High Resolution PID Controller Using Tapped Delay Line

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Project on High resolution PID controller.

Text of High Resolution PID Controller Using Tapped Delay Line

  • ABSTRACT

    Monitoring and controlling of temperature in multi core and many core SOC is an

    important criteria in present technology. Thus need for thermal management has

    tremendously increased over time. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers is one

    such controller for temperature control. It is widely used in automation control systems.

    A PID is the most commonly used feedback controller and offers a good solution to many

    practical control problems in small as well as large distributed systems.

    A 16 bit PID controller using tapped delay line is developed. The controller

    parameters are designed using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The circuit under test is a PID

    Controller circuit implemented on a low-cost FPGA from XILINX.A multiplierless digital

    PID controller is design and implementation on FPGA device. It is more compact, power

    efficient and provides high speed capabilities and hardware compatibility for implementing

    on FPGA. The proposed method is based on Distributed Arithmetic (DA) architecture which

    utilizes less resources.

    iii

  • CONTENTS

    Page No

    DECLARATION i

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii

    ABSTRACT iii

    LIST OF FIGURES vi

    LIST OF TABLES vi

    LIST OF ABBREVATIONS vii

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1 Problem statement 2

    1.2 Objective of The Project 2

    1.3 Applications 2

    1.4 Software and hardware used 3

    1.5 Organization of The Report 3

    CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY

    2.1 Background 4

    2.2 Types of PID Controller 4

    2.3 Tunning of PID Controller 7

    CHAPTER 3: PROPOSED PID CONTROLLER 8

    3.1 Control Terms 9

    3.2 Mathematical Analysis 10

    3.3 Distributed Arithmetic 13

    3.4 Distributed Arithmetic in LUTs 15

    3.5 Tapped Delay Line 16

    3.6 Pulse Width Modulation 16

    3.7 Peltier Cooler 17

    iv

  • CHAPTER 4: TOOLS USED

    4.1 Xilinx ISE 9.2i 19

    4.2 Introduction to VHDL 20

    4.3 Matlab R2010 a 21

    CHAPTER 5: SYNTHESIS OF PID CONTROLLER USING XILINX ISE9.2

    5.1 Design Flow 23

    5.2 Synthesis Report 24

    CHAPTER 6: RTL SCHEMATICS

    6.1 RTL Schematic of Top Module 36

    6. 2 RTL Schematic of PID Controller 37

    6. 3 RTL Schematic of PWM Module 37

    6. 4 RTL schematic of proposed PID control with PWM 38

    CHAPTER 7: SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS 39

    7.1 Hardware Setup and Xilinx XC3S400 Board

    40

    7.2 Waveforms 41

    CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK 43

    REFERENCES 44

    APPENDIX A 46

    APPENDIX B 53

    APPENDIX C 58

    v

  • LIST OF FIGURES

    Fig No

    Fig.1.1

    Titles

    Block diagram of sensor and controller

    Page No

    1

    Fig.2.1 Control Loop Employing a PID Control Function 5

    Fig.2.2 Block diagram of PID Controller 6

    Fig.3.1 Architecture of the Proposed PID Controller 8

    Fig.3.2 Distributed Arithmetic with Four Constant Multiplicands 13

    Fig.3.3 Four-Bit Multiplication with Constant Coefficient 15

    Fig.3.4 Tapped Delay Line 16

    Fig.3.5 Input analog signal and a sawtooth waveform 17

    Fig.3.6 Peltier cooler module 18

    Fig.5.1 synthesis design flow 23

    Fig.6.1 Top Module 36

    Fig.6.2 PID Controller Module 37

    Fig 6.3 PWM Module 37

    Fig 6.4 Proposed PID control with PWM module 38

    Fig.7.1 Hardware setup and Spartan board 40

    Fig.7.2 Simulation result of PID controller 41

    Fig.7.3 Simulation results of PWM wave 41

    Fig.7.4 Temperature vs Duty cycle curve 42

    Fig 7.5 Device summary report of PID controller 42

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table No. Titles Page No.

    3.1 Effects of increasing a given term in a closed-loop system 10

    3.2 ROM Table 12

    3.3 Module Parameters and Types of Peltier Cooler 18

    vi

  • LIST OF ABBREVATIONS

    DA Distributed arithmetic DTDL

    Digital Tapped Delay Line

    FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array

    LUT Look Up Table

    NOC Network On Chip

    PID Proportional Integral Derivative PWM Pulse Width Modulation

    ROM Read Only Memory SOC System On Chip

    TEC Thermoelectric Cooler

    vii

  • High Resolution PID Controller Using Tapped Delay Line

    INTRODUCTION

    CHAPTER 1

    More densely packed transistors within the chips are generating more heat per unit area.

