High Jump Report Women

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A statistical analysis of women high jump. Great resource for serious track athletes

Text of High Jump Report Women

  • SCIENTIFIC SERVICES PROJECT

    (USA Track & Field)

    HIGH JUMP #29

    (Women)

    Jesus Dapena, Brian J. Gordon and Benjamin W. Meyer

    Biomechanics Laboratory, Dept. of Kinesiology, Indiana University

  • IMPORTANT INFORMATION FOR THE COACH: If one of your high jumpers was studied in our project, we hope you wi II find the information in this report

    helpful for the coaching of your athlete.

    Although th e high jump has been one of the most intensely studied events in track and field , knowledge of it is still imperfect, and there is room for doubts and disagreements. We have tried to g ive you what we believe are the best possible recommendations, based on the biomechanical information that is presently availab le, but we do not pretend to have all the answers . We hope you do not feel that we are trying to force our ideas on you, because that is definitely not our intent. Use what you like, and ignore what you don't like. If you find any part of this report useful in any way, we wi ll feel that it has served its purpose.

    Here is how we sugges t that you use the report:

    Read the main text of th e report (" Discussion of high jumping technique, and general analysis of results"). Try to fo llow the log ic that we used to arrive at our conclusions.

    If yo u fee l comfortable with our logic, and it fits with your own ideas, try to implement our recommendations as described in " Specific recommendations for individual ath letes". Throughout the report, keep in mind that " c.m." stands for "center of mass", a point that represents the average position of the whole body. This point is also called sometimes the " center of gravity" .

    If you do not agree with our logic, we sti ll hope that you wi ll find our data useful for reaching yo ur own conclusions.

    NOTE FOR PREVIOUS READERS OF THESE AND OTHER REPORTS : The masses or weights of the segments that make up the body of an individua l ath lete are not known exact ly, and neither are the moments of inertia nor other important mechanical characteristics of the segments of the human body. Therefore, researchers have to work with estimates of those values, and different researchers work with different estimates. The methods used for the calculation of mechanical information (for instance: three-dimensional coordinates of body landmarks, center of mass pos ition, angu lar momentum) a lso vary from one researcher to another. Because of this, it is often not advisable to compare the data from reports produced by different laboratories.

    Even within our own laboratory, some definitions have changed from one report to another. Also, some of the data are ca lculated with progress ively improved methods which give more accurate values. Therefore, the data in this report may not be strictly comparable with data presented in previous reports. However, all values g iven in the present report were computed using the same method , because any data for jumps from previous years were re-calcul ated. Therefore , all the data presented in this report, including data for jumps made in previous years, are compatible with each other.

    Jesus Dapena

    Bloomington, October 2, 2006

    Department of Kinesio logy HPER 112 Indiana University Bloomington, TN 47405 U.S.A .

    te lephone: (812) 855-8407 emai l: dapena@ indiana .edu

  • II

    TABLE OF CONTENTS page

    INTRODUCTION ... .. ......... .. ...... ..... ........ ...... ........ ........... .. .. .................................... ... ..... ..... .......... ... .. ............. .. .......... .... I

    GENERAL METHODOLOGY ..... .................................. .................. ...... ............. ..... ...... ................................. .... .......... 1 Filming and se lection of trials .... ....... .... ....................... ....... ................................ ... ....... .................. ...... ...... ............... . 1 Film ana lys is ............................... .. ......... ... ..... .... ........ .................................... .... ... .. .................. ...... .................... .... .... .. 1 Sequences .................... ....... ....... ........ ................................... ....................................... ... ... ..... ................... .. ... ............... I Subject characteristics and meet results ............. ......................... .. ..... ....... .......................... ...................... ................. . I

    DISCUSSION OF HIGH JUMPING TECHNIQUE, AND GENERAL ANALYSIS OF RESULTS ............. ....... ... ..... .... ........................................... ... .. ...... .. ............................................ .......... I

    General characteristics of the run-up ..... ................... ..................... ........................................ ....... .... .............. ............ 2 Approach ang les ... ................... ... .. ... .... ........ .. ............................. .... ......... ....... ...... ........... ........ ...... ...... ........ .. .............. 2 Progress ion of the run-up .............................................................. ........ ....... ......... ..... ... ................................ ............ 2 Horizontal veloc ity and height of the c.m. at the end of the run-up .. ........ .................... .......................... ..... .... .. ....... 3 Vertica l veloc ity of the c.m . at the start of the takeoff phase ...................... .......... ........ .... ..................................... 1 0 Orientation of the takeoff foot, and potential for ankle injuries ..................................................................... .. ....... II Trunk lean .............. ...... ...................... .. ....................... .. ........................................ ... .... .. .. ... ...... ............ .... ....... .. ....... .. II Arm and lead leg actions ...................... .... ...... ................... .......................... ..... ... .... ..... ...... ....... ... ..................... ... ...... 14 Takeoff time .................. .... .......... .... ............. .................. .......... ........ ... ........ ... ... .... ............................................... ...... 17 Change in hori zonta l velocity during the takeoff phase ........... ...................... .... ..................................................... 17 Height and vert ical velocity of the c.m. at the end of the takeoff phase ............ .... ...................... .................. ........ . 17 Height of the bar, peak height of the c.m ., and clearance height ...................................................................... .. ... 17 Takeoff distance ...... .. ........ ... ..... .................................. ... .............................................. ................................. ............. 18 Angular momentum .... ........ .. ... ................ ...... .......... .............................................. .... ................................. ... ............ 22 Adjustments in the air ................. ... .... ........... ......... ................................................... .... .... .... ... ... ..... ........ ... .............. 27 The twist rotation ; problems in its execution ........................................................................................................... 30 Control of airborne movements ; computer simulatio n ....................................... ...... ............................................. 32

    SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL ATHLETES ......... .. ........ .... ....................................... 33 Acuff .. ......................................................................................................................................... ................................. 33 Gordon ............................ .. ..................... .............. ...................................................... .................................................. 41 Hooker ... .... .................... ... ... ...... .......... ....... .......................... .. ... ..... ....... ..... .. .. ....... ..... ........ ..... .................. ...... ........... 5! Howard ........................... ......................... .... ............ .................................................................................................... 60 Spence ... .... ............. ..... ........ .. .... ... ........ ............... .............. ......... ..... ... ..................... .. .................... ............. .......... ....... 68 Wagner .................. ............. ....... ........... ... .......................... .......... ... .... ............ ...... ....... .... ........ ................... ............... 81

    REFERENCES ................ ..................... .................. ...... ............................................. .. ....... .......... ................... ............. .. 90

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......... ... .............. ...... ... ......... ............. .... ...... .. ... ..... ...... .... ........ .... ...................................... 91

    APPENDIX I: TECHNIQUES FOR LOWERING THE CENTER OF MASS IN THE LAST STEPS OF THE RUN-UP ............................................. ................. ....... ......... .. ..... ...................................... 92

    APPENDIX 2: EXERCISES TO HELP THE LOWERING OF THE CENTER OF MASS IN THE LAST STEPS OF THE RUN-UP .......................................................... ....... ...... ............................... 97

    APPENDIX 3: PRODUCTION OF LATERAL SOMERSAUL TTNG ANGULAR MOMENTUM ............. 99

    APPENDIX 4: ORA WING THE PATH OF A HIGH JUMP RUN-UP ........................................................... ! 0 I