1933,dairyfarmersintheFoxValleywentonstrike,withholdingmilk,closingdowncheeseandbutterfactories,andbarricadingroadsinhopesofraisingprices.Federalandstategovernmenttriedmanysolutionstotheseproblems,themostfamousofwhichisSocialSecurity.Thiswellknownfederalprogramwas,infact,craftedbyWisconsinthinkerswithrootsinthestatesProgressivetradition.ItsprinciplesanditsmechanicswerebothnewtomanyAmericancitizens,andthefederalgovernmentworkedhardtogetprivatecitizensandemployerstoenroll.Initsfirstthreeyears,over30millionmenandwomensignedupforretirementbenefits,andmorethan2millionhandicappedandimpoverishedcitizensbegantoreceiveassistancethroughoutthecountry.BackgroundReading:SocialSecurity:TheWisconsinConnectionhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/topics/socialsecurity/andDepressionandUnemploymenthttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp045/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:WhatsInaNumber?http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1001Who,What,Where,When,Why:Thissmallpamphletfoldsandunfoldsaccordionstyle,andusescartoonstoexplainhowthenewSocialSecurityprogramworked.Itwasissuedbythefederalgovernmentabout1941toeducateworkersandemployers.RelatedDocuments:Perkins,Frances.TheRootsofSocialSecurity.ttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1010andReminiscencesofDepressionDayshttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1068Vocabulary:unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary

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    StudentActivities1.Whocreatedthepamphlet,WhatsinaNumber?2.Forwhom(whatpeopleorgroups)wasitcreated?3.Accordingtothepamphlet,whatgroupswillbenefitfromthenewSocialSecurityprogram?4.Judgingbythepamphlet,inwhatwaysisSocialSecuritysimilartootherNewDealeraprogramsthatyoumayhavestudied?Inwhatwaysisitdifferent?5.Whatassumptionsdoesthissourcemakeaboutworkers?[teachers:weretryingtogetatthegenderissueshere:At65,John&hiswifemaymakeclaimsIfJohndies,hiswidowandorphansfileclaimsi.e.,workersareassumedtobemalebreadwinners]6.Panel8notes,Checkswillcomeasamatterofright.Heandhisemployerpaidforthem.Whatistheimplicationhere?[i.e.,SocialSecuritywasearned,notcharity]7.Whymightthissourcescreatorhaveusedacomicbookformatwithbothwordsandpictures,insteadofaprintonlymedium?Whatadvantagesdoesthisgraphicalformathaveovermoretraditional,textonlygovernmentdocuments?8.ReadanythreeoftheshortchaptersinReminiscencesofDepressionDays.Whatconditionsdidtheauthorsshare,orwhatcommonexperiencesdidtheyencounter?Shouldthegovernmentstepintohelppeoplefacingsuchsituations,orisitourownindividualresponsibilitytosolvethesekindsofproblems?Takeastand,andexplainyourreasons.9.ReadFrancesPerkinsmemoirofbeingthepersonchargedwithtryingtosolvemassivesocialproblems.ShewasthefirstwomantoserveinthecabinetofanyU.S.president.Whatcanyoudeduceabouthercharacterfromthewayshedescribesherworkinthe1930s?Makealistofpersonalitytraitsthatarerevealedorsilentlyimpliedbyhermemoir.10.TheelderlypeopleinKenoshaandFrancesPerkinsbothleftshortmemoirsoftheDepression.Whatthingsarethesame,andwhatdifferent,abouttheirmemoirs?8thGradeStandardsAddressed: 8.1,8.512thGradeStandardsAddressed:

    12.2,12.5,12.13

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    LESSONEIGHTEEN 1954:CommunistandAntiCommunistPropagandaIntroduction:AfterseveralyearsintheSenate,JosephMcCarthymadeheadlineswhenheannouncedina1950speechinWheeling,WestVirginiathatheknewthat205communistswerecurrentlyworkingintheStateDepartment.SinceAmericanmenandwomenweregettingreadytodieincombatagainstacommunistenemyinKorea,thisspeechgarneredgreatpublicity.Capitalizingonpeoplesfears,McCarthylaunchedapubliccampaignaimedateliminatingthesupposedcommunistinfiltrationoftheU.S.governmentthatprovidedastrongplatformforhisreelection.Easilyreelectedin1952andchosenchairoftheSenatePermanentInvestigationsSubcommittee,McCarthytriedtoexposecommunistsandtheirsympathizersthroughoutAmericanpoliticalandculturallife.HisSubcommitteeinterrogatedmorethan500peopleprivatelyandpublicly;beingcalledtotestifybeforeitruinedpolitical,literary,andbusinesscareers.Citingnationalsecurity,McCarthyoftenrefusedtorevealsourcesofinformation.Fearfulofbeingnamedcommunistsympathizersthemselves,manyleadersoflaborunionsandprofessionalorganizationsjoinedintheRedScare.Otherintellectualsandactivistsrefusedtoanswerhisquestionsorappearbeforehiscommitteedespitethethreattotheirpersonalwellbeing.SeveralfamousHollywoodproducersandscriptwriterswereamongthebestknowncitizensblacklistedbytheiremployersforrefusingtocooperatewithhiscommittee.McCarthys1953accusationthatthemilitarywasharboringcommunistsultimatelyledtohisdownfall.TVcommentatorEdwardR.MurrowsuccessfullyexposedhistacticsandpubliclydenouncedhisactionsasathreattoAmericanscoredemocraticvalues.InDecember1954,theSenaterebukedhimforconductunbecomingasenator.BackgroundReading:JosephMcCarthy:AModernTragedy.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1104DocumenttoAnalyze:Wanted!YoursupportforSen.McCarthysbattleagainstthesecommunistmouthpieces.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1120Who,What,Where,When,Why:Thispamphletwasprobablyproducedin1954,whenMcCarthywasbattlingforhisreputationbutbeforetheSenatecensure.Wedonotknowpreciselywhoauthoredit,orwhichorganizationpublishedit.Butinalastditchefforttogainsupportforhisposition,McCarthyorhissupporterscitearticlesandquotesfromcommunistandsocialistpublicationsthatopposehim.RelatedDocuments:WhathasMcCarthydoneforWisconsin?http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1121andMcCarthy:adocumentedrecord.TheProgressive.(1954)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1124

