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    ..J ATTACHMENT TO

    BYE':',2869-63

    MEMBERSHIP

    D r . Edward M. PU1"cell, Chai rmanD r " Allen F . DonovanD r . Eugene G. Fub in iD r. R.ichard L. GarwinD r . Edwin H . LandD r . Donald P. . LingD r . A r t h u r C . Lundahl

    CONSULTANTS

    oD r. J a m e s G. BakerDr" H e n r y C. Yutzy

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    BYE-2869-63

    PURCELL PANEL REPORT

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    Sect ion 1. INTRODUCTION

    2. . GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON COVERAGE AND RESOLUTION

    3. ' CURRENT PROGRAMS

    4 . PLANNING BEYOND CURRENTLY PROGRAMMED SYSTEMSo5 . TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES

    a . E m u l s i o n P r o p e r t i e s

    b. Image In tens i f i e r s

    c. Very L a rg e Optics

    d. Stab i l i za t ion

    6. EVENTUAL LIMITS OF RESOLUTION

    7. SATELLITE VULNERABIUTY

    8. READ-OUT SYSTEMS

    9. SOME S P E C I A L SYSTEMS AND MISSIONS

    a . Quick Reac t ion S a t e l l i t e

    b. Storage in Orbi t/ ~o

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    c . Fu l ly C o v e r t Satel l i te

    d. Night Pho tography

    . e . Bal loons

    10 . A-12 DRONE

    11. SUMMARY O F OUR M A l L ~CONCLUSIONS

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    ATTACHMENT TOBYE-2869-63

    1. INTRODU :::::'TION

    In r e s p o n s e to a r e q u e s t f r o m th e D i r e c t o r o f C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e ,th e P a n e l w a s a s s 'e r n b l e d to e x a m i n e s o m e b r o a d p r o b l e m s in s a t e l l i t er . ; ; ;connaissance. T h e P a n e l a d d r e s s e d i t s e lf to t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s :

    a . W h a t i s th e c a p a b i l i t y o f e x i s t i n g a n d p r o g r a m m e ds y s t e m s to p r o v i d e pho tog raph i c c o v e r a g e of th e q u a n t i t y a n dq u a l i t y r e q u i r e d to m e e t f u t u r e i n t e l l i g e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s ?

    b . W h a t a r e th e t e c h n i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e f u t u r ed e v e l o p m e n t of s a t e l l i t e photogJ.""aphy. a n d h ow sho u l d t h e s ea f f e c t s y s t e m s p l a n n i n g a n d r e s e a r c h ?

    C) c . W h a t s h o u l d be th e t e c h n i c a l g o a l s i n th e n e x t p h a s e o f deve lop rnen t ?d . W h a t is th e vu ln . i r a b i l i t y o f ou r s y s t e m s to c o u n t e r

    m e a s u r e s ; h o w s e r i o u 3 :.5 t h e t h r e a t , a n d w h a t s t e p s s h o u l d b ep l a n n e d to m e e t i t ?

    In a d d i t i o n to t h c s ~ c c : l . t l - a lq u e s t i o n s , the P a n e l cOl ' ls ic iercd ap . u m b e r o f p r o p o s a l s an d i d e a s f o r s p e c i a l s y s t e l n s . F i n a l l y, a l t h oug hth e P a n e l d id n o t u n d e r t a k e a sLCldy o f th e A-12 a i r b o r n e systen1. a s s u c h ,i t s i m p o r t a n c e i n th e w h o l e p i c t u r e w a s v e r y m u c h in o u r m i n d s . T h ec a p a b i l i t i e s .and th e c o m p l e m e n t a r y l-C1.CS o f a i r b o r n e a n d s a t e l l i t es y s t e m s w e r e c o m p a r e d a t r e l e v a n t p o i n t s .

    T o s t a t e o u r problell."l e v e n m O l 'C b r i e f l y, w e h - i e d to l o o k in to ;;hci u t u r e

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    . J s e e h o w f a r s a t e l l i t e l " e c o n n a i s s a n c e m a y r e a s o n a b l y b e expec: : ,odto de ve lop i n th e s e r v i c e o f O U r i n t e l li g e n c e n e e d s , a n d w h a t w o r k n e e d sto be acme to i n s u r e t h a t ' i t d e v e l o p s a s r a p i d l y a s p o s s i b l e in t h e r i g h tdil-ecti.

