Hindustani : Indian Classical Music
Hindustani :Indian Classical Music
Hindustani music comes from Northern India
Southern India has a different tradition, called Carnatic musicMaster / Student tradition
Student / GuruHindustani music is built on 3 elements:
Tala: rhythm Raga: scales/melody
This is the basis for all harmony, a constant or repeating tone.
Usually played on a tambura, or a harmonium or shruti box
Tala or Taal
This is the rhythmic basis of the music. It is a repeating pattern, similar to a rhythmic ostinato.
The constant beat is called a MANTRA over this, there are rhythmic patterns known as BOLS
They are often played on the TABLA drums
Tala or Taal
Each Tala is unique, with different patterns and emphasis
Often, the Tala contains clapping. When a beat is missing, players wave their hand to indicate an empty beat (Khali)
123456789101112Tala or Taal
Each Tala can be divided into sections called VIBHAGS they are roughly equivalent to BARS in Western music.
Vibhags can often be uneven, combining patterns for emphasis.In this example, the emphasis is 4+2+3+3
123456789101112Raga or Raag
A Raga is the rough equivalent of a SCALE in Western music it is a pattern of notes used to create a particular mood.
There are hundreds of raga, each with their own name and mood/association.
A raga has a ascending and a descending pattern, usually different.
Raga or Raag
Rag Yaman (early evening raga)
From this Raga, you can create a fixed, short melody called a GAT
Structure in Hindustani Music
North Indian classical music is built around improvised sections of music. It usually has 3 sections:
The AlapThe JorThe JhallaThe Alap1st section : The Alap
The Alap is a slow, meditative introduction which sets the mood of the piece. A drone is used as accompaniment
The notes of the Rag are explored, and the rhythm is free - no regular beat.
The notes usually move from low to high, and there is a slight speed up as you move towards the next sectionThe Jor2nd section : The Jor
The Jor is another improvised section, usually at a moderate tempo.
The drone still provides accompaniment.
A regular pulse is introduced here, although is it not usually complex.The Jhalla3rd section : The Jhalla
The Jhalla is the final section, and it is marked by the entrance of TABLA playing the Tal.
It also begins with a GAT - a fixed melody.The Gat forms the basis for more improvisations, getting steadily more complex and faster.
The tempo increases to an exciting pace, and the Gat is usually repeated to finish the performance.