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    Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionaryStudentActivities:1.WhatactiondoesthepamphletWanted!callfor?Whatisitsmainpoint?2.Inyourownwords,summarizewhatyouseeasthemainpointsofthenewspapersandindividualsquotedinthecampaignmaterial.3.IfthiswereagameofJeopardy,andtheWanted!documentsweretheanswer,whatwouldthequestionbe?4.InthepamphletWhatHasMcCarthyDoneforWisconsin?thefinalpage(TailGunnerJoe)assertsthatMcCarthywasrelievedfromactivedutyathis[own]request6monthsbeforeendofPacificwarandwaspriortothecostlybattlesofIwoJimaandOkinawa.WhatdoesthisstatementattempttoimplyaboutMcCarthy?5.Thesamepamphletincludesthephrase,WhyWisconsinsJuniorSenatorhasNOinfluenceinWashingtonbelowreferencestomajornewspapersandmagazines.Doesthatprovetheclaimtoyoursatisfaction?Whatdoestheauthorhopeyouwillinfer?6.CompareoneofthesectionsinMcCarthy:adocumentedrecordwiththeWanted!Yoursupportpamphlet.UsethetableonthepagesinthishandbookcalledEvaluatingCriticalThoughttoassessthemeritsofeach.7.TheWanted!Yoursupportpamphletusesthetestimonyofexpertsinanunusualway.Whydoyouthinkthepersonwhocreatedthematerialchosethistactic?8thGradeStandardsAddressed: 8.1,8.4,8.512thGradeStandardsAddressed: 12.1,12.2,12.4,12.5

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    LESSONNINETEEN 19661984:DesegregatingMilwaukeeSchools&Neighborhoods

    Introduction:Between1940and1960,WisconsinsAfricanAmericanpopulationincreasedbynearly600percent,from12,158in1940to74,546in1960.Drawntojobsinindustrialcitiesduringthewar,manyAfricanAmericanfamiliesencounteredsegregationinhousing,employment,andeducation.Bythe1960s,Milwaukeewasoneofthemostsegregatedcitiesinthenation,particularlyinitsschools.TheMilwaukeechapteroftheCongressofRacialEquality(CORE)andattorneyLloydBarbeeledthefightagainstschoolsegregationinMilwaukee,organizingboycotts,demonstrations,andcourtcases.In1976,aftermorethanadecadeofprotestsandlitigation,afederaljudgeorderedtheschoolboardtotakeimmediatestepstointegratethecitysschoolsandinMarchof1979,theboardagreedtoimplementadesegregationplan.BackgroundReading:PostwarAfricanAmericanMigrationhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp047/?action=more_essayandDesegregationandCivilRightshttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp049/DocumenttoAnalyze:BisbingBusinessResearch.AttitudeStudyamongNegroandWhiteresidentsintheMilwaukeeNegroResidentialAreas(pp.4483)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1189Who,What,Where,When,Why:BisbingBusinessResearchwashiredbytheMilwaukeeJournalin1965tointerviewresidentsaboutmajorissuesfacingthecitysAfricanAmericancommunity.500peoplewereinterviewed(400blackand100white)usingquestionsdevelopedbytheJournal.Thisstudywasintended,inpart,toassessthedaytodayconcernsandracialproblemsofpeoplelivinginthecity.RelatedDocumentsMilwaukeesNegroCommunity.CitizensGovernmentalResearchBureau.(Milwaukee:TheBureau,1946);http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1095andSelmaoftheNorth:MilwaukeeandtheCivilRightsMovementofthe1960s.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=799Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary

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    StudentActivities:1.Onpp.4656oftheBisbingresearchreport,whatarethemainpointsofblackrespondentsandwhiterespondents?Summarizethewhiteandtheblackresponsetoeachsurveyquestioninyourownwords.2.Iftheywantkidsatacertainschool,thefamiliesshouldmovethere.Itsanexpenseforthepublic,Imnotforanyofit.(p.83,response3)Whataretheassumptionsbeingmadeinthisstatement?Isthispersonconsideringallaspectsofschoolchoice?3.FortypercentoftheNegrorespondentsand11%oftheWhiterespondentswereinfavorofracialbalance(p.51).WhydoyouthinkthemajorityofAfricanAmericansdidnotwantraciallybalancedschools?Whatevidencedoyouhavefromtheverbatimcommentsand/orsurveyresults?4.Reviewtables712onpp.5762.Chooseoneofthesamplegroups(geographicarea,agegroup,orincomegroup)andfollowthisgroupsanswersacrossallsixtables.Dotheymakeapatternthatyoucannameorrecognize?Listyourobservations.5.Usingthesesametables,doyounoticeanydifferenceswithintheAfricanAmericancommunity?Dotheopinionsvarybygeographicarea?Byage?Byincome?Bygender?6.Accordingtothe2000Census,Wisconsinspopulationisroughly88%white,6%black,4%Hispanic,1%NativeAmerican,and1%other.DoesyourschoolreflecttheracialandethniccompositionofWisconsin?Whyorwhynot?Whatfactorsdoyouthinkinfluencewholivesinyourneighborhoodandgoestoyourschool?7.ImagineyouaretheadministratorfortheMilwaukeePublicSchools.Basedontheresultsofthissurveyandyourbackgroundreading,whatcourseofactionwouldyourecommend?8thGradeStandardsAddressed:

    8.1,8.3,8.4,8.5,8.10,8.1212thGradeStandardsAddressed:

    12.1,12.2,12.3,12.4,12.5,12.13,12.18

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    LESSONTWENTY 19751990:AccommodatingNewImmigrantsIntroduction:RecruitedduringtheVietnamWarasguerillasoldierstofighttheNorthVietnamese,Hmongpeopleswerelivingliterallyinthecrossfireduringtheconflict.WhentheUnitedStateswithdrewfromVietnamin1975,theHmongwhohadaidedtheU.S.wereleftinthehandsofthecommuniststheyhadfoughtagainst.ThousandsfledtorefugeecampsinThailandwhereresettlementorganizationshelpedtosponsorHmongimmigrationtotheUnitedStates.WisconsinhasthethirdlargestHmongpopulationinthecountry,afterMinnesotaandCalifornia;ourlargestHmongcommunitiesareinLaCrosse,Sheboygan,GreenBay,Wausau,andMilwaukee.HispanicAmericanshavebeeninWisconsinsincebeforestatehood,andby1925about9,000MexicanAmericanslivedinMilwaukee;mostlosttheirjobsduringtheDepressionandmovedbackhome.DuringWorldWarII,WisconsingrowersimportedmaleworkersfromJamaica,theBahamas,BritishHonduras,andMexico.Afterthewar,theimportationofMexicanscontinued,supportedbythefederalBraceroprogramthatbroughtmillionsofMexicanfarmlaborersnorthuntiltheprogramwasdiscontinuedin1964.Today,MexicansarethelargestSpanishspeakinggroupinWisconsin.Mexicansarrivinginthe1950sandafterhavefoundanestablishedcommunitytosettleinto,particularlyinMilwaukee.AnotherfastgrowinggroupofSpanishspeakersisPuertoRicanswhobeganarrivinginWisconsininthelate1940sdrawntoindustrialjobsinMilwaukee,Kenosha,andRacinecounties.WisconsinisalsohometopoliticalrefugeesandotherimmigrantsfromCuba,ElSalvador,Columbia,andNicaragua.BackgroundReading:20thCenturyImmigrationhttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp052/?action=more_essayDocumenttoAnalyze:Appendix1:...Writtenbya15yearoldHmongGirlLivinginLaCrosse(1988)inPofahl,Darrell.ToMakeADifference:AmericanMix:TheSoutheastAsiansandOtherRacialMinoritiesofLaCrosse.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1325Who,What,Where,When,Why:ThisshortmemoirwaswrittenasahomeworkassignmentinaLaCrossehighschoolinthe1980sbyarecentHmongimmigrantwhohasnotbeenidentified.AlthoughsheonlylearnedEnglishveryrecently,herbriefaccountofisextremelypowerful;theexperiencesthatshedescribesweresharedbymanyHmongimmigrantswhosettledinWisconsin.RelatedDocuments:Stevens,Michael,ed.RememberingtheHolocaust(Madison,1997)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1314

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    ResettlementAssistanceOffice.ThangTien.WisconsinWays.(Madison,19751976)http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1285andReporttotheGovernor:onProblemsofWisconsinsSpanishSpeakingCommunities.http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1262Vocabulary:Unfamiliarwordsaredefinedatwww.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionaryStudentActivities:1.InwhatcountrydoestheHmonggirlsmemoirbegin?WhatcountriesdoessheliveinorpassthroughbeforereachingtheU.S.?2.Explaininyourownwordswhythewriterandherfamilyarerefugees.3.ThewriterandherfamilyhadtobegintheirjourneytoThailandwithflashlightsandhidincavesbydayandcontinued[their]tripbynight.Whatdoesthissinglefactimplyabouttheirjourney?4.Thewritermentionsthathermotherisreluctanttoleavefamilyandfriendsinherhomecountry.Isimmigratingharderforadultsthanforchildren?Whyorwhynot?5.Thewritermentionsmanyshockingincidents,oftenverymatteroffactly.Whydoyouthinksherecountsthesesceneswithoutagreatdealofemotion?6.Comparethisnarrativewithotherjourneysyouvelearnedaboutinhistoryorinbooksyouvereadonyourown.YoumaywanttoconsulttheshortWisconsinimmigrantmemoirsathttp://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp018/.WhatthingswerethesameforearlierimmigrantsasfortheHmongauthor?Whatthingsweredifferent?7.ExplainwhocreatedthenewsletterThangtin.Wisconsinwaysandwhy.Comparethekindsofadvicegiveninissue1andissue2ofthatnewsletter.Whatmusttheeditorsofithaverealizedafterthefirstissuehadbeendistributed?8thGradeStandardsAddressed:8.1,8.3,8.1012thGradeStandardsAddressed:12.2,12.13

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    IntegratingtheModelLessonsintoYourTextbookReproducedonthefollowingpagesaretablesofcontentsfromseveralU.S.historytextbookscurrentlyusedinWisconsinschools.Intoeachtableofcontentswehaveinsertedcitationstotheprecedingmodellessonsatpointswhereyoumayconsiderusingthem.Ritchie,DonaldA.andAlbertS.Broussard.AmericanHistory:theearlyyearsto1877.NewYork:Glencoe/McGrawHill,2001.UnitOne:Chapter4:EuropeanEmpiresintheAmericasCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1673:MarquetteandJolietExploretheMississippi

    2.1702:TheEffectsoftheFurTrade3.1763:PontiacUrgesWisconsinIndianstoFight4.1881:WhoBuilttheEffigyMounds?

    UnitThree:Chapter9:CreatinganationCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.(1783)1846:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoOwnProperty?UnitFive:Chapter15:TheSpiritofReformCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1827:JosephStreetTriestoPreventtheBlackHawkWar 2.1850:TheU.S.GovernmentDeceivestheOjibwe 3.1854:ARealLifeLittleHouseStoryUnitSix:Chapter16:SectionaldifferencesChapter17:RoadtoCivilWarChapter18:TheCivilWarChapter19:ReconstructionCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1862:AWisconsinSoldierRefusestoGiveSlavesBacktoTheir

    Owners 2.1865:ShouldBlackCitizensBeAllowedtoVote?RitchieandUnitSeven:Chapter21:the20thcenturyCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1869:ShouldWisconsinsForestsBeSaved?

    2.1886:ShouldGovernmentUseViolencetoSuppressDemonstrations?

    3.13.1890:EnglishonlyinWisconsinSchools? 4.1910:ShouldNativeAmericanChildrenBeMainstreamed?

    5.1911:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoVote? 6.1918:GermanLanguageBooksBurnedintheStreet 7.1935:WhatShouldtheGovernmentDoaboutUnemployment andPoverty?

    8.1950:CommunistandAntiCommunistPropaganda 9.19661984:DesegregatingSchoolsandNeighborhoods

    10.19751990:AccommodatingNewImmigrants

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    Nash,GaryB.AmericanOdyssey:theUnitedStatesinthe20thCentury.NewYork:Glencoe/McGrawHill,2004.Chapter4:ANewNationCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1673:MarquetteandJolietExploretheMississippi 2.1702:TheEffectsoftheFurTrade 3.1763:PontiacUrgesWisconsinIndianstoFight 4.1881:WhoBuilttheEffigyMounds?Chapter7:NewfrontiersCriticalThinkingLessons:1.(1783)1846:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoOwnProperty?