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    o o A T1 ? ... C E M Z N T TOBYE -2869-63

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    y aw, cxposu::"c inapprop: i : i a te f01" th e l i gh t condi t ions a t a part icula: : . - t : rne ,.::::c . I t s e e m s e n t i r e l y f ea s ib l e to br ing l11.ost o f t h e s e f a c t o r s UI1.derc o n t r o l so t h a t one c o u l d COU11.t on p e a k r e s o l u t i o n pc: : : io r rnancc f r o mth e M s y s t e m on 900/0 of ~ h e expos ed fUrn. T h i s would l - e p r e s e n t anenOrn1.0"(;,5 gain i n i n f o r m a t i o n acqu i s i t i on , and the inrorm.a t ion woulds t i l l be i n th e form. which Our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and handl ing f a c i l i t i c s ' a r ed e s i g n e d to n1.atch. 011. thc o p e r a t i o n a l s id e , i t ha s th e m e r i t o f kccpi :1gt h ings l nov ing i::'1 th e p a t t e r n a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d with o b v i o u s a d v a n t a g e sin ~ e l i a b i l i t y .I t m a y b e good f o r p o l i t i c a l s e c u r i t y too ; w h a t cou ld bel e s s p l ' ovoca t i ve t han to keep doing , witl1ou1; v i s ib l e c l ~ 2 . n g e ,wha.t on eh a s be e n i n c o n s p i c u o u s l y doing a l reaC:y?

    W e be l i eve t ha t iD1p::o-V-::::':::l.cni ~ : - , tl-.c ope ra t ion of th e Nl s y s t e m i st h e n"lyst p r o r n i s i n g w a y 'Cv l'l': :..:.k:.: :'':.11. i , , : , -;.cdi2.te :i11ci s u b s t a n t i a l ga in inphotogr; ; . .phic r e c o n . n 2 . i S S 2 . ~ l C 8 .C ' - l l ' I i :: :; ; :-cCOn"1n1en.c:;ltici':.-. i s sin ' lply:M a k e th e 1',11systel1'l wOl1.\. V/C } l ,d.l tl-:.,; ~ ~ .: - r l o. Sorne of th e in"lportant s t e p si n e ff ec t i ng the des i r. ::d p ro duc t : i::'l"lp:;:ovcElcnt w i l l be:

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    b . Yaw de t ec t i on ~~i 1 d conL::ol.

    c . E x p o s u r e con t ro l .

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    AT TA C H M E N T TO

    BYE - 2S69-63

    '~ o a l l f i l m s an d c a m e r a s ; n o r n e e d i t m e a s u r e any p r e c i s e l y de f ined. theo::"ct ical p a r a m e t e r s . I t need not even r e l a t e c lose ly to th e Inilita::.y

    spec i f i ca t ion involv ing b a r t a r g e t s , but i t m u s t be app l i cab le rou t ine lyand s im.p ly to any s e g m e n t o f u s e f u l M nega t ive . P o s s i b l y a s i m p l e

    l1.1.eaSUl.ement of s o ~ e t h i n gr e l a t e d only to the cu t -o ff of th e s p a t i a li l ' equency p o w e r s p e c t r u m in the f ina l negat ive can be ~ v i s e d .I f i tca n be d iagnos t i c , so m u c h the b e t t e r , bu t t h e o v e r r i d i n g n : e e d i s foJ.an u n a m b i g u o u s qua l i t y con t ro l te ,s t .

    T h i s " p r o d u c t i r np rqvemen t " p r o g r a m fo r M p r e s ~ n t sa r e a l l ygolden oppor tun i ty, n o t a t hank le s s c h o r e . I f c a r r i e d , t h rough in tha ts p i r i t , wi th d e t e r m i n a t i o n , i t s quant i ta t ive y ie ld in i n t e l l i gence i n f o r m at i on m a y s u r p a s s t h a t of any s ing le m o r e advanced s y s t e m We cou idno'w d e s i g n .