    Monitoring and controlling the temperature of the chip using digital sensors has the advantages

    of having less chip area ,less power consumption and cost effective over analog sensors . The

    basic principle block diagram of Digital temperature sensor and control is as shown in figure 1.1.

    Figure 1.1: Block diagram of sensor and controller

    The principle of temperature sensor is based on the relationship between temperature and

    propagation delay of the transistor. Propagation delay of the transistor varies with temperature of

    the chip, which is captured by master counter and LUT. Proportional(P), Integral(I) and

    Derivative(D) controller is used to maintain the temperature of the die to a setpoint by varying

    width of the Pulse Width Modulator signal. The PWM signal changes the direction of current in

    Peltier cooler to control the temperature.

    M.Tech ( Dept of E&C) 1

  • High Resolution PID Controller Using Tapped Delay Line

    1.1 Problem Statement

    Requirement is to design and implement a high Resolution PID Controller using Tapped

    delay line for temperature control with less hardware utilization.

    1.2 Objective of the Project

    In multi core and many core embedded system-on-chip (SoC) millions of transistors are

    integrated on a single chip to add more features to the system. In the same way Network on Chip

    (NoC) configuration has more number of Intellectual property (IP) cores, which are integrated

    and are controlled by a router. In NoC the load is not equally distributed at each part or to each

    IP core hence thermal management is more concern in such systems because the heat increases

    rapidly where work load is more and it is less at where work load is less. The testing of such

    systems through software Built-In-Self-Test (BIST) becomes inconvenient due to its speed

    restrictions and more power consumption. Hence the proposed Distributed Temperature Sensor

    and Control can be used as hardware Built-In-Self-Test (BIST).The main Objective of this

    project is to design and implement a Temperature sensor and control on FPGA. The whole

    project is divided into two parts, temperature sensing and temperature controlling. In this report

    temperature controlling is discussed using PID Controller. Proportional-Integral-Derivative

    (PID) controllers are widely used in automation control systems. A PID is the most commonly

    used feedback controller and offers a good solution to many practical control problems in small

    as well as large distributed systems. The PID controller compares the measured process value

    with a reference setpoint value. The difference or error is then processed to calculate a new

    process input, which will try to adjust the measured process value back to the desired setpoint. In

    this project we have designed PID controller based on Distributed Arithmetic (DA) architecture

    and output of the PID controller is then applied to the Pulse Width Modulator (PWM).PWM

    drives the peltier cooler which controls the temperature of the FPGA.

    1.3 Applications

    Monitoring and controlling the temperature of the chip without using on board temperature

    sensor finds its uses in many industrial applications. The demand for small sized, high accuracy

    chips has grown over time, and with that, the demand for low consumption smart temperature

    M.Tech ( Dept of E&C) 2

  • High Resolution PID Controller Using Tapped Delay Line

    sensors has also grown. The distributed temperature sensor serve as the core circuit for highly

    sophisticated temperature sensitive systems like CPU, CCD Cameras.

    PID is an important tool for the embedded real-time digital controls designer. The PID is

    used extensively in fields such as servo/motor control, robotics, temperature control, and power

    electronics. More recently, the PID has been adopted into variant forms that incorporate adaptive

    and non-linear controllers.

    The major requirement for current applications is low cost, high resolution, and wide

    measurement.

    1.4 Software and Hardware Used

    Xilinx 9.2 is used as VHDL design entry tool, schematic, and also for simulation, synthesis

    and implementation. Spartan 3 XC3s400-4pq208 FPGA kit is used as target device for

    implementation. Matlab/Simulink is used for tuning of the PID parameters. Peltier cooler to

    control the temperature

    1.5 Organization of the Report

    This dissertation consists of 8 chapters including the present introductory one. Chapter 2

    consists of background of PID controller explanation. Chapter 3 explains block diagram and the

    architecture of PID controller. Chapter 4 deals with the introductory part of tools used. Chapter 5

    explains the program flow, modern developments and the detailed hardware report i.e. Synthesis

    Report. Chapter 6 covers the RTL schematics obtained by the Xilinx Synthe