    2.1827:JosephStreetTriestoPreventtheBlackHawkWar 3.1850:TheU.S.GovernmentDeceivestheOjibwe 4.1854:ARealLifeLittleHouseStory 5.1862:AWisconsinSoldierRefusestoGiveSlavesBack

    toTheirOwners 6.1865:ShouldBlackCitizensBeAllowedtoVote?Chapter10:ExpansionismandWorldWarICriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1869:ShouldWisconsinsForestsBeSaved 2.1886:ShouldGovernmentUseViolenceto SuppressDemonstrations? 3.1890:EnglishonlyinWisconsinSchools? 4.1910:ShouldNativeAmericanChildrenBeMainstreamed? 5.1911:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoVote? 6.1918:GermanLanguageBooksBurnedintheStreetChapter14:TheNewDealCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1935:WhatShouldtheGovernmentDoabout UnemploymentandPoverty?Chapter19:ColdWarPoliticsCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1950:CommunistandAntiCommunistPropagandaChapter22:VoicesofProtestCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.19661984:DesegregatingWisconsinSchoolsandNeighborhoodsChapter24:FromNixontoCarterCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.19751990:AccommodatingNewImmigrants

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    Boyer,PaulS.BoyersAmericanNation.Austin:Holt,Rinehart,andWinston,2001.Unit1Beginnings:Prehistory1800Chapter3TheEnglishColonies:16201763CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1673:MarquetteandJolietExploretheMississippi 2.1702:TheEffectsoftheFurTrade 3.1763:PontiacUrgesWisconsinIndianstoFight 4.1881:WhoBuilttheEffigyMounds?Unit2CreatingaNation:17631815Chapter6AStrongStartfortheNation:17891815CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.(1783)1846:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoOwnProperty?Unit3GrowthandChange:17901860Chapter9WorkingforReform:18201860CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1827:JosephStreetTriestoPreventtheBlackHawkWar 2.1850:TheU.S.GovernmentDeceivestheOjibwe 3.1854:ARealLifeLittleHouseStoryUnit4WarandReunification:18201900Chapter13ReconstructionandtheNewSouth:18651900CriticalThinkingLessons:1.1862:AWisconsinSoldierRefusestoGiveSlavesBacktoTheir

    Owners 2.1865:ShouldBlackCitizensBeAllowedtoVote?Unit5ANationTransformed:18601910Chapter17PoliticsintheGildedAge:18651900CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1869:ShouldWisconsinsForestsBeSaved?

    2.1886:ShouldGovernmentUseViolencetoSuppressDemonstrations?

    3.1890:EnglishonlyinWisconsinSchools?Unit6AWorldPower:18971920Chapter21WorldWarI:19141920CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1910:ShouldNativeAmericanChildrenBeMainstreamed? 2.1911:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoVote? 3.1918:GermanLanguageBooksBurnedintheStreetUnit7ProsperityandCrisis:19191939Chapter25TheNewDeal:19331940CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1935:WhatShouldtheGovernmentDoaboutUnemployment

    andPoverty? 2.1950:CommunistandAntiCommunistPropagandaUnit9AChangingHomeFront:19601978Chapter33WarinVietnam:19541975CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.19661984:DesegregatingWisconsinSchoolsandNeighborhoodsUnit10ModernTimes:1968PresentChapter36LaunchingtheNewMillennium:1990PresentCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.19751990:AccommodatingNewImmigrants

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    Davidson,JamesWest,MichaelB.SToff,HermanJ.Viola.PrenticeHallTheAmericanNation.UpperSaddleRiver,NJ:PearsonPrenticeHall,2005.UNIT1:ROOTSOFAMERICANHISTORYChapter4:TheThirteenEnglishColonies(16301750)CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1673:MarquetteandJolietExploretheMississippi 2.1702:TheEffectsoftheFurTrade 3.1763:PontiacUrgesWisconsinIndianstoFight 4.1881:WhoBuilttheEffigyMounds?UNIT2:THEREVOLUTIONARYERAChapter8:Government,Citizenship,andtheConstitution(1787Present)CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.(1783)1846:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoOwnProperty?UNIT4:ANERAOFEXPANSIONChapter15:ReformandaNewAmericanCulture(18201860)CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1827:JosephStreetTriestoPreventtheBlackHawkWar 2.1850:TheU.S.GovernmentDeceivestheOjibwe 3.1854:ARealLifeLittleHouseStoryUNIT5:DIVISIONANDREUNIONChapter18:ReconstructionandtheChangingSouth(18631896)CriticalThinkingLessons:1.1862:AWisconsinSoldierRefusestoGiveSlavesBacktoTheir

    Owners2.1865:ShouldBlackCitizensBeAllowedtoVote?

    UNIT6:TRANSFORMINGTHENATIONChapter21:ANewUrbanCulture(18651914)CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1869:ShouldWisconsinsForestsBeSaved? 2.1886:ShouldGovernmentUseViolenceto SuppressDemonstrations? 3.1890:EnglishonlyinWisconsinSchools?UNIT7:ANEWROLEFORTHENATIONChapter24:WorldWarI(19141919)CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1910:ShouldNativeAmericanChildrenBeMainstreamed? 2.1911:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoVote? 3.1918:GermanLanguageBooksBurnedintheStreetUNIT8:PROSPERITY,DEPRESSION,ANDWARChapter27:TheWorldWarIIEra(19351945)CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1935:WhatShouldtheGovernmentDoabout UnemploymentandPoverty?UNIT9:THEBOLDEXPERIMENTCONTINUESChapter30:TheNationinaNewWorld(1970Present)CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1950:CommunistandAntiCommunistPropaganda 2.19661984:DesegregatingWisconsinSchools andNeighborhoods 3.19751990:AccommodatingNewImmigrants

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    Kennedy,DavidM.,LizabethCohen,andThomasAndrewBailey.TheAmericanPageant:ahistoryoftherepublic.NewYork:HoughtonMifflin,2002.RevolutionaryCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1673:MarquetteandJolietExploretheMississippi 2.1702:TheEffectsoftheFurTrade 3.1763:PontiacUrgesWisconsinIndianstoFight 4.1881:WhoBuilttheEffigyMounds?AntebellumCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.(1783)1846:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoOwnProperty? 2.1827:JosephStreetTriestoPreventtheBlackHawkWar 3.1850:TheU.S.GovernmentDeceivestheOjibwe 4.1854:ARealLifeLittleHouseStoryCivilWarandReconstructionCriticalThinkingLessons:1.1862:AWisconsinSoldierRefusestoGiveSlavesBacktoTheir

    Owners 2.1865:ShouldBlackCitizensBeAllowedtoVote?WorldWarICriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1869:ShouldWisconsinsForestsBeSaved? 2.1886:ShouldGovernmentUseViolenceto

    SuppressDemonstrations? 3.1890:EnglishonlyinWisconsinSchools? 4.1910:ShouldNativeAmericanChildrenBeMainstreamed? 5.1911:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoVote? 6.1918:GermanLanguageBooksBurnedintheStreetWorldWarIICriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1935:WhatShouldtheGovernmentDoabout UnemploymentandPoverty? 2.1950:CommunistandAntiCommunistPropagandaPostColdWarCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.19661984:DesegregatingWisconsinSchoolsandNeighborhoods 2.19751990:AccommodatingNewImmigrants

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    CreatingAmerica:ahistoryoftheUnitedStates.Evanston,IL:McDougalLittell,2002.Chapter5:BeginningsofanAmericanIdentityCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1673:MarquetteandJolietExploretheMississippi 2.1702:TheEffectsoftheFurTrade 3.1763:PontiacUrgesWisconsinIndianstoFight 4.1881:WhoBuilttheEffigyMounds?Chapter8:ConfederationtoConstitutionCriticalThinkingLesssons:1.(1783)1846:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoOwnProperty?Chapter14:ANewSpiritofChangeCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1827:JosephStreetTriestoPreventtheBlackHawkWar 2.1850:TheU.S.GovernmentDeceivestheOjibwe

    3.1854:ARealLifeLittleHouseStoryChapter18:ReconstructionCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1862:AWisconsinSoldierRefusestoGiveSlavesBackto

    TheirOwners 2.1865:ShouldBlackCitizensBeAllowedtoVote?Chapter21:ChangesinAmericanLifeCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1869:ShouldWisconsinsForestsBeSaved? 2.1886:ShouldGovernmentUseViolencetoSuppress Demonstrations? 3.1890:EnglishonlyinWisconsinSchools?Chapter24:WorldWarICriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1910:ShouldNativeAmericanChildrenBeMainstreamed? 2.1911:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoVote? 3.1918:GermanLanguageBooksBurnedinheStreetChapter26:TheGreatDepressionandNewDealCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1935:WhatShouldtheGovernmentDoabout

    UnemploymentandPoverty?Chapter28:TheColdWarandtheAmericanDreamCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1950:CommunistandAntiCommunistPropagandaChapter31:YearsofDoubtCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.19661984:DesegregatingSchoolsandNeighborhoodsChapter32:EnteringaNewMillenniumCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.19751990:AccommodatingNewImmigrants

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    Brinkley,Alan.AmericanHistory:ASurvey.Boston:McGrawHill,2003.Chapter3:SocietyandCultureinProvincialAmericaCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1673:MarquetteandJolietExploretheMississippi 2.1702:TheEffectsoftheFurTrade

    3.1763:PontiacUrgesWisconsinIndianstoFight4.1881:WhoBuilttheEffigyMounds?

    Chapter7:TheJeffersonianEraCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.(1783)1846:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoOwnProperty?Chapter10:AmericasEconomicRevolutionCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1827:JosephStreetTriestoPreventtheBlackHawkWar 2.1850:TheU.S.GovernmentDeceivestheOjibwe 3.1854:ARealLifeLittleHouseStoryChapter15:ReconstructionandtheNewSouthCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1862:AWisconsinSoldierRefusestoGiveSlavesBackto

    TheirOwners 2.1865:ShouldBlackCitizensBeAllowedtoVote?Chapter19:FromStalematetoCrisisCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1869:ShouldWisconsinsForestsBeSaved?

    2.1886:ShouldGovernmentUseViolencetoSuppressDemonstrations?

    3.1890:EnglishonlyinWisconsinSchools? 4.1910:ShouldNativeAmericanChildrenBeMainstreamed?Chapter23:AmericaandtheGreatWarCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1911:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoVote? 2.1918:GermanLanguageBooksBurnedintheStreetChapter26:TheNewDealCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1935:WhatShouldtheGovernmentDoabout UnemploymentandPoverty?Chapter29:TheColdWarCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1950:CommunistandAntiCommunistPropagandaChapter32:TheCrisisofAuthorityCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.19661984:DesegregatingSchoolsandNeighborhoodsChapter34:ModernTimesCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.19751990:AccommodatingNewImmigrants

  • 79

    Cayton,Andrew,ElizabethIsraelsPerry,LindaReed,andAllanM.Winkler.America:PathwaystothePresent.PrenticeHall,2005.Unit1:Beginningsto1861Chapter3:AnEmergingNewNation,17831861CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1673:MarquetteandJolietExploretheMississippi 2.1702:TheEffectsoftheFurTrade 3.1763:PontiacUrgesWisconsinIndianstoFight 4.(1783)1846:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoOwnProperty? 5.1827:JosephStreetTriestoPreventtheBlackHawkWar 6.1850:TheU.S.GovernmentDeceivestheOjibwe 7.1854:ARealLifeLittleHouseStory Unit2:BuildingaPowerfulNation,18501915Chapter9:LifeattheTurnoftheTwentiethCentury,18701915CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1862:AWisconsinSoldierRefusestoGiveSlavesBackto

    TheirOwners 2.1865:ShouldBlackCitizensBeAllowedtoVote? 3.1869:ShouldWisconsinsForestsBeSaved? 4.1886:ShouldGovernmentUseViolencetoSuppress

    Demonstrations?5.1890:EnglishonlyinWisconsinSchools?