    oT he G an d L prog ram. s a r e - m . o v i n g i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n and i f

    s u c c e s s i u l w i l l be v e r y s ign i f i can t s t eps t oward h i g h e r r e s o l u t i o n . In< ~ . : l d i t i o nto the ac tua l in te l l igence we can expec t f r an ! G sys tc rn r e c o nn a i s s a n c e , the p e : d o r m a n c e of t h i s sys t em wi l l t each us"a ; ; r e a t d e a labou t the oppor tun i t i e s of h i g h e r r e so lu t ion pho tog raphy - tha t is , i t sp e r f o r m a n c e shou ld a n d wil l have a dec i s ive inf luence on o u r cho ice a nddes ign of fu tu re s y s t e m s . . F o r th is r e a s o n , we r e c o m m e n d t h a t s p e c i a la : : ' ~ e n t i o nbe g iven e a r l y i n the G ope ra t ions to acqu i r ing some pho tog raphywi th tho:; G c a m e r a unde r i dea l pho tog raph ic cond i t i ons . In o t h e r w o r ,cis,the u r g e n c y of co l l ec t ing in t e l l i gence should not p r e v e n t u s e n t i r e l y from,a s c e r t a i n i n g e x a c t l y what th is k ind of s y s t e m can do u n d e r i d e a l cond i t i ons .T he L s y s t e m i s a va luab le backup fo r G, and, a t th c 'Sall'1e t im,e, i t sp a l ' a m e t e r s a r e d i ff e r en t enough so tha t any 4ddi t ional e x p e r i e n c e wi thL w i l l s ign i f i ca ....::ly advance o u r unde r s t and ing of th e p r o b l e m of h i g h e rr e s o l u t i o n photography_

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    { J b c ~ .c _ : 1 ~ ~ ~ ~~ ATTACHMENT TOBYE-Z869-63

    4 ( PLP ..NNING BEYOND CURRENTLY :?ROGRiUvfMED SYSTEMSI

    I

    T h e VA L L E Y p r o g r a m i s an C : : : ; ' : ; : l . I : n ~ : eo f a b o l d s t e p i n w h a t w ew oul d t h ink i s g e n e r a l l y th e r i gh t di r ec t ion , t ha t i s , i n push ing r e s ol u t i on to th e l i m i t ' ~ v e na t sorne e x p e n s e i n cove ra ge . Ac tua l l y, a s nowconce ived , th e VA L L E Y 's y s t e m with i t s c o n s i d e r a b l e f l ex ib i l i t y w o u l do i f e r s u b s t a n t i a l c o v e r a g e i n s o m e m o d e s . W e fee l , h o w e v e r , t h a t i ti s a l i t t l e to o e a r l y to f r e e z e th e concep t of the n ex t advanc ed s y s t e m .T h e r e a s o n s fo r th is a r e th e followil ' lg: in the c u r r e n t s t a t e of th e a r t ,a s w as conv inc ing ly d e m o n s t r a t e d by the exce l l en t p a r a m e t r i c s t u d i e sp r e s e n t e d to u s , th e c o n t r o l ~ i n gp a r a m e t e r s o f f i lm s pe ed , film. r e s o l u t i o n ,v e h i c l e a t t i t ude s tabHi ty, an d t h e l a w s of w a v e op t i c s , l e a d on e t o acOl1.l.promis e i n w h i c h s i z e , weigh t an d c omp le x i t y of t h e ' i n s t r u l n e n t a r ca f f e c t e d by e v e n a m o d e s t c h a n g e in a b a s i c p a r a m e t e r . O n e c an a l m o s ts a y t h a t a m o d e s t f a c t o r i n f il m s p e e d cou ld m e a n the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e na t h r u s t - a u g m e n t e d T H O R and a T I TA N f o r the t r a n s p o r t i n g v e h i c l e .

