High Strength Steel Cylinders for Su = 1045 MPa ¢â‚¬¢ Gaseous hydrogen at pressure of 45 MPa (6500 psi)

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  • High Strength Steel Cylinders for

    Transporting Hydrogen-Bearing Gases HazMat R&D Forum

    May 16, 2018

    Washington DC

    AJ Slifka, ES Drexler,

    MJ Connolly, PE Bradley, ML

    Martin, DS Lauria

    NIST, Boulder, CO

    RL Amaro

    University of Alabama

    CP Looney

    Colorado School of Mines

    M Rana, J Smith

    Consultants

    M Toughiry

    DOT

  • Safe Transportation of Hydrogen-Bearing Gases

    This started back in the 1960s, doesn’t happen anymore, and it only happened in Europe, as far as I know

    from ISO DTR 10783

  • Safe Transportation of Hydrogen-Bearing Gases

    From DTPH56-07-P-000007

  • Safe Transportation of Hydrogen-Bearing Gases

    Can higher-strength steels be used?

    • Strain-Life measurements

    • Modeling of full elastic and plastic effects

    • Fatigue results from SNL?

    How “safe” are each of the three test methods in ISO 11114-4?

    • Strain-Life measurements • Baseline material (UTS=724 MPa) • High-strength material (UTS – 1040

    MPa)

    • Modeling • Elastic effects • Accumulated inelastic strain • Comparison of A, B, C methods • Microstructure

    • Crack-tip mechanics

  • Safe Transportation of Hydrogen-Bearing Gases: accepted test methods

    Method A: Rupture Disc

    Method C: Wedge-opening load, fracture arrest

    Method B: Rising-load, fracture threshold

  • Strain-Life Measurements: 4130 steel

    Raw Data strain rate 0.008 for all measurements

    ε=0.0098 f=0.2Hz R=-1 air

  • Strain-Life Measurements: 4130 steel

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01

    St re

    ss (

    M p

    a)

    Strain (-)

    ABAQUS N=0.5 No Isotropic

    Raw Data N=0.5

    Air First Cycle- Monotonic Elastic-perfectly plastic behavior is ignored

  • Strain-Life Measurements: 4130 steel

    -800

    -600

    -400

    -200

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    -0.01 -0.005 0 0.005 0.01

    St re

    ss (

    M p

    a)

    Strain (-)

    N=1 Raw Data

    ABAQUS N=1

    N=100 Raw Data

    ABAQUS N=10

    Air Cyclic- Strain Hardening

  • Strain-Life Measurements: 4130 steel

    -800

    -600

    -400

    -200

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    -0.01 -0.005 0 0.005 0.01

    St re

    ss (

    M p

    a)

    Strain (-)

    N=50 Raw Data

    ABAQUS N=5

    Air Cyclic- Strain Hardening

  • Strain-Life Measurements: 4130 steel

    Hydrogen (18 MPa, 2600 psi) Cyclic- Strain Hardening

  • Strain-Life Measurements: 4130 steel

    Hydrogen (18 MPa, 2600 psi) Fatigue

  • Modeling: Deformation Response for 4130 Steel at 2600 psi

    • Chaboche cyclic plasticity model

    • isotropic and kinematic hardening or softening • calibrated separately

  • Modeling: Comparison of 3 Methods in ISO 11114-4

    This example given for testing and modeling in air

  • Modeling: microstructure

    Alloy D tessellated grains

  • Modeling: microstructure

    Alloy D EBSD

  • Modeling: microstructure

    Alloy D synthetic

  • 18

    Synthetic Alloy D in ABAQUS- Grain 9

    BC: 2000 psi Hydrogen

    Modeling: microstructure and Diffusivity

  • Fatigue Results on High-Strength Steel

    Done at Sandia National Laboratories

    Su = 1045 MPa

    • Gaseous hydrogen at

    pressure of 45 MPa (6500 psi)

    • R = 0.1

    • Frequency between 0.002

    and 10 Hz

    • Data from PVP2015-45424: Optimizing Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Relationships for Cr-Mo Pressure Vessel Steels in Hydrogen Gas Brian Somerday, Paolo Bortot and John Felbaum

    http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/solr/searchresults.aspx?author=Brian+Somerday&q=Brian+Somerday http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/solr/searchresults.aspx?author=Paolo+Bortot&q=Paolo+Bortot http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/solr/searchresults.aspx?author=John+Felbaum&q=John+Felbaum