    Unit3:TheUnitedStatesontheBrinkofChange,18901920Chapter12:TheWorldWarIEra,19141920CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1910:ShouldNativeAmericanChildrenBeMainstreamed? 2.1911:ShouldWomenBeAllowedtoVote? 3.1918:GermanLanguageBooksBurnedintheStreetUnit4:BoomTimestoHardTimes,19201941Chapter16:TheNewDeal,19331941 CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1935:WhatShouldtheGovernmentDoabout

    UnemploymentandPoverty?Unit5:HotandColdWar,19311960Chapter20:ThePostwarYearsatHome,19451960CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.1950:CommunistandAntiCommunistPropagandaUnit6:APeriodofTurmoilandChange,19501975Chapter24:TheVietnamWar,19541975CriticalThinkingLessons: 1.19661984:DesegregatingSchoolsandNeighborhoodsUnit7:ContinuityandChange,1969tothePresentChapter27:EnteringaNewEra,1992tothePresentCriticalThinkingLessons: 1.19751990:AccommodatingNewImmigrants

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    PartVI

    WisconsinHistoryPerformanceStandards PerformanceStandardsforHistoryGrade8

    B.8.1Interpretthepastusingavarietyofsources,suchasbiographies,diaries,journals,artifacts,eyewitnessinterviews,andotherprimarysourcematerials,andevaluatethecredibilityofsourcesusedB.8.2EmploycauseandeffectargumentstodemonstratehowsignificanteventshaveinfluencedthepastandpresentinUnitedStatesandworldhistoryB.8.3Describetherelationshipsbetweenandamongsignificantevents,suchasthecausesandconsequencesofwarsinUnitedStatesandworldhistoryB.8.4Explainhowandwhyeventsmaybeinterpreteddifferentlydependingupontheperspectivesofparticipants,witnesses,reporters,andhistoriansB.8.5Usehistoricalevidencetodetermineandsupportapositionaboutimportantpoliticalvalues,suchasfreedom,democracy,equality,orjustice,andexpressthepositioncoherentlyB.8.6Analyzeimportantpoliticalvaluessuchasfreedom,democracy,equality,andjusticeembodiedindocumentssuchastheDeclarationofIndependence,theUnitedStatesConstitution,andtheBillofRightsB.8.7IdentifysignificanteventsandpeopleinthemajorerasofUnitedStatesandworldhistoryB.8.8IdentifymajorscientificdiscoveriesandtechnologicalinnovationsanddescribetheirsocialandeconomiceffectsonsocietyB.8.9ExplaintheneedforlawsandpoliciestoregulatescienceandtechnologyB.8.10Analyzeexamplesofconflict,cooperation,andinterdependenceamonggroups,societies,ornationsB.8.11Summarizemajorissuesassociatedwiththehistory,culture,tribalsovereignty,andcurrentstatusoftheAmericanIndiantribesandbandsinWisconsin

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    B.8.12Describehowhistorycanbeorganizedandanalyzedusingvariouscriteriatogrouppeopleandeventschronologically,geographically,thematically,topically,andbyissues

    PerformanceStandardsforHistoryGrade12

    B.12.1Explaindifferentpointsofviewonthesamehistoricalevent,usingdatagatheredfromvarioussources,suchasletters,journals,diaries,newspapers,governmentdocuments,andspeechesB.12.2Analyzeprimaryandsecondarysourcesrelatedtohistoricalquestiontoevaluatetheirrelevance,makecomparisons,integratenewinformationwithpriorknowledge,andcometoareasonedconclusion]B.12.3Recall,select,andanalyzesignificanthistoricalperiodsandtherelationshipsamongthemB.12.4AssessthevalidityofdifferentinterpretationsofsignificanthistoricaleventsB.12.5Gathervarioustypesofhistoricalevidence,includingvisualandquantitativedata,toanalyzeissuesoffreedomandequality,libertyandorder,regionandnation,individualandcommunity,lawandconscience,diversityandcivicduty;formareasonedconclusioninthelightofotherpossibleconclusionsanddevelopacoherentargumentinthelightofotherpossibleargumentsB.12.6Selectandanalyzevariousdocumentsthathaveinfluencedthelegal,political,andconstitutionalheritageoftheUnitedStatesB.12.7IdentifymajorworksofartandliteratureproducedintheUnitedStatesandelsewhereintheworldandexplainhowtheyreflecttheerainwhichtheywerecreatedB.12.8Recall,select,andexplainthesignificanceofimportantpeople,theirwork,andtheirideasintheareasofpoliticalandintellectualleadership,inventions,discoveries,andthearts,withineachmajoreraofWisconsin,UnitedStates,andworldhistoryB.12.9Selectsignificantchangescausedbytechnology,industrialization,urbanization,andpopulationgrowth,andanalyzetheeffectsofthesechangesintheUnitedStatesandtheworld

  • 82

    B.12.10Selectinstancesofscientific,intellectual,andreligiouschangeinvariousregionsoftheworldatdifferenttimeinhistoryanddiscusstheimpactthosechangeshadonbeliefsandvaluesB.12.11CompareexamplesandanalyzewhygovernmentsofvariouscountrieshavesometimessoughtpeacefulresolutiontoconflictsandsometimesgonetowarB.12.12Analyzethehistory,culture,tribalsovereignty,andcurrentstatusoftheAmericanIndiantribesandbandsinWisconsinB.12.13Analyzeexamplesofongoingchangewithinandacrosscultures,suchasthedevelopmentofancientcivilizations;theriseofnationstates;andsocial,economic,andpoliticalrevolutionsB.12.14Explaintheorigins,centralideas,andglobalinfluenceofreligions,suchasBuddhism,Islam,Hinduism,Judaism,andChristianityB.12.15Identifyahistoricalorcontemporaryeventinwhichapersonwasforcetotakeanethicalposition,suchasadecisiontogotowar,theimpeachmentofapresident,orapresidentialpardon,andexplaintheissuesinvolvedB.12.16Describethepurposeandeffectsoftreaties,alliances,andinternationalorganizationsthatcharacterizetodaysinterconnectedworldB.12.17IdentifyhistoricalandcurrentinstanceswhennationalinterestsandglobalinterestshaveseemedtobeopposedandanalyzetheissuesinvolvedB.12.18Explainthehistoryofslavery,racialandethnicdiscrimination,andeffortstoeliminatediscriminationintheUnitedStatesandelsewhereintheworld

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    Part VII

    CriticalThinking:ASelectedBibliography

    Thesebooks,articlesandreportshavebeenselectedbyWisconsinHistoricalSocietystaffforthosewhowanttopursuetopicsraisedintheworkshops.ThosecontaininganERICnumber(inparenthesesaspartoftheircitation)aregovernmentpublications.Theirfulltextscanusuallybefoundathttp://www.ericdigests.org/orbydoingaGooglesearchontheERICnumber.TheotherscommerciallypublishedbooksandscholarlyarticlescanusuallybefoundwiththehelpofthenearestUWSystemcampuslibrary.TEACHINGCRITICALTHINKINGAnkeny,Kirk,etal,eds.BringHistoryAlive!ASourcebookforTeachingUnitedStatesHistory.NationalCenterforHistoryintheSchools,LosAngeles,CA,1996(ERICED417121)

    Verythoroughsourcebookforteachinghistory,whichincludesarticlesandexercisesthataddressincorporationofprimarysourcematerialsandcriticalthinkingexercises.AnexcellentresourceformiddleandsecondaryschoolhistoryteachersinterestedinincorporatingCTexercisesintotheirclassroominstruction.