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    5 ( T E C H N O L O G I C A L ,ADVANCES

    a . E m u l s i o n P r o p e r t i e s

    oAT TA C H M E N T TO

    BYE-2869 -6 3

    C u r r e n t camera . de s i gns , whenop t imizec i , t u r n o u t to be a n e x p r e s s ion o f th e p r o p e r t i e s o f th e SO-132 e m u l s i o n . With in l imi t : ;a t a given s t a t e of the e m u l s i o n a r t , t h e r e i s a t r a d e off b e t w e e n s e n s it i v i t y and r e s o l u t i o n which can b e m a n i p u l a t e d to g e t b e t t e r l ' c s U l t S in ap a r t i c u l a r con tex t . On th e otJ:ler h a n d , i t a p p e a r s n o t un re a . so na b l e tohop e f o r s o m e a b s o l u t e i m p r o v e m e n t i n e m u l s i o n p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h wo uldy i e l d a f a s t e r f i lm a t th e s a m e r e s o l u t i o n o r i t s eq u iv a l en t . P r o b a b l ya f a c t o r o f 4 i n s p e e d f o r a g i v e n r e s o l u t i o n i s too m u c h to h ope fo r,b u t w e have s o m e conf idence t h a t 2. f a c t o r of 2 m ay be obta ina .b le . T h i sw o u ld be a n e x t r e m e l y s ign i f i can t g a i n , w hich w o u l d o c o u r s e be welcoro.ei n o u r c u r r ~ n ts y s t e m s . ' I t could b e i m m e d i a t e l y e x p l o i t e d i n the de s igno f n e w s y s t e m s to a l t e r m a t e r i a l l y th e w e i g h t - s i z e - s t a b i l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e

    o m e n t s in th e n e x t g e n e r a .t ion o f i n s t r u m e n t s . Wi t h i n a few m o n t h s onem a y know w h e t h e r s u c h a n i m p r o v e m e n t in e m u l s i o n s c an i n d e e d bea n t i c i p a t e d . W e th ink i t e .x t r e m e l y i m p o r t an t t ha t t h i s q u e s t i o n b ep u r s u e d .

    b. I m a g e I n t e n s i f i e r s

    The e l e c t r o n i c i m a g e i n t e n s i f i e r i s a dev i ce w h i c h i s nowbe ing deve loped v i g o r o u s l y in a n u m b e r of f o r m s . I t m ay p o s s i b l y p r e s e n tan oppor tun i ty f o r a m a j o r b r e a k t h r o u g h in s a t e l l i t e p ho t og r ap hy. In thei m a g e i n t e n s i f i e r , l i g h t f r o m the o r i g i n a l scene fa l l s on a p h o t o - c a t hod er a t h e r t h a n on t he f i lm d i r ec t l y. Th e e l e c t r o n s e j e c t e d f r o rn . the pho toc a t h o d e a r e a c c e l e r a t e d 'to b o m b a r d th e phospho r, w h e r e t hey l u a k e rn o :-(;l i gh t . T h i s l i g h t can t hen expose a p ho t og r ap h i c f i lm o r th e p r o c e s s c a nb e c a s c a d e d to m a k e m o r e e l e c t r o n s , m o r e l igh t , e t c . , un t i l a t SOlncs t a g e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d i n g o c c u r s . I t r e m a i n s to be s e e n w h e t h e r the:r e q u i r e d r e s o l u t i o n in l i n e s p e r m i l l i m e t e r c a n be m a i n t a i n e d . T he r (;i s no f u n d a m e n t a l r e a s o n w hy i t c a n n o t be . S o m e p r e l i m i n a r y c a l c u L ~

    t io :L1s s u g g e s t t h a t s e v e r a l h u n d r e d l i n e s / m m i s no t o u t of ,th e ques t iG . ..=-"-.c.eed, in the app l i ca t i on to s a t e l l i t e C a l " ~ 1 e r a S , w e a p p e a r to h a v e as i t u a t i o n p e c u l i a r l y f avo rab l e to the app l i ca t i on of th e i . . . . - : n a g e - i n t e n s i : : ~ . : . ; : . .

    t e chn ique . In m o s t o f th e cu r : : en t and fu tu re de s igns th e l i g h t i s

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    : . eco rded a t any g iven i n s t an t along a n a r r o w s t r i p o r s l i t , a g e o m e t r yh igh ly advan tageous fo r con t ro l of the e lec t ron t r a j e c t o r i e s . Thist e chn ique m a y p e r m i t the f u r t h e r f lexib i l i ty of r eco rd ing p h o t o g r a ~ : h i cz..lly a t a s c a l e d i ff e ren t f rom t ha t of the p r i m a r y image . W e r ecommend .t ha t th e poss ib i l i t i e s o i i m a g e - i n t e n s i i i e r t e chn iques be i m m e d i a t e l y .

