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HIGHER GEOGRAPHY PHYSICAL REVISION. Lesley Monk Balfron High School Session 2005/6. HIGHER GEOGRAPHY PHYSICAL REVISION. CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE SCENERY. Start describing how Karst features are formed by describing the erosion process CHEMICAL SOLUTION. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Lesley MonkBalfron High SchoolSession 2005/6

  • CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE SCENERYIt is unlikely that you will be asked about the creation of the limestone itself.Do not spend much time in a question explaining this.Karst scenery features start withthe exposure of the rock to the elements, laterally by the glaciers.You MUST be able to explain the basic chemistry of the erosion process- mention the PH quality of both rain AND rock!Chemical formulae are not essential- but get them right if you use them!Start describing how Karst features are formed by describing the erosion process CHEMICAL SOLUTION.

  • Underground, overground, (Wombling free?)The question asks you to explain the formation of upland limestone scnery. Start above the limestone plateau on the uppermost impermeable rock layer. Describe its impermeability! (It has streams at the surface!)

    Then tell the story of the river as it flows onto the limestone pavement- describe the limestone with its clints and grikes. Describe the features found at the surface like scars, dry valleys and shake-holes.Do not describe yet the features caused by water erosion underground, like gorges.

  • shakehole

  • The river finds a swallowhole and disappears underground. Why? Remind the reader about solution.Describe where the calcium carbonate goes to when dissolved- INTO THE WATER !Where does it come back OUT of solution? IN THE CAVERN SYSTEMS !

  • Explain how the water gets into the cavern in the first place- joints !Describe the formation of stalactites and stalagmites, with pillars and flowstones as added extras. Explain carefully how the CaCO2 gets out of the water and forms the features. Remember the benefit of a well-labelled diagram!

  • Continue the story of the river as it flows down inside the limestone through the passages and tunnels. Tell how solution can create a limestone GORGE at the surface.Explain where the water goes to once it reaches the base of the limestone plateau.- RE-EMERGENT STREAM or resurgence

  • COASTLINES- erosion featuresRemember to detail the processes of erosion by the water- there are 6- can you remember them all?corrosionattrition solutionhydraulic action water-layer weatheringwave pounding What factors determine the amount of erosion?Fetch Wave detailsWeather detailsLocal geology

  • There are eight erosion-related features you need to learn up. You need to be able to ;-Describe them using their proper termsExplain IN DETAIL how they formDraw simple LABELLED SKETCHES of them Give EXAMPLES of them in the UK.BAY AND HEADLANDCAVE ANDBLOWHOLEARCHSTACKSTUMPWAVE-CUT PLATFORMNEEDLEABRASION NOTCHES

  • Stacks and stumps

  • Transportation of eroded sediments is done by which process?Explain how it works.Why do the waves travel at an angle onto the beach?What happens to the particles as they are transported?

    Remember the benefit of a well-labelled diagram!

  • How do these features form?Do you know what these terms mean?BEACHBAYBARSPITTOMBOLOHEADLANDSORTINGGROYNE