Ways We Can Think about History
Historical ThinkingHow do historians think?Example Non exampleKinds of Historical Thinking Give one, Get one, Move on! (GoGoMo)View video to clarify and reflect on the tools of historical thinking (HT) we may use in our class roomVideo link: http://teachinghistory.org/historical-thinking-intro
What are five tools that are mentioned?What literacy skills are needed to make it easier for students to use these tools effectively?What learning mode or instructional approach is best suited for historical learning activities and strategies?Question 1What are the historical thinking (HT) tools that are mentioned in the video?3Question 2What literacy skills are needed to make it easier for students to use these tools effectively?4Question 3What learning mode or instructional approach is best suited for historical thinking activities and strategies?
Where do we see HT referenced in our standards?Example for Grade 7 Eastern Hemisphere:Chronological Thinking, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, Issues-Analysis and Decision-MakingWH.7.1 Identify patterns of historical change and duration and construct a representation that illustrates continuityand change.WH.7.2 Locate and analyze primary sources and secondary sources related to an event or issue of the past.WH.7.3 Investigate and interpret multiple causation in analyzing historical actions and analyze cause-and-effectrelationships.WH.7.4 Explain issues and problems of the past by analyzing various interests and viewpoints of the participantsinvolved.WH.7.5 Use technology in the process of conducting historical research and to present products of historicalresearch.WH.7.6 Formulate and present a position or course of action on an issue by examining the underlying factorscontributing to that issue and support that position.
Where do we see HT referenced in our standards?Examples for World History (Grade 9):Chronological Thinking, Historical Comprehension, Analysis and Interpretation, Research7.1.15 Create and compare timelines that identify major people and events and developments in the history of civilizationand/or countries of Africa, Asia and the Southwest Pacific.7.1.16 Analyze cause-and-effect relationships, bearing in mind multiple causation in the role of individuals, beliefs andchance in history.7.1.17 Distinguish between unsupported expressions of opinion and informed hypotheses grounded in historical evidence.7.1.18 Compare and contrast perspectives of history in Africa, Asia, and the Southwest Pacific using fictional andnonfictional accounts including visual, literary, art, and musical sources
Where do we see HT referenced in our standards?Example for U.S. History (Grade 11):Chronological Thinking, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, Issues-Analysis and Decision-MakingUSH.9.1 Identify patterns of historical succession and duration in which historical events have unfolded and apply them toexplain continuity and change.USH.9.2 Locate and analyze primary sources and secondary sources related to an event or issue of the past; discoverpossible limitations in various kinds of historical evidence and differing secondary opinions.USH.9.3 Analyze multiple, unexpected, and complex causes and effects of events in the past.USH.9.4 Explain issues and problems of the past by analyzing the interests and viewpoints of those involved.USH.9.5 Formulate and present a position or course of action on an issue by examining the underlying factors contributing tothat issue.
Critical Components to Model HT in ClassroomsApply HT standards to lesson designsCreate opportunities for students to exemplify HT use gradual release of responsibilityDiscuss and practice using HT concepts before applying them to specific contentOrganize lessons around an essential questionAdvantages and adjustments of organizing our instruction around essential (critical, etc.) questions?
AdvantagesPromotes inquiryStarts with the particularsWorks best with collaborationReflects the issues and events experienced in everyday lifeAllows for introspection and an examination of universal values
AdjustmentsShifts more responsibility on student to explore possible answersRequires patience to build up to a conclusionRequires rules and procedures to guide productive collaborationEveryday life can be messy and sometimes may not provide clear answers can students settle for that?Introspection and universal values may make us more vulnerable as thinkersEssential Questions During InstructionBest practice is to model the essential question in all stages of the gradual release of responsibility:Students see the teacher using an essential question to guide their reading (I do it)Students will follow the modeled example (We do it)Students will collaborate in applying this modeled method (You do it together)Students then refer to the essential question and apply its purpose independently (You do it alone)TEACHER RESPONSIBILITYSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFocus LessonGuided InstructionI do itWe do itYou do it togetherCollaborativeIndependentYou do it aloneA Model for Success for All Students Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
12Where can you find essential questions in the pacing resources?
13Asking the Right Questions
14Further Steps in Teaching Historical Thinking and Essential QuestionsAdditional slidesElements of Historical Thinking
A Framework to Lead Us to Our Questions
Visualizing the ProcessShifting from Facts to ConceptsFromToFactsConcepts and content knowledgeBreadth of topicDepth within topicRecallTransfer and connectionsShifting from Teacher-Centered to Student-CenteredFromToTeacher as disseminatorStudent as a facilitatorStudents learn facts from textbookStudents investigate the social sciences using multiple sourcesStudents retell interpretationStudents construct interpretations and communicate conclusions20How does this impact the classroom?It impacts how we design our lessons and activitiesIt impacts how we interact with students about what they are learningIt impacts how students shape their own learningIt becomes a model for thinking about the world (past and present) in general promotes critical reflection and empathyFrench Taxi Drivers Attack ber (Yahoo News)
What issue we can identify?What historical thinking should we apply?What essential question can we develop?
Italians revolt against migrant 'invasion (The Telegraph)
What issue we can identify?What historical thinking should we apply?What essential question can we develop?Womens World Cup Final Was Most-Watched Soccer Game in United States History (New York Times)
What issue we can identify?What historical thinking should we apply?What essential question can we develop?Supreme Court decisions sweep aside history (Courier-Journal)
What issue we can identify?What historical thinking should we apply?What essential question can we develop?Putting together a lesson that teaches historical thinking1. Start with a standard and identify enduring idea (concept)2. Apply question to a topic that will lead students to understand a a type of historical thinking (content-wise/skill-wise)3. Find/create sources that presents information in a way that illustrates the type of historical thinking you wish to highlight (be sure to organize this around an essential question!)4. Model where and how students can use sources of information to support their point of view5. Allow students to collaborate in this endeavor through facilitation6. Challenge students to explain their point of view independently using supporting evidence