    i n v e s t i g a t e d . I f c l o s e r i nves t iga t ion c o r r o b o r a t e s our p r e s e n to p t i m i s n ~ ,

    a: v i g o r o u s p r o g r a m of d e ~ e l o p m e n tshou ld be s t a r t e d . H e r e , too, w eexpec t t ha t a few months s tudy cou ld give us a v e r y m u c h c l e a r e r

    . p i c t u r e of th e imp l i ca t ions fo r planning of o u r fu tu re s y s t e m s .

    c . Ve r y L a rg e Optics

    Advances i n t h ~ design of v e r y l a rg e opt ica l s y s t e m s a r econt inuing to be m a d e . T h e s e inc lude not only new g e o m e t r i c a l a r r a n g em e n t s of r e f l ec t ing s u r f a c e s , c o r r e c t i n g p la t e s and l e n s e s , bu t a l s onew t echn iques fo r cons t ruc t ing l a r g e m i r r o r s t h a t a r e a c c u r a t e bu tno t e n o r m o u s l y heavy. I t i s r easonab le to con templa t e a p e r t u r e s a to l e a s t a s l a r g e a s 60 " d i a m e t e r ope ra t ing , so f a r a s t h e i r i n t r i n s i cop t i ca l p e r f o r m a n c e is conce rned , c lose to the "d i f f r ac t ion l i m i t " s c tby t he wave l eng th of l ight . To be m o r e speci f ic , i t a p p ~ , a r st h a t a 60 "d i a m e t e r f / 2 s y s t e m fo rming a good i m a g e on a 10 " s l i t i s e n t i r e l yf e a s i b l e , a s i s a 40" d i a m e t e r , f / l . 5 wi th a 6',' s l i t . . I i and when w e m o v einto l a r g e r v e h i c l e s , i t i s t hese l a r g e r s y s t e m s We should be th inkingabou t . I t i s n o t too e a r l y to s u p p o r t r e s e a r c h and deve lopmen t on c o m p onen t s , in v iew of th e f a c t t ha t the l ead t ime on the v e r y l a r g e op t i ca le l e m e n t s i nvo lved m a y be a s much a s tw o o r t h r e e y e a r s . (Of cours.::w e m u s t no t i o r g e t t ha t the l e a d t i m e on launching fac i l i t ies m a y bea n o t h e r c r i t i c a l e le lnen t in the u t i l i za t ion of l a r g e r v e h i c l e s . ) .

    T h e i m p r e s s i o n gained f r o m ou r d i scuss ions of t hese l a r g eo p t i c a l s y s t e m s i s t ha t bulk i s l i ke ly to be a m o r e s t r ingen t l i m i t a t i o n 't han we igh t , e s ' ~ e c i a l l yi f t he deve lopmen t of l a rg e bery l l ium m i r r o r scon t inues to p r 0 c e e d a s success fu l ly a s i t has to date .

    d. Stab i l i za t ion

    The p r o b l e m of veh ic l e s t ab i l i za t ion i s l ike ly ~ o r e m a i n w i '~ : :

    uS 1n sp i t e of a l l op t i ca l invent ions and wi l l grow m a r e acu te r a t h e r t han.,....,.,.,u

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    l e s s . Hence , t h ~ : : , ewil l be a c o n t : '~ .:..ing need 01" innovat ion a n d i n z c n u i t y:"'1 t he deve lopmen t of vehic le s tabi l iza t ion techniques 'approp:::-iate tothe' c a m e r a p la t fo rm. Some degree of ima.ge s tabi l iza t ion (as c o n t r a s t e dwi th vehiCle stabil izatio;n) m ay be poss ib le in . some of th e new op t i ca ls y s t e m s . i n c l u d i ~ gthe hypo the t i ca l i m a g e - i n t e n s i f i e r sys tem. jw.stment ioned . '

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    '6. E V E N T U A L LIMITS O F RESOLUTION