    Beyer,BarryK.CriticalThinking.Bloomington,Ind.:PhiDeltaKappaEducationalFoundation,1995.

    Averybasicandbriefdistillationoftheessentialfeaturesofcriticalthinking,asidentifiedbyafirstgenerationCTeducationspecialist,includinghisconcisearticulationoftheessentialelementsofCT,anexampleofCT,andastatementontheimportanceofCTtoademocraticsociety.

    Black,Susan.TeachingStudentstoThinkCritically,TheEducationDigest70:6(Fall2005).

    Averybriefsummaryofcontemporaryeducationalideasfordevelopingchildrenscriticalthinkingskills.Authorcitesleadingproponentsandprogramsofcriticalthinking:RichardPaulandLindaElder(NationalCouncilforExcellenceinCriticalThinking);TalentsUnlimited(theUSDepartmentofEducationNationalDiffusionNetworkprogram);StanleyPogrow(HOTSdeveloper);andBarryBeyer,aprofessoremeritusfromGeorgeMasonUniversity.

    Ennis,Robert.CriticalThinking.UpperSaddleRiver,NJ:PrenticeHall,1996;1995.

    UsefulgeneraltextbookemployingnaturallanguageinordertoassistindividualsinthedevelopmentandselfevaluationofCT,predicateduponthenotionthatCTdispositionsandabilitiesareessentialtoademocracy.EnnisemphasizessixbasicelementstoCT:Focus,Reason,Inference,Situation,ClarityandOverview(FRISCO).Textincludesnumerousexamplesandsuggestionsforselfassessment.

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    King,Alison.InquiryasaToolinCriticalThinking.InD.HalpernandAssociates,eds.ChangingCollegeClassrooms:NewTeachingandLearningStrategiesforanIncreasinglyComplexWorld,pp.1338.SanFrancisco:JosseyBass,1994.

    AuthorferventlybelievesthatCTcanempowerstudents.Aproponentoftheconstructivisteducationalmodel,Kingstressestheimportanceofaskingstudentstodrawonpreviousexperience(s)andknowledgewhenintroducedtonewinformation.SheadvocatesthatcollegeprofessorsneedtodepartfromthetraditionallecturemodelinorderfortheirstudentstodevelopCTskills,promotinganapplicationofGuidedReciprocalPeerQuestioningbasedonBloomstaxonomy(application,analysis,evaluation)asfundamentaltoCTinstruction.

    McMillan,J.H.EnhancingCollegeStudentsCriticalThinking:AReviewofStudies,ResearchinHigherEducation26:1(1987):329(ERICEJ354319).

    AnearlyexhaustivesummaryofhighereducationstudiesofundergraduatestudentsCTskills.Hassincebeenexpandedupon,byLisaTsui(seebelow).

    Milbury,PeterandBrettSilva.ProblemBasedLearning,PrimarySources,andInformationLiteracy,MultimediaSchools5(Sept.Oct.1998):4044(ERICEJ574027).

    Authorsdescribetheirinterdisciplinarycollaborationtoemploytheinstructionalstrategy,ProblemBasedLearning(PBL),todevelopandteachoriginallessonplanswiththeLibraryofCongresssAmericanMemoryProject.

    Norris,S.P.SynthesisofResearchonCriticalThinking,EducationalLeadership42:8(1985):4045(ERICEJ319814).

    AnearlysummaryofresearchandphilosophyunderlyingCTeducation.Authormakesthefollowingpoints:1)CTisacomplexofmanyconsiderations;2)CTisaneducationalideal;3)CTabilityisnotwidespread;4)CTissensitivetocontext;5)teachersshouldlookforthereasoningbehindstudentsconclusions;6)simpleerrorsmaysignalerrorsinthinkingatadeeperlevel;7)havingacriticalspiritisasimportantasthinkingcritically;8)tothinkcritically,onemusthaveknowledge;and9)wedontknowagreatdealabouttheeffectsofteachingCT.

    OConnor,JohnE.Reading,Writing,andCriticalViewing:CoordinatingSkillDevelopmentinHistoryLearning,TheHistoryTeacher(LongBeach,CA)34:2(Fall2001):183192(ERICEJ665387).

    Autobiographicalsummaryofhisapproach(developedover30yearsasahighschoolteacher)tointegratefilmandtelevisionviewinginhistoryinstruction.Hesupportsanalysisofthesemediabasedonhistoricalmethodologies(asdocuments),sincetheyarerepresentationsofhistory;evidenceforhistoricalfact;evidenceforsocialandculturalhistory;andevidenceforthehistoryoffilmandtelevision.

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    Otten,E.H.UsingPrimarySourcesinthePrimaryGrades,ERICDIGESTED419772,1998.

    Briefadvocacyofutilizingprimarysourcesintheelementaryclassroom,basedonthepremisethattheyhelptobridgethegapbetweenthepastandthepresent.AuthorcitestheNCSSCurriculumStandardsfortheSocialSciencesTime,Continuity,andChangethematicstrandsperformanceexpectationthatelementarystudentshaveanabilitytoidentifyandusevarioussourcesforreconstructingthepast,suchasdocuments,letters,diaries,maps,textbooks,photosandothers(NCSS1994,2D,34).

    Reed,JenniferH.andJeffreyD.Kromrey.TeachingCriticalThinkinginaCommunityCollegeHistoryCourse:EmpiricalEvidencefromInfusingPaulsModel,CollegeStudentJournal35:2(June2001):20115(AvailablethroughEducationFullText).

    AuthorsadoptednotedCTexpertRichardPaulsmodelforcriticalthinkingtocommunitycollegelevelhistoryinstruction,trainingstudentstoemployCTtoanalyzeprimarydocuments.TheirANCOVAtestresultssuggestedthattheexperimentalgroupperformedsignificantlyhigherthanthecontrolgroupinhistoricalthinkingandingeneralcriticalthinkingskills,withlargeeffectsizesineachcase,yetnosignificantdifferenceswerenotableontheothertests.AuthorsfeltthatinfusingPaulsmodelintoclassroomactivitiesappearedtopromotestudentsabilitiestothinkhistoricallyandcriticallywithoutlesseningtheiroverallknowledgeofhistorycontent.

    Seymour,DaleandEdBeardslee.CriticalThinkingActivities.PaloAlto,CA:DaleSeymourPublications,1990.

    AuthorsconsiderCTactivitiesindispensableforeverychildsprimarylevelmathematicseducation.TheirbookpresentsbasicactivitiesfocusedonthreetypesofCTskills:patterns,imageryandlogic.Astrongemphasisisplacedonnumericproblemsolving.Whilethisworkisnotdirectlyapplicabletotheteachingofhistory,itcouldbecreativelyadaptedtodevelopingvisualliteracybasedCTexercises.

    Shiroma,Deanne.UsingPrimarySourcesontheInternettoTeachandLearnHistory,ERICDIGESTED442729,2000.

    Agoodgeneralsummaryof1)typesandusesofprimarysources;2)methodsofusingtheInternettoobtainprimarysources;3)recommendedWebsites,whichtheauthorconsidersexemplary.

    Tsui,Lisa.AReviewofResearchonCriticalThinking,TypescriptofaPaperPresentedattheAnnualMeetingoftheAssociationfortheStudyofHigherEducation,Miami,FL(ERICED427572).

    AuthorsattempttogobeyondMcMillans1987studytoreviewtheresearchonCTamongcollegestudents.Sheevaluatedatotalof62studies,themajorityofwhichhadindicatedthatoverthecourseofanundergraduateprogram,studentscriticalthinkingskillsimproved.However,Tsuisanalysisrevealedconsiderableinconsistencyastotheidentifiedfactorsthataffectedthisgrowth.Overall,shefoundevidencethatincomparisontocoursestaughtinamoretraditionalmanner,greatergainsinCTscoreswerefoundamongcourseswithinstructionalparadigmsthatemphasizedproblemsolvingorcriticalthinking,classparticipation,inquiryandhigherorderthinking.ArticleincludesverygoodgeneralsummaryofCTliteratureandathoroughbibliography.

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    Walters,KerryS.,ed.ReThinkingReason:NewPerspectivesonCriticalThinking.Albany:SUNYPress,1994.

    Extremelyvaluablefourteenarticleanthologypresentingthesecondwaveofcriticalthinkingresearchandpedagogy,claimingthatteachersandresearchersneedtoexpandtheircriteriaofwhatshouldbeconsideredcriticalthinking.AuthorschallengepremisestraditionallyassociatedwithinstitutionallydrivenperspectivesonCT,andemphasizesuchskillsanddispositionsasnonanalyticalthinking,includingimaginationandintuition.

    Wineburg,S.S.HistoricalProblemSolving:AStudyoftheCognitiveProcessesUsedintheEvaluationofDocumentaryandPictorialEvidence,JournalofEducationalPsychology83:1(1991):7387(ERICEJ436869).

    ArticlebasedontheauthorsdoctoraldissertationfromtheSchoolofEducationatStanfordUniversity.Addressesthecomplexitiesofassessinghistoricalunderstanding/inquiry.Conductedaresearchstudywithparticipantsgleanedfromuniversitiesandhighschools(eighthistoriansandeighthighschoolstudents).Wineburgattemptedtoaddresshowhistoricalfactsaredeveloped.

    ZeislerVralsted,Dorothy.TheWisconsinCollaborativeUnitedStatesHistoryProfessionalDevelopmentProgram,TheHistoryTeacher(LongBeach,CA)36:2(Fall2003):221230.

    DiscussestheWisconsinCollaborativeUnitedStatesHistoryProfessionalDevelopmentProgram,whichreceivedaTeachingAmericanHistory(TAH)grant,inanefforttoimprovesubjectknowledgeforstateK16teachers.LedbytheNationalCouncilforHistoryEducation(NCHE)smasterteacher,BettyFranks,theprogramfurthersoughttoimprovecriticalthinkingskills.Theauthorreviewstheprogramsfirstyearcolloquia,itsoverallsuccessesandshortcomings.

    ASSESSMENTOFCRITICALTHINKINGEnnis,RobertH.andEricWeir.TheEnnisWeirCriticalThinkingEssayTest:AnInstrumentforTeachingandTesting.PacificGrove,CA:MidwestPublications,1985.

    PresentationoftheEnnisWeir,RobertEnnisandEricWeirsgeneraltestofcriticalthinkingability.Thetestwhichtakestheformofalettertotheeditorofafictionalnewspaperwasintendedtoevaluatethetesttakersabilitytoappraiseanargumentandtoformulateawrittenresponse,similarinconceptiontothenewSATessaysection.

    Facione,PeterandNoreenC.TheCaliforniaCriticalThinkingDispositionInventory.PacificGrove,CA:MidwestPublications,1985.

    StandardizedtextforCT,developeduponthecompletionofatwoyearDelphiprojectwiththesponsorshipoftheAmericanPhilosophicalAssociation.TheCaliforniaCriticalThinkingDisposition(CCTDI)wasintendedtoassessonlytheaffective,attitudinaldimensionsofCT:thingssuchasopinions,beliefs,andattitudestowardsCT.Maybeusefulforpreandpostassessments.

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    Halpern,D.F.AssessingtheEffectivenessofCriticalThinkingInstruction,TheJournalofGeneralEducation42:4(1993):238254(ERICEJ650970).

    Authorprovidesastrongsummaryofnationalimperativetoimprovecollegestudentscriticalthinkingskillsandgoesontoitemizetheproblematicsinherenttocreatingmeasurementdevicesandsomeprimarymodels(suchasGainsinIQScoresandStudentSelfReports).ShecitesVenezuelasexhaustiveattempttoimprovethethinkingskillsofitscitizenry,whichhasreceivedaconsiderableamountofscholarlyreview.Sheconcludesthatthereissignificantpotentialforhelpingcollegestudentstothinkmorecritically.Sheincludesahelpfultablethatsummarizestypicalskillsassociatedwithcriticalthinking.

    Norris,StephenandRobertH.Ennis.EvaluatingCriticalThinking.PacificGrove,CA:CriticalThinkingPressandSoftware,1989.

    AuthorsattempttoestablishacontextandmeansforevaluatingCTskillsattheelementaryandsecondarylevels.Intendedforclassroomteachers,thisvolume(oneofaseriesfocusedondevelopingCTskills)emphasizestheanalyticalmodelofCT,includesdescriptionsofcommerciallymarketedCTtests,alongwithsuggestionsfordevelopingonesownevaluativemodels.

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