High School Extracurricular Activities Impact on Student Achievement by Kristen Samuelson

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High School Extracurricular Activities Impact on Student Achievement by Kristen Samuelson Slide 2 Need for Study Studies show that students who participate in extracurricular activities such as athletics, fine arts, and school-sponsored clubs are higher achieving students. Due to caps in revenue, school districts are forced to divert resources towards getting students to pass standardized tests, thereby cutting athletic funding because of their increasing costs. (Hurley, 2004) Slide 3 Purpose of Study To demonstrate the impact of participation in extracurricular activities on student achievement. Slide 4 Research Questions Does involvement in high school extracurricular activities positively or negatively impact student achievement, such as state test scores (TAKS) and course grades (GPA)? Does it impact student behaviors such as behavior in the classroom? Slide 5 Hypothesis Students who participate in high school extracurricular activities have higher state test (TAKS) scores. Students who participate in high school extracurricular activities get better grades. Classroom behavior is better amongst students who participate in extracurricular activities. Slide 6 Operational Definitions Extracurricular Activities an educational activity not falling within the regular scope of the curriculum. Ex. Athletic team, fine art, or club. Professional Learning Communities extending classroom practice into the community or bringing the community into the classroom with the purpose of enhancing the curriculum or learning experience. TAKS standardized tests; Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. Ten different tests given throughout high school. Slide 7 Operational Definitions, contd. No Child Left Behind educational reform act signed by President George W. Bush in 2002. It stresses greater accountability, more freedom from states and communities, more choices for parents, and encouragement for proven educational methods. Classroom Behavior behaviors demonstrated in the classroom by students. Conduct grades given by teachers can affect participation in extracurricular activities and membership into organizations such as the National Honor Society and Student Council. Slide 8 Literature Review When students were asked what they most wanted to be remembered for, forty percent of boys responded that they wanted to be remembered as a star athlete. (Coleman, 2006) Slide 9 For over a century, scholars have debated the type of education that students should receive. Today, we question whether all high school students should receive college preparation or whether they should be able to experience a little bit of everything. Slide 10 What has resulted is the idea that high schools offer equal opportunity for a rigorous academic program with the ability to take electives. Slide 11 The Bush Administration, as well as the Clinton Administration made education reform a top priority. The Center on Education Policy reports that student achievement has continued to improve during the implementation of No Child Left Behind, and in many places, the achievement gaps are narrowing. (Schwartzbeck, 2005) Slide 12 Richard Rothstein, an education researcher and writer, states that the quality of schools has been and continues to be tied very tightly to the level of wealth or poverty of the children the school serves. His research shows that the greatest variable to increasing SAT scores has been family income. (Houston, 2001) Slide 13 How are educators supposed to create that connection for students between the classroom and their culture? Situated learning theorists argue that through social interaction and practice, students will be better able to apply knowledge from the classroom to outside school settings. (White, 2003) Slide 14 Situated learning relies on human interaction. Gaining skills and knowledge require practice in the real world rather than classrooms or other artificial settings. (White, 2003) Slide 15 Current school reform is putting an emphasis on small learning communities. Schools that have implemented a small learning community also support mentorship, tutoring, homework assistance, college planning and extracurricular activities. (2006) Slide 16 In addition to the small learning communities, there are collaborative initiatives that are geared towards improving child outcomes. These programs recognize the importance of establishing partnerships between the childs home, school and service providers with the intent of monitoring their needs and services. (Brown et al., 2002) Slide 17 A recent Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll identified the top reason for the success of some schools as the support and involvement of parents in the school and their childs education. (Nellen, 2005) Slide 18 A University of Michigan study shows that the single strongest predictor of student test scores and behavioral problems is the amount of time that children spend dining with their families. (Mattox Jr, 2005) Slide 19 Contributions from the community comes in other ways besides mentoring, including monetary: The telementoring has shown positive results and confirms the idea that we can whenever, and wherever we choose, successfully teach all children whose schooling is of interest to us (Nellen, 2005). There is a positive relationship between per student expenditures at all levels of education and the gross domestic product per capita (Wirt et al., 2002). Slide 20 Almost every high school in America offers extracurricular activities such as athletics, fine arts and clubs. It can be argued that these activities fall into areas discussed previously, collaborative learning, small learning communities, as well as situated learning. Slide 21 There are many benefits to participating in extracurricular activities including but not limited to learning the values of teamwork, responsibility, competition, diversity, culture, community, and physical strength and endurance. These activities provide an opportunity for reinforcing lessons learned in the classroom, applying academic skills in a real- world context. (O'Brien & Rollefson, 1995) Slide 22 In a study by the National Center for Education Statistics, there appeared to be no important differences in the availability of activities between affluent and less affluent schools, large or small schools, rural, urban or suburban schools, and those with great or few minority students. (O'Brien & Rollefson, 1995) Slide 23 A 1992 survey showed that one of every four seniors participated in at least one extracurricular activity. A 1997 study showed that 83% of students between the ages of 6-17 participated in at least one extracurricular activity. (Ebie, 2005) Slide 24 Jerome Bruner says that we get interested in what we get good at. With extracurricular activities, students are taking the initiative to be there because they want to be there. Kids will get more out of an activity that they are interested in because they have a stake in it. (Welsh, 2004) Slide 25 Participation in extracurricular activities is considered to be part of a well-rounded education and increases students commitment and sense of school pride. Some benefits listed by OBrien and Rollefson include consistent attendance, academic achievement and academic aspirations. Slide 26 Research has shown positive relationships between extracurricular activities and increased self-esteem, lower dropout rates, better attendance, reduction of at- risk behaviors, physical fitness, and as a predictor of success in college and later in life. (Ebie, 2005) Slide 27 A 2003 report by the National Federation of State High School Associations surveyed American high schools regarding athletic participation, and states that 55.4% of high school students participated in some form of athletic program during the 2003 school year. (Carlson et al., 2005) Slide 28 The National Center for Education Statistics began an eight year study in 1990 that examines the future of high school athletes, after high school. This study proved that there is a positive relationship between high school athletic participation and success. Slide 29 Marsh and Kleitman found that participation in high school athletics had a stronger positive impact on postsecondary outcomes than participation in any other type of extracurricular activity. (Carlson et al., 2005) Slide 30 Experts feel that involvement in extracurricular activities provides students the opportunity for a more well-rounded education. A 2005 Gallup Poll suggests that parents and the public feel that a child with a more well-rounded education is more valuable than a student who makes straight As. (Ebie, 2005) Slide 31 The study showed that students who excelled in music were also high achievers in academics, honors, student government, leadership, athletics, service and extracurricular activities. The study does suggest that the focused study of music, of value in itself, may enhance confidence and encourage students to be successful in other areas. (Tobin, 2005) Slide 32 Schools are forced to focus on test results and in doing so, have forgotten that what they offer outside the classroom can be as important as what is taught within. As schools rush to improve the test scores, more money is pushed into the classrooms of science, math and social studies, usually at the expense of other programs such as music, drama, athletics, and journalism, sometimes to the point of elimination. (Welsh, 2004) Slide 33 The National Association of State Boards of Education kicked off a national research project in December 2005. Their goal is to complete a three year comprehensive and national examination of student participation, the relationship between academic performance and athletic involvement, and the role of coaches in interscholastic competitions (2005). Slide 34 The research will focus on student participation data, coaching, and sports in school. Once enough data has b