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    T h e r e i s no evicicnce t h a t o u r p r e s e n t s y s t e m s a r e 'runn ing in toany iundam.enta l l i :cni tat ions on ground r e so lu t ion . Of c o u r s e , thei n e x o r a b l e l"elat ion be tween angu la r r e so luHon and l e n s diarn .e ter ~ o e s

    im.pose a n u l t ima te l o w e r l i m i t on the s i ze of o u r i n s t r u m e n t . I t 1:akesa i f eve ry th ing e l s e i sp e r f e c t . P r o b a b l y one can push a s f a r a s ground r e s o l u t i o nwi thou 't s e v e r e t roub le f r o m the a t m o s p h e r i c m e d i u m . T he ques t ionr e m a i n s a s to w h e r e t he i nhomogene i ty of ,the a t m o s p n e r e w i l l m a k ei t s e l f evident , preven t ing any f u r t h e r use fu l advances . On t h i s qucs t ionw e h a v e no conc lus ive e x p e r i m e n t a l ev idence . The a s t r o n o n l e r s a.ref a m i l i a r with the i n v e r s e prob lem of see ing up t h rough the a t m o s p h e r e ,bu t t h e i r exper i ence does not n e c e s s a r i l y prov ide th e a n s w e r . W e ",rea l s o .unab le to p r e d i c t a t p r e s c n t w h e t h e r th is evc 'ntual l i l 'n i ta t ion wi l lb e ' r e l a t i v e l y m o r e o r l c s s s e r i o u s fo r the sa t e l l i t e borne cal"nera than

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    H o w e v e r one I nay fee l about t : ! lese e s t i m a t e s , it i s c e r t a i n l yw i s e ~ o t ake a l l r c a s o : . a b l e stc]::'-s to m.ec t such a. t h r e a t , in p a r ' : : L ~ \ . ! l a :...th e s t u d i e s of 11.ethods fo).: rcc;l.:..::ing r a d a ~ 'd e t e c t a ~ i l i t yan d f o r a dd ingson1,; capab i l i t y f o r mal1C' .lVC;:' c.cse: vc continuing suppor t . I t s e e l n sth3.t e v e n 11.1.01'0 ,could be done , th;)'l1 w as i .1 .dicated to us in th e W < i y ofr a d a r c r o s s - s e c t i o n r educ t ion , We r a i s e th e ques t i on w hc thc l ' a l l th ea d v a n c e s o f t e chn ique and m e a s u r e m , e n . t whi ch h a v e be en deve loped in .sil'11.ilar w o r k on o t h e r p r o g r a m s a r e being t aken a dvan t ag e o f e ff ec t i ve ly'i n t h i s p r o j e c t , A s c o n c e r n s l ' e d u c t i o n of r a d a r Cl'OSS - s e c t i o n , i t w o u l dp r o b a b l y be to o o p t i m i s t i c to h o p e t h a t th e c r b s s - s e c t i o n cou ld 'be :--educedto t he po in t w h e r e i t w o u l d be unde t ec t ab l e by r a d a r s o f a c l a s s c l c s i g n c df o r A I C B M a c q u i s i t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , r educ t ion of r a d a r c r o s s - s e c t i o nm a k e s decoying e a s i e r , a nd i t c an h a r d l y be anyth ing b ut b e n e f i c i a l ton1.ake .our t a r g e t s l e s s consp i cuou s .

    I t wi l l p robab ly e a s e th e s i t ua t i on i f t h e r e a r e mOl'C satel l i te! ; ;o t h e r t h a n r e c o n n a i s s a n c ~s a t e l l i t e s in p o l a r o r b i t . W e mu:-.;t :qope f o r

    o . an d , w h e r e p o s s i b l e , i o ~ t e ra p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s pa ce a c t i v i t y i , ~PQl2.r

    o r b i t . M e t e o r o l o g i c a l s a t e l l i t e s , a m o n g o t h e r s , can p r o v i d e w e l c o m ec o m p a n y. The: re a r e many sc i en t i f i c ob j ec t i ve s , and q ~ e yar.::: p r o b a b l yg r o w i n g m o l ' C ~n m n e r o u s , w h i c h c o u l d be ne f i t from instrun'1E:nts in p o l a ro r b i t . With e n o u g h of t h i s going on, the w o r k on modi f i ca t i on of r a d a rs i g n a t u r e m i g h t h a v e th e spec i f i c a im o f m a k i n g th e J : e co nna i s s a nc cs a t e l l i t e l ook l i ke a c e r t a i n c l a s s of open s a t e l l i t e s .

    I n the long r u n o u r g r e a t e s t hope; m a y wel l l i e in the g r a d u a les tab l i shr. [wnt of publ ic ' recogni . t ion of the f r eedom of s p a c e f o r p a s s i v et r a n s i t . T h e s t r e n g t h of OU1" p r e s e n t pos i t i on del ' ivcs ll 'on'1 tlie pas'.:c o n duc t o f o u r s p a c e p r o g r a m and o u r offi:cial . pol icy with r e s p e c t to

    f r e e d o l u of s p a c e . W e should be a l e r t to e v e r y oppor tuni ty to rcinfol 'c ' : ;t h i s p o s i t i o n .

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    The P a n e l ' c o n s i d e r c d r a t h e r br i e f ly th e c u r r e n t s t a t u s ofd0ve lop :nen t s In .~ e a d - o u tsys t em .s . Th i s t e chn ique has . of c ou : .-sc , h ada l ong h i s t o r y of deve lopmen t . T he or ig in a l tcchr. ica l ob jec t ives w e r ernet; w e know t h a t r e a d - o u t ca n w o r k . bu t thc l "c has been no p r a c t i c a lap;.:>lication to reconnp. i ssance . The b as 'ic l i : -ai tat ion of p : . c s ~ n tr e a .do ~ t s y s t e m s i s s t i l l i m p o s e d by the r ad io f r equency channe l c a p a c i t yand the read-ou . t t i m . e a v a i l a b l c . an d t h i s hand icap h a s g ..own. i fanyth ing . :;:,elatively m o r e discom, 'ag ing in co m pa " ' iso:::l wi'.:h p h o t o g r a p h i c:: .-ecording and l ' c covc ry. A cons t an t w h i c h p:::-ctty w e l l c h a r a c t e r i z e dre3.d': 'out s y s t e m s w as s t a t e d in the foHewing f o r n .. : one 0 :" tw o s q u a :' ci nches o f p i c t u r e p e r r.negacycle band . pc:: l1.1.inute, f o r a p ic tu ....~ with100 l i n e s pc::.- lnillin1.eti:r r e so lu t ion , 0::",:; can nc rh aD s i nven t l"D.issions/ ~ .

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    I t , S OME SPECLA.L S Y S T ~ M S,AND MISSIONS

    TllC P a n e l cOl1.sicic:c(;c! br i e f ly a n u m b e r of spccizLl systcr..l."ls ;s o n ~ e( lre al l" 'eady Ul1.C:cr stl:.dYJ otl-;...::::.s n ~ a yWarral1 . t c ) = a ~. n i n a t i o n .

    a . Q u i c k Reac t ion S a t e l l i t e . C l e a r l y o u r p r e s e n t c a p a b i l i t y

    fo:;. p r o r n p t a c q u i s i ti o n ' of i l "npor tan t photogl aphic i n t e l l i g e n c c i5l i r n i ~ ; . : ;d ,

    n o t s o rnuch b y the l c cove ry cyc l e , a s . by th c l e a d t i : n e i nvo lved in th el a u n c h i n g of a p r e v i o u s l y unschedu h ; d f l i gh t . T h e P a ...el sha:ccs th er a t h e r obv ious v i ew t h a t sOl1."lcthing oUlyht to b e done a b o u t t h i s an d, ' " .t h a t i n add i t i on to the g e n e r a l s t r eam.hn ing of th e l aun ch ing c?erz . . t ions ,wh.ich i s a p r o b l e m al:readYi b e i n g a t t a c k e d o n o t h e r i l -on ts , th e p o s s i b i l i t yof a s p e c i a l l y p lanned qu i ck rca ,c t ion v e h i c l e sh ou l d be s t u d i e d . W h e t h e rt h i s i s f e a s i b l e o r n ot wi l l h a v e an in"lportant b e a r i n g on th e r e l a t i v eu h l i t y o f s u c h othe::: n"leans a s ::.cadout s a t e l l i t e s a n d d l o n e s .

    b . S t o r a g e i n Orb i t . T h e s o - c a l l e d z ombi e n1.odo o f o p e r a t i o no '=o u e l ' s a v a r i a n t o i t h c ' q u i s : k : : :cact ion s a t e l l i t e .\\[ c s e e no obviou : ;

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