  • Fatigue Results on High-Strength Steel

    Done at Sandia National Laboratories

    Gaseous hydrogen at

    pressure between 10 and

    100 MPa (1450 to 15,000 psi)

    • R = 0.1

    • Frequency between 0.002

    and 10 Hz

    • Data from PVP2015-45424

  • Crack-Tip Mechanics

    HEXRD: high-energy x-ray diffraction 1.7 MPa (250 psi), 1 Hz

  • Crack-Tip Mechanics

    Maximum stresses in hydrogen and in air

    crack-opening stress Hydrostatic stress von Mises stress

  • Crack-Tip Mechanics

    Determination of Keff where the red line shows the range of the linear K- dominant region. The crack tip plastic zone is closer than this to the crack tip. The vertical dashed line shows the analytic prediction of the plastic zone size.

  • High-Strength Steel comparison

    o New from Faber in Italy o UTS=1042 MPa o Elongation to failure 17.4%

    o Used for hydrogen o UTS=792 MPa o Elongation to failure 24.2%

  • Next Steps

    o Complete strain-life tests in hydrogen o Adjust model for hydrogen effects o Ask collaborators about definition of in-

    service conditions o Begin tests on high-strength steel o Determine whether there is a pressure

    effect? o Develop a model that will be used for

    selecting steel intended for hydrogen pressure vessels

  • Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Materials for Cargo Tank Motor Vehicles

    Emerging Packaging Research PHMSA Research and Development Forum

    May 16-17, 2018

    Mike Carolan Marisol Medri

    Mark Raney (Program POC) Laura Sullivan

    Hailing Yu (Project/Technical POC) Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

    Cambridge, MA 02142

  • Acknowledgement of PHMSA Team

    • Rick Boyle (Program POC)

    • Victor Casillas (Project/Technical POC)

    • Cheryl Freeman

    • Satyaveda Bharath

    • Eva Rodezno

    27

  • Overview • PHMSA regulates the construction,

    testing and inspection of highway cargo tank motor vehicles (CTMVs) within the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR)

    • The HMR only allows the construction of metallic tanks – Manufacturers desiring lighter, more

    corrosion resistant tanks are requesting special permits for tanks constructed of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP)

    28

  • Problem Statement • FRP manufacturers must request special permits from

    PHMSA because the HMR does not currently allow non-metallic CTMVs

    • There are currently 6 manufacturers in the US and Canada constructing FRP CTMVs with special permits – Special permits are granted on an individual basis, and

    may have varying conditions and restrictions

    • Differing regulations in Canada and Europe already exist for CTMVs constructed of FRP

    29

  • FRP Considerations • Key advantages

    – Low density – High specific stiffness and specific strength – Good fatigue endurance – Excellent corrosion resistance – Outstanding thermal insulation – Low thermal expansion

    • Areas of concern – Through-the-thickness mechanical properties – Impact damage tolerance – Fire performance

    30

  • Challenges with FRP Construction

    31

    • Material properties are directional and can depend on a number of factors

    – Glass Fiber or Carbon Fiber

    – Polymer Selection

    – Fiber Orientation

    – Method of Construction

    • Single wall

    – Hand lay-up

    – Filament wound

    • Sandwich layers

    – Balsa, foam, honeycomb

    80o 45o 0o 80o

  • Project Objectives

    • Establish experimental testing procedures and develop a finite element (FE) analysis framework for evaluating the performance and determining the specifications of FRP cargo tanks for highway HM transportation

    • Provide performance data and technical parameters for PHMSA to develop uniform performance evaluation criteria and procedures for FRP CTMVs

    32

  • Procurement of FRP Specimens – Task 1

    • Review of manufacturers of FRP CTMVs currently operating under a special permit

    – Discussion of manufacturing materials

    – Discussion of type of manufacture

    – Discussion of current characterization methods employed by the manufacturer

    33

  • Material and Component-Level Testing – Task 2

    • Establish a test matrix – Review tests recommended in existing

    guidance documents • Current CTMV requirements in HMR • Relevant ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

    Sections • Existing Canadian and European requirements • Existing Special Permits

    – Determine which mechanical properties will be required for modeling

    34

  • Material and Component Level Model Development – Task 3

